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1.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged operative duration has been associated with increased post-operative morbidity in numerous surgical subspecialties; however, data are limited in operations for colon cancer specifically and existing literature makes unwarranted methodological assumptions of linearity. We sought to assess the effects of extended operative duration on perioperative outcomes in those undergoing segmental colectomy for cancer using a methodologically sound approach. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing segmental colectomy for cancer between 2014 and 2018, logged in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program datasets. Our primary outcome was a composite of any complication within 30 days; secondary outcomes included length of stay and discharge disposition. Our main factor of interest was operative duration. RESULTS: We analyzed 26,380 segmental colectomy cases, the majority of which were approached laparoscopically (64.95%) and were right sided (62.93%). Median operative duration was 152 (95% CI 112-206) minutes. On multivariable regression, increased operative duration was linearly associated with any complication (OR = 1.003, 95% CI 1.003-1.003, p < 0.0001) in the overall cohort, as was length of stay (p < 0.0001). All subgroups except for the laparoscopic left colectomy group were linearly associated with operative duration. In the laparoscopic left colectomy group, an inflection point in the odds of any complication was found at 176 min (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.20-1.61, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the risk of perioperative complications increases linearly with increasing operative duration, where each additional 30 min increases the odds of complication by 10%. In those undergoing laparoscopic left colectomy, the risk of complications sharply increases after ~ 3 h, suggesting that surgeons should aim to complete these procedures within 3 h where possible.

2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malignant bowel obstruction from peritoneal carcinomatosis affects a significant proportion of luminal gastrointestinal and ovarian oncology patients, and portends poor long-term survival. The management approach for these patients includes a range of medical therapies and surgical options; however, how to select an optimal treatment strategy remains enigmatic. The goal of this narrative review was to summarize the latest evidence around multimodal malignant bowel obstruction treatment and to establish if and where progress has been made. METHODS: A targeted literature search examining articles focused on the management of malignant bowel obstruction from peritoneal carcinomatosis was performed. Following data extraction, a narrative review approach was selected to describe evidence and guidelines for surgical prognostic factors, imaging, tube decompression, medical management, nutrition, and quality of life. RESULTS: Outcomes in the literature to date are summarized for various malignant bowel obstruction treatment strategies, including surgical and non-surgical approaches, as well as a discussion of the role of total parenteral nutrition and chemotherapy in holistic malignant bowel obstruction management. CONCLUSION: There has been little change in survival outcomes in malignant bowel obstruction in over more than a decade and there remains a paucity of high-level evidence to direct treatment decision making. Healthcare providers treating patients with malignant bowel obstruction should work to establish consensus guidelines, where feasible, to support medical providers in ensuring compassionate care during this often terminal event for this unique patient group.

3.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence surrounding the issue of delays on the day of surgery with respect to both causes and consequences. We sought to determine whether patients whose operations started late were at increased risk of post-operative complications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1420 first-of-the-day common general surgical procedures, dividing these into "on-time start" (OTS) and "late-start" (LS) cases. Our primary outcomes were minor and major complication rate; our secondary objective was to identify factors predicting LS. Groups were compared using univariable and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: LS rate was 55.3%. On univariable analysis, LS had higher rates of major and minor complications (7.3% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.002; 3.8% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.011). On multivariable analysis, LS was not associated with increased odds of any complications. Minor complications were predicted by operative duration [OR = 1.005 (1.002-1.008)], female sex [OR = 1.78 (1.037-3.061)], and undergoing an ileostomy closure procedure [OR = 10.60 (2.791-40.246)], and were reduced in those undergoing surgery on Wednesdays [OR = 0.38 (0.166-0.876)]. Major complications were predicted by operative duration [OR = 1.007 (1.003-1.011)] and ASA class [OR = 6.73 (1.505-30.109)]. Multivariable analysis using LS as an outcome identified that anesthesia time [OR = 1.35 (1.031-1.403)], insulin-dependent diabetes [OR = 1.91 (1.128-3.246)], and dyspnea upon moderate exertion [OR = 2.52 (1.423-4.522)] were predictive of LS. CONCLUSIONS: Most cases in our study started late. While this has significant efficiency and economic costs, it is not associated with adverse patient outcomes. This topic remains incompletely described. Further research is needed to improve efficiency and patient experience by investigating the causes of operative delays.

