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1.
Chem Asian J ; 15(3): 391-397, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851414

RESUMO

We report the preparation and the full characterization of a novel mononuclear trigonal bipyramidal CoII complex [Co(NS3 iPr )Br](BPh4 ) (1) with the tetradentate sulfur-containing ligand NS3 iPr (N(CH2 CH2 SCH(CH3 )2 )3 ). The comparison of its magnetic behaviour with those of two previously reported compounds [Co(NS3 iPr )Cl](BPh4 ) (2) and [Co(NS3 tBu )Br](ClO4 ) (3) (NS3 tBu =N(CH2 CH2 SC(CH3 )3 )3 ) with similar structures shows that 1 displays a single-molecule magnet behaviour with the longest magnetic relaxation time (0.051 s) at T=1.8 K, which is almost thirty times larger than that of 3 (0.0019 s) and more than three times larger than that of 2 (0.015 s), though its effective energy barrier (26 cm-1 ) is smaller. Compound 1, which contains two crystallographically independent molecules, presents smaller rhombic parameters (E=1.45 and 0.59 cm-1 ) than 2 (E=2.05 and 1.02 cm-1 ) and 3 (E=2.00 and 0.80 cm-1 ) obtained from theoretical calculations. Compounds 2 and 3 have almost the same axial (D) and rhombic (E) parameter values, but present a large difference of their effective energy barrier and magnetic relaxation which may be attributed to the larger volume of BPh4 - than ClO4 - leading to larger diamagnetic dilution (weaker magnetic dipolar interaction) for 2 than for 3. The combination of these factors leads to a much slower magnetic relaxation for 1 than for the two other compounds.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(24): 7698-7704, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888914

RESUMO

A cyano-bridged Fe(II)-Cr(III) single-chain magnet designed to ensure a parallel orientation of the axial anisotropy of the building units is reported. This ferromagnetic chain compound consists of a pentagonal bipyramid Fe(II) complex with Ising-type anisotropy and a dicyanide Cr(III) complex interlinked through their apical positions. It is characterized by an energy gap for the magnetization reversal of Δeff/ kB = 113 K and exhibits magnetic hysteresis with a coercive field of 1400 Oe at 2 K which positions this compound among the very few examples of SCMs with spin reversal barriers above 100 K. The quite remarkable performances of this single-strand SCM are attributed to the alignment of the local anisotropy axes, which is supported by ab initio modeling. A discrete Cr2Fe complex based on the same building units and behaving as a SMM in zero field is also reported.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 56(24): 14809-14822, 2017 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181984

RESUMO

A series of mononuclear [M(hfa)2(pic)2] (Hhfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedione; pic = 4-methylpyridine; M = FeII, CoII, NiII, ZnII) compounds were obtained and characterized. The structures of the complexes have been resolved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, indicating that, apart from the zinc derivative, the complexes are in a trans configuration. Moreover, a dramatic lenghthening of the Fe-N distances was observed, whereas the nickel(II) complex is almost perfectly octahedral. The magnetic anisotropy of these complexes was thoroughly studied by direct-current (dc) magnetic measurements, high-field electron paramagnetic resonance, and infrared (IR) magnetospectroscopy: the iron(II) derivative exhibits an out-of-plane anisotropy (DFe = -7.28 cm-1) with a high rhombicity, whereas the cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes show in-plane anisotropy (DCo ∼ 92-95 cm-1; DNi = 4.920 cm-1). Ab initio calculations were performed to rationalize the evolution of the structure and identify the excited states governing the magnetic anisotropy along the series. For the iron(II) complex, an out-of-phase alternating-current (ac) magnetic susceptibility signal was observed using a 0.1 T dc field. For the cobalt(II) derivative, the ac magnetic susceptibility shows the presence of two field-dependent relaxation phenomena: at low field (500 Oe), the relaxation process is beyond single-ion behavior, whereas at high field (2000 Oe), the relaxation of magnetization implies several mechanisms including an Orbach process with Ueff = 25 K and quantum tunneling of magnetization. The observation by µ-SQUID magnetization measurements of hysteresis loops of up to 1 K confirmed the single-ion-magnet behavior of the cobalt(II) derivative.

4.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(12): 6253-6265, 2017 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039936

RESUMO

Analytical expressions of the interactions present in the Heisenberg-Dirac van Vleck and Hubbard Hamiltonians have been derived as functions of both the energy of several broken symmetry DFT solutions and their expectation value of the S2 spin operator. Then, following a strategy of decomposition of the magnetic exchange coupling into its main contributions (direct exchange, kinetic exchange, and spin polarization) and using a recently proposed method of spin decontamination, values of these interactions have been extracted. As already observed, they weakly depend on the correlation functional but strongly depend on the exchange one. In order to distinguish between the effect of the delocalization of the magnetic orbitals and that of the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) when hybrid exchange-correlation functionals are used, we have disentangled these two contributions by either freezing the magnetic orbitals and varying the amount of HFX or varying the magnetic orbitals while keeping the same amount of HFX. As expected, increasing the amount of HFX induces a slight relocalization of the magnetic orbitals on the magnetic center which results in a weak increase of the repulsion energy U parameter and a weak decrease of both the direct exchange Kab and hopping |t| parameters. Conversely, the amount of HFX has a huge effect on all the parameters, even when some of the parameters should be exchange-independent, like U. Indeed, it is analytically demonstrated that the physical content of the U parameter extracted from several broken-symmetry solutions depends on the amount of HFX and that this pathological behavior has the same origin as the self-interaction error. This result is interesting not only to theoretical chemists working in the field of magnetic systems but also to DFT methodologists interested in using this theory for studying either excited states or strongly correlated systems. Finally, the performance of the range-separated ωB97XD functional for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transition-metal compounds and organic systems must be noted.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 56(17): 10655-10663, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832136