4.
Surg Open Sci ; 5: 1-5, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337371

RESUMO

Background: Low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery with preservation of the left colic artery may decrease the risk of colorectal anastomotic ischemia compared to high ligation at its origin. Low ligation leaves apical nodes in situ and is therefore paired with apical lymphadenectomy. We sought to compare relevant oncologic outcomes between high ligation and low ligation plus apical lymphadenectomy in rectosigmoid resection for colorectal cancer. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Patients receiving a rectosigmoid resection for cancer between January 2012 and July 2018 were included. Patients with metastatic disease and those who underwent low ligation without apical lymphadenectomy were excluded. Our primary outcome was nodal yield/metastasis. Secondary outcomes included perioperative complications, local recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Eighty-four patients underwent high ligation and 89 low ligation plus apical lymphadenectomy (median follow-up 20 months). In the low-ligation group, a median of 2 (interquartile range = 1-3) apical nodes was resected; 4.1% were malignant, increasing pathologic stage in 25% of these patients. There were no differences in nodal yield, complications, anastomotic leak, local recurrence, or overall survival. Conclusion: No differences were identified between high ligation and low ligation plus apical lymphadenectomy with respect to relevant clinical outcomes. Prospective trial data are needed to robustly establish the oncologic benefit and safety of the low ligation plus apical lymphadenectomy technique.

5.
Curr Oncol ; 28(3): 2079-2086, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204959

RESUMO

Thirty percent of colon cancer diagnoses occur following emergency presentations, often with bowel obstruction or perforation requiring urgent surgery. We sought to compare cancer care quality between patients receiving emergency versus elective surgery. We conducted an institutional retrospective matched (46 elective:23 emergency; n = 69) case control study. Patients who underwent a colon cancer resection from January 2017 to February 2019 were matched by age, sex, and cancer stage. Data were collected through the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and chart review. Process outcomes of interest included receipt of cross-sectional imaging, CEA testing, pre-operative cancer diagnosis, pre-operative colonoscopy, margin status, nodal yield, pathology reporting, and oncology referral. No differences were found between elective and emergency groups with respect to demographics, margin status, nodal yield, oncology referral times/rates, or time to pathology reporting. Patients undergoing emergency surgery were less likely to have CEA levels, CT staging, and colonoscopy (p = 0.004, p = 0.017, p < 0.001). Emergency cases were less likely to be approached laparoscopically (p = 0.03), and patients had a longer length of stay (p < 0.001) and 30-day readmission rate (p = 0.01). Patients undergoing emergency surgery receive high quality resections and timely post-operative referrals but receive inferior peri-operative workup. The adoption of a hybrid acute care surgery model including short-interval follow-up with a surgical oncologist or colorectal surgeon may improve the quality of care that patients with colon cancer receive after acute presentations. Surgeons treating patients with colon cancer emergently can improve their care quality by ensuring that appropriate and timely disease evaluation is completed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Emergências , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Control Release ; 337: 356-370, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311026

RESUMO

Among the numerous nanomedicine formulations, dendrimers have emerged as original, efficient, carefully assembled, hyperbranched, polymeric nanoparticles based on synthetic monomers. Dendrimers are used either as nanocarriers of drugs or as drugs themselves. When used as drug carriers, dendrimers are considered 'best-in-class agents', modifying and enhancing the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the active entities encapsulated or conjugated with the dendrimers. When used as drugs themselves, dendrimers represent a novel category of "first-in-class" drugs. The purpose of this original review is to analyse the different strategies involved in the development, application, and impact of dendrimers as drugs. We examine a selection of nanoparticles that use multifunctional elements and demonstrate clinical multifunctionality, and we extend these principles to applications in dendrimer nanomedicine design. Finally, for practical consideration, the concepts of vertical and diagonal translation are introduced as potential strategies to facilitate dendrimer development.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros , Nanopartículas , Portadores de Fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Nanomedicina
7.
Curr Oncol ; 28(3): 2065-2078, 2021 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072615