RESUMO

The preparation of a binuclear Ni(II) complex with a pentacoordinate environment using a cryptand organic ligand and the imidazolate bridge is reported. The coordination sphere is close to trigonal bipyramidal (tbp) for one Ni(II) and to square pyramidal (spy) for the other. The use of the imidazolate bridge that undergoes π-π stacking with two benzene rings of the chelating ligand induces steric hindrance that stabilizes the pentacoordinate environment. Magnetic measurements together with theoretical studies of the spin states energy levels allow fitting the data and reveal a large Ising-type anisotropy and a weak anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the metal ions. The magnitude and the nature of the magnetic anisotropy and the difference in anisotropy between the two metal ions are rationalized using wave-function-based calculations. We show that a slight distortion of the coordination sphere of Ni(II) from spy to tbp leads to an Ising-type anisotropy. Broken-symmetry density functional calculations rationalize the weak anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling through the imidazolate bridge.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 56(8): 4602-4609, 2017 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375018

RESUMO

The preparations of related mononuclear and binuclear Co(II) complexes with a quasi-identical local C3v symmetry using a cryptand organic ligand are reported. The mononuclear complex behaves as a single molecule magnet (SMM). A relatively weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling (J) of the same order of magnitude as the local magnetic anisotropy (D) is determined experimentally and theoretically for the binuclear complex. The weak magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, analyzed using a combination of broken-symmetry density functional theory and wave function based calculations, is ascribed to the weak overlap between the singly occupied orbitals because of the local C3v symmetry of the Co(II) ions; the organic ligand was found to contribute to the exchange coupling as the azido bridge that directly links the Co(II) ions. Calculation of the energy and wave functions of the spin states for the binuclear complex, in the general case, allows analysis of the effect of the |J/D| ratio on the magnetic behavior of the binuclear complex and prediction of the optimum range of values for the complex to behave as two weakly interacting SMMs.

7.
Chemistry ; 23(18): 4380-4396, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28118518

RESUMO

Pentagonal bipyramid FeII complexes have been investigated to evaluate their potential as Ising-spin building units for the preparation of heteropolynuclear complexes that are likely to behave as single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The considered monometallic complexes were prepared from the association of a divalent metal ion with pentadentate ligands that have a 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) core (H2 LN3O2R ). Their magnetic anisotropy was established by magnetometry to reveal their zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter D, which ranged between -4 and -13 cm-1 and was found to be modulated by the apical ligands (ROH versus Cl). The alteration of the D value by N-bound axial CN ligands, upon association with cyanometallates, was also assessed for heptacoordinated FeII as well as for related NiII and CoII derivatives. In all cases, N-coordinated cyanide ligands led to large magnetic anisotropy (i.e., -8 to -18 cm-1 for Fe and Ni, +33 cm-1 for Co). Ab initio calculations were performed on three FeII complexes, which enabled one to rationalize the role of the ligand on the nature and magnitude of the magnetic anisotropy. Starting from the pre-existing heptacoordinated complexes, a series of pentanuclear compounds were obtained by reactions with paramagnetic [W(CN)8 ]3- . Magnetic studies revealed the occurrence of ferromagnetic interactions between the spin carriers in all the heterometallic systems. Field-induced slow magnetic relaxation was observed for mononuclear FeII complexes (Ueff /kB up to 53 K (37 cm-1 ), τ0 =5×10-9  s), and SMM behavior was evidenced for a heteronuclear [Fe3 W2 ] derivative (Ueff /kB =35 K and τ0 =4.6 10-10  s), which confirmed that the parent complexes were robust Ising-type building units. High-field EPR spectroscopic investigation of the ZFS parameters for a Ni derivative is also reported.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 56(3): 1104-1111, 2017 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28080044

RESUMO

This paper describes the correlation between Ising-type magnetic anisotropy and structure in trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes. Three sulfur-containing trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized. It was shown that we can engineer the magnitude of the Ising anisotropy using ligand field theory arguments in conjunction with structural parameters. To prepare this series of compounds, we used, on the one hand, a tetradentate ligand containing three sulfur atoms and one amine (NS3tBu) and on the other hand three different axial ligands, namely, Cl-, Br-, and NCS-. The organic ligand imposes a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement with the three sulfur atoms lying in the trigonal plane with long Co-S bond distances. The magnetic properties of the compounds were measured, and ab initio calculations were used to analyze the anisotropy parameters and perform magneto-structural correlations. We demonstrate that a smaller axial zero-field splitting parameter leads to slower relaxation time when the symmetry is strictly axial, while the presence of very weak rhombicity decreases the energy barrier and speeds the relaxation of the magnetization.