RESUMO

While adjuvant treatment of colon cancers that penetrate the serosa (T4) have been well-established, neoadjuvant strategies have yet to be formally evaluated. Our objective was to perform a scoping review of eligibility criteria, treatment regimens, and primary outcomes for neoadjuvant approaches to T4 colon cancer. A librarian-led, systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL up to 11 February 2020 was performed. Primary research evaluating neoadjuvant treatment in T4 colon cancer were included. Screening and data abstraction were performed in duplicate; analyses were descriptive or thematic. A total of twenty studies were included, most of which were single-arm, single-center, and retrospective. The primary objectives of the literature to date has been to evaluate treatment feasibility, tumor response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in healthy patients. Conventional XELOX and FOLFOX chemotherapy were the most commonly administered interventions. Rationale for selecting a specific regimen and for treatment eligibility criteria were poorly documented across studies. The current literature on neoadjuvant strategies for T4 colon cancer is overrepresented by single-center, retrospective studies that evaluate treatment feasibility and efficacy in healthy patients. Future studies should prioritize evaluating clear selection criteria and rationale for specific neoadjuvant strategies. Validation of outcomes in multi-center, randomized trials for XELOX and FOLFOX have the most to contribute to the growing evidence for this poorly managed disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Med Ethics ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021059

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has strained healthcare resources the world over, requiring healthcare providers to make resource allocation decisions under extraordinary pressures. A year later, our understanding of COVID-19 has advanced, but our process for making ethical decisions surrounding resource allocation has not. During the first wave of the pandemic, our institution uniformly ramped-down clinical activity to accommodate the anticipated demands of COVID-19, resulting in resource waste and inefficiency. In preparation for the second wave, we sought to make such ramp down decisions more prudently and ethically. We report the development of a tool that can be used to make fair and ethical decisions in times of resource scarcity. We formed an interprofessional team to develop and use this tool to ensure that a diverse range of stakeholder perspectives were represented in this development process. This team, called the clinical activity recovery team, established institutional objectives that were combined with well-established procedural values, substantive ethical principles and decision-making criteria by using a variation on the well-known accountability for reasonableness ethical framework. The result of this is a stepwise, semiquantitative, ethical decision tool that can be applied to resource allocation challenges in order to reach fair and ethically defensible decisions. This ethical decision tool can be applied in various contexts and may prove useful at both the institutional and the departmental level; indeed this is how it is applied at our centre. As the second wave of COVID-19 strains healthcare resources, this tool can help clinical leaders to make fair decisions.

9.
Colorectal Dis ; 23(8): 2146-2153, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999494

RESUMO

AIM: The timing of ileostomy reversal has been the subject of controversy, with researchers investigating the safety of early versus late stoma closure. Anecdotally, a longer duration of faecal diversion is associated with a greater incidence of postoperative ileus. We sought to investigate the association between duration of diversion and postoperative ileus. METHOD: We conducted an institutional retrospective cohort study on 173 patients undergoing ileostomy closure between 2012 and 2018. Our primary outcome was ileus; secondary outcomes included postoperative complications and descriptive factors. We investigated the association between duration of diversion and ileus using several analyses to ensure that time was treated appropriately as a continuous, nonlinear variable. RESULTS: In all, 20.2% of patients had an ileus. Multivariate analysis did not identify a significant association between any independent predictors and ileus, although there was a trend towards increased risk of ileus with increasing duration of diversion. When treated as a categorical variable, a duration of diversion >328 days independently increased the odds of ileus (OR = 3.25, P = 0.033). Duration of diversion was associated with days to first flatus and to first diet (P = 0.025 and P = 0.004, respectively). When patients received nasogastric intubation, the mean duration of intubation was 3.2 days. CONCLUSION: Greater duration of diversion was associated with a trend towards increased risk of ileus; this risk tripled when diversion lasted more than 328 days.


Assuntos
Íleus , Obstrução Intestinal , Colostomia , Humanos , Ileostomia/efeitos adversos , Íleus/epidemiologia , Íleus/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 64(3): 293-300, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence of the oncological safety of minimally invasive surgery in T4 colorectal cancer; however, such support is lacking in N2 disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare oncological and perioperative outcomes of surgical resection for N2 colorectal cancer using an open versus minimally invasive approach. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program's generic and targeted colectomy data sets. SETTINGS: Data about surgery for N2 colorectal cancer were obtained regarding North American hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing elective surgical resection for N2 colorectal cancer in participating hospitals between 2014 and 2018 were selected. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical resection of N2 colorectal cancer was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Our primary outcome was nodal yield. Secondary outcomes included perioperative complications and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1837 patients underwent open and 3907 patients underwent minimally invasive surgery colectomies for N2 colorectal cancer (n = 5744). Median nodal yield was 20 (interquartile range, 15-27) in the open group and 21 (interquartile range, 16-28) in the minimally invasive group (p < 0.0001); however, nodal harvest between the 2 groups was not significantly different on multivariate analysis. Perioperative complications were higher on univariate analysis in the open surgery group, with respect to key outcomes including anastomotic leak and death (p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by its retrospective design and by the fact that the staging data collected by the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program are pathological rather than clinical; however, prior studies found a 97% concordance between pathological and clinical N2 determination. CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive surgery approaches to colorectal cancer with N2 disease result in equivalent nodal harvests compared with open approaches. Our group supports the use of a minimally invasive approach in advanced nodal stage colorectal cancer in the appropriately selected patient. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B417. LOS ABORDAJES QUIRRGICOS MNIMAMENTE INVASIVOS SON SEGUROS Y APROPIADOS EN EL CNCER COLORRECTAL N: ANTECEDENTES:Existe evidencia emergente de la seguridad oncológica de la cirugía mínimamente invasiva en el cáncer colorrectal T4; sin embargo, semenjante apoyo falta en la enfermedad N2.OBJETIVO:comparar los resultados oncológicos y perioperatorios de la resección quirúrgica para el cáncer colorrectal N2 utilizando un abordaje abierto versus mínimamente invasivo.DISEÑO:Realizamos un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo utilizando los conjuntos de datos de colectomía genéricos y específicos del Programa Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Calidad Quirúrgica.AJUSTE:Hospitales de Norte America que participan en el Programa Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Calidad Quirúrgica del Colegio Americano de Cirujanos.PACIENTES:Todos los pacientes sometidos a resección quirúrgica electiva por cáncer colorrectal N2 en los hospitales participantes entre 2014 y 2018.INTERVENCIONES:Resección quirúrgica de cáncer colorrectal N2.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE VOLORACION:Nuestro resultado principal fue el rendimiento nodal. Los resultados secundarios incluyeron complicaciones perioperatorias y mortalidad.RESULTADOS:1837 pacientes fueron sometidos a cirugía abierta y 3907 pacientes fueron sometidos a colectomías de cirugía mínimamente invasiva por cáncer colorrectal N2 (n = 5744). La mediana del rendimiento nodal fue 20 (IQR 15-27) en el grupo abierto y 21 (IQR 16-28) en el grupo mínimamente invasivo (p <0,0001); sin embargo, el rendimiento nodal entre los dos grupos no fue significativamente diferente en el análisis multivariado. Las complicaciones perioperatorias fueron mayores en el análisis univariado en el grupo de cirugía abierta, con respecto a los resultados clave, incluida la fuga anastomótica y la muerte (p <0,001).LIMITACIONES:Este estudio está limitado por su diseño retrospectivo y por el hecho de que los datos de estadificación recopilados por NSQIP son patológicos más que clínicos; sin embargo, estudios previos encontraron una concordancia del 97% entre la determinación patológica y clínica de N2.CONCLUSIONES:Los enfoques de cirugía mínimamente invasiva para el cáncer colorrectal con enfermedad N2 dan rendimientos nodales equivalentes a abordajes abiertos. Nuestro grupo apoya el uso de abordaje mínimamente invasivo en el cáncer colorrectal avanzado en estadio ganglionar en el paciente adecuadamente seleccionado. Consulte Video Resumenhttp://links.lww.com/DCR/B417.