9.
Chemistry ; 23(15): 3648-3657, 2017 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27921336

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of the pentacoordinate [MII (Me4 cyclam)N3 ]+ (Me4 cyclam=tetramethylcyclam; N3 =azido; M=Ni, Co) complexes were investigated. Magnetization and EPR studies indicate that they have an easy plane of magnetization with axial anisotropy parameters D close to 22 and greater than 30 cm-1 for the Ni and Co complexes, respectively. Ab initio calculations reproduced the experimental values of the zero-field splitting parameters and allowed the orientation of the anisotropy tensor axes with respect to the molecular frame to be determined. For M=Ni, the principal anisotropy axis lies along the Ni-Nazido direction perpendicular to the Ni(Me4 cyclam) mean plane, whereas for M=Co it lies in the Co(Me4 cyclam) mean plane and thus perpendicular to the Co-Nazido direction. These orientations match one of the possible solutions experimentally provided by single-crystal cantilever torque magnetometry. To rationalize the geometry and its impact on the orientation of the anisotropy tensor axis, calculations were carried out on model complexes [NiII (NCH)5 ]2+ and [CoII (NCH)5 ]2+ by varying the geometry between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal. The geometry of the complexes was found to be the result of a compromise between the electronic configuration of the metal ion and the structure-orienting effect of the Me4 cyclam macrocycle. Moreover, the orientation of the anisotropy axes is mainly dependent on the geometry of the complexes.

10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13646, 2016 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27929089

RESUMO

A challenge in molecular spintronics is to control the magnetic coupling between magnetic molecules and magnetic electrodes to build efficient devices. Here we show that the nature of the magnetic ion of anchored metal complexes highly impacts the exchange coupling of the molecules with magnetic substrates. Surface anchoring alters the magnetic anisotropy of the cobalt(II)-containing complex (Co(Pyipa)2), and results in blocking of its magnetization due to the presence of a magnetic hysteresis loop. In contrast, no hysteresis loop is observed in the isostructural nickel(II)-containing complex (Ni(Pyipa)2). Through XMCD experiments and theoretical calculations we find that Co(Pyipa)2 is strongly ferromagnetically coupled to the surface, while Ni(Pyipa)2 is either not coupled or weakly antiferromagnetically coupled to the substrate. These results highlight the importance of the synergistic effect that the electronic structure of a metal ion and the organic ligands has on the exchange interaction and anisotropy occurring at the molecule-electrode interface.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 55(21): 10968-10977, 2016 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783500

RESUMO

A family of four-coordinate FeII complexes formed with N,N'-chelating amido-pyridine ligands was synthesized, and their magnetic properties were investigated. These distorted tetrahedral complexes exhibit significant magnetic anisotropy with zero-field splitting parameter D ranging between -17 and -12 cm-1. Ab initio calculations enabled identification of the structural factors that control the nature of the magnetic anisotropy and the rationalization of the variation of D in these complexes. It is shown that a reduced N-Fe-N angle involving the chelating nitrogen atoms of the ligands is at the origin of the negative D value and that the torsion between the two N-Fe-N planes imposed by steric hindrances further increases the |D| value. Field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization was observed for the three compounds, and a single-molecule magnet behavior with an energy barrier for magnetization flipping (Ueff) of 27 cm-1 could be evidenced for one of them.

12.
Chemistry ; 22(47): 16850-16862, 2016 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723126

RESUMO

By using complementary experimental techniques and first-principles theoretical calculations, magnetic anisotropy in a series of five hexacoordinated nickel(II) complexes possessing a symmetry close to C2v , has been investigated. Four complexes have the general formula [Ni(bpy)X2 ]n+ (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; X2 =bpy (1), (NCS- )2 (2), C2 O42- (3), NO3- (4)). In the fifth complex, [Ni(HIM2 -py)2 (NO3 )]+ (5; HIM2 -py=2-(2-pyridyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazolyl-1-hydroxy), which was reported previously, the two bpy bidentate ligands were replaced by HIM2 -py. Analysis of the high-field, high-frequency electronic paramagnetic resonance (HF-HFEPR) spectra and magnetization data leads to the determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters. The D parameter, corresponding to the axial magnetic anisotropy, was negative (Ising type) for the five compounds and ranged from -1 to -10 cm-1 . First-principles SO-CASPT2 calculations have been performed to estimate these parameters and rationalize the experimental values. From calculations, the easy axis of magnetization is in two different directions for complexes 2 and 3, on one hand, and 4 and 5, on the other hand. A new method is proposed to calculate the g tensor for systems with S=1. The spin Hamiltonian parameters (D (axial), E (rhombic), and gi ) are rationalized