Assuntos
Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Surgery ; 170(2): 493-498, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survey-based studies are often the basis of policy changes; however, the methodologic quality of such research can be questionable. Methodologic reviews of survey-based studies have been conducted in other medical fields, but the surgical literature has not been assessed. METHODS: All citations published in 9 major surgical journals from 2002 to 2019 were screened for studies administering surveys to health care professionals. Descriptive and methodologic data were collected by 2 reviewers who also assessed the transparency and quality of the methodology. Agreement between reviewers was assessed using a weighted κ-statistic. Survey quality metrics were measured, descriptive statistics were calculated, and regression analysis was used to assess the association between subjective overall study quality and objective quality metrics. RESULTS: We included 271 articles in our analysis; the weighted-κ for reviewer quality assessment was 0.69 and for transparency assessment was 0.71. Deficiencies were identified in questionnaire development methodology and reporting, in which the median number of developmental steps reported was 1 (of 8) and in the reporting of incomplete/missing data where 63% of studies failed to report how incomplete questionnaires were managed; 70% of studies failed to report missing data. Overall subjective quality was positively associated with objective quality metrics. CONCLUSION: The deficiencies identified in the surgical literature highlight the need for improvement in the conduct and reporting of survey-based research, both in the surgical literature and more broadly. Adoption of a standardized reporting guideline for survey-based research may ameliorate the deficiencies identified by this study and other investigations.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
Ann Surg ; 272(2): e118-e124, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to review the literature surrounding the risks of viral transmission during laparoscopic surgery and propose mitigation measures to address these risks. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused surgeons the world over to re-evaluate their approach to surgical procedures given concerns over the risk of aerosolization of viral particles and exposure of operating room staff to infection. International society guidelines advise against the use of laparoscopy; however, the evidence on this topic is scant and recommendations are based on the perceived most cautious course of action. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review of the existing literature surrounding the risks of viral transmission during laparoscopic surgery and balance these risks against the benefits of minimally invasive approaches. We also propose mitigation measures to address these risks that we have adopted in our institution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: While it is currently assumed that open surgery minimizes operating room staff exposure to the virus, our findings reveal that this may not be the case. A well-informed, evidence-based opinion is critical when making decisions regarding which operative approach to pursue, for the safety and well-being of the patient, the operating room staff, and the healthcare system at large. Minimally invasive surgical approaches offer significant advantages with respect to both patient care, and the mitigation of the risk of viral transmission during surgery, provided the appropriate equipment and expertise are present.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Can J Surg ; 63(3): E208-E210, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356948

RESUMO

Summary: In the decade since its inception, the World Health Organization's surgical safety checklist has fundamentally changed the conduct of surgery the world over. A critical component of the checklist - the "pause" or "time-out" - requires all operating room staff to stop other activities and together review critical information about the case to ensure that nothing is missed. Surgical trainees in Canada are transitioning to a competency-based medical education model; a core aspect of this model requires trainees to advocate for their own learning goals. We propose the use of a detailed and formalized preoperative pause as a means to enable superior and more targeted intraoperative learning for surgical trainees.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Lista de Checagem , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Ortopedia/educação , Canadá , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Salas Cirúrgicas
14.
ACS Nano ; 13(12): 13620-13626, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800203

RESUMO

Nanomedicines have historically struggled to find clinical relevance and to achieve translation successfully. In this Perspective, we discuss possible reasons for this difficulty and highlight several key features of nanomedicines that are often overlooked by biomedical engineers. We present the notion of clinical multifunctionality as distinct from multifunctionality as it is traditionally described at the nanoscale and emphasize its importance through examples of nanomedicines that have demonstrated emergent clinical multifunctionality once translated. We also describe a phenomenon in which clinical multifunctionality results in diagonal translation after a nanomedicine is adopted by clinicians to serve as a solution for a clinical problem that it was not designed to solve. Biomedical engineers can take advantage of these phenomena to assist in achieving clinical translation of new nanomedicines.


Assuntos
Nanomedicina , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Animais , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Controle Social Formal
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(1): 105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203306
16.
Can J Surg ; 61(2): 141-143, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582751

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Studies have shown that a number of women do not receive adjuvant radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery; the reasons have not been well investigated. We reviewed the charts of 267 patients in our institution who did not receive radiation therapy following surgery in order to determine patient-stated reasons for nonreceipt. We found that 43% of patients did not receive radiation because they received a completion mastectomy. Excluding these patients, reasons for nonreceipt of radiation therapy were sorted into 9 categories. Most patients declined radiation therapy (against physician advice). We identified 3 major barriers to receipt of radiation therapy: improper patient selection, transportation or ambulatory issues and patient fear surrounding radiation toxicity. All of these reasons are surmountable barriers to radiation receipt.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mastectomia Segmentar/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ontário
17.
Can J Surg ; 61(1): 15716, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171833

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Studies have shown that a number of women do not receive adjuvant radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery; the reasons have not been well investigated. We reviewed the charts of 267 patients in our institution who did not receive radiation therapy following surgery in order to determine patientstated reasons for nonreceipt. We found that 43% of patients did not receive radiation because they received a completion mastectomy. Excluding these patients, reasons for nonreceipt of radiation therapy were sorted into 9 categories. Most patients declined radiation therapy (against physician advice). We identified 3 major barriers to receipt of radiation therapy: improper patient selection, transportation or ambulatory issues and patient fear surrounding radiation toxicity. All of these reasons are surmountable barriers to radiation receipt.

18.
Can J Surg ; 59(5): 358-60, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27438052

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Canadian women with breast cancer may choose breast conserving therapy as their course of treatment, requiring both breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. However, more than 15% of Canadian women fail to receive the appropriate radiation therapy, putting them at increased risk for recurrence. Age, distance from their radiation therapy centre and stage of disease affect patients' likelihood of receiving prescribed radiation therapy. We propose a nomogram that allows physicians to predict which patients will and will not receive radiation. This nomogram, once validated, could be used to guide decision making when choosing between breast conserving therapy and mastectomy as the treatment course and thereby change the practice of breast cancer management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Mastectomia Segmentar/normas , Mastectomia/normas , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos
19.
Can Respir J ; 2016: 1690482, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27445518

RESUMO

Introduction. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a disorder commonly encountered in healthy young individuals. There is no differentiation between PSP and secondary pneumothorax (SP) in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). This complicates the conduct of epidemiological studies on the subject. Objective. To validate the accuracy of an algorithm that identifies cases of PSP from administrative databases. Methods. The charts of 150 patients who consulted the emergency room (ER) with a recorded main diagnosis of pneumothorax were reviewed to define the type of pneumothorax that occurred. The corresponding hospital administrative data collected during previous hospitalizations and ER visits were processed through the proposed algorithm. The results were compared over two different age groups. Results. There were 144 cases of pneumothorax correctly coded (96%). The results obtained from the PSP algorithm demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (97% versus 81%, p = 0.038) and positive predictive value (87% versus 46%, p < 0.001) in patients under 40 years of age than in older patients. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm is adequate to identify cases of PSP from administrative databases in the age group classically associated with the disease. This makes possible its utilization in large population-based studies.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax , Adulto , Algoritmos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sumários de Alta do Paciente Hospitalar , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Can J Surg ; 58(6): 414-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26574834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of surgical wait times on survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains largely unknown. Our objective was to determine the effect of surgical wait time on survival and incidence of upstaging in patients with stage I and II NSCLC. METHODS: All patients with clinical stage I and II NSCLC who underwent surgical resection in a single centre between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed. Analysis was stratified based on preoperative clinical stage. We assessed the effect of wait time on survival using a Cox proportional hazard model with wait time in months as a categorical variable. Incidence of upstaging at least 1 stage was assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified 222 patients: 180 were stage I and 42 were stage II. For stage I, wait times up to 4 months had no significant effect on survival or incidence of upstaging. For stage II, patients waiting between 2 and 3 months had significantly decreased survival (hazard ratio 3.6, p = 0.036) and increased incidence of upstaging (odds ratio 2.0, p = 0.020) than those waiting 0 to 1 month. For those waiting between 1 and 2 months, there was no significant difference in survival or upstaging. CONCLUSION: We did not identify an effect of wait time up to 4 months on survival or upstaging for patients with stage I NSCLC. For patients with stage II disease, wait times greater than 2 months adversely affected survival and upstaging.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ontário/epidemiologia , Duração da Cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
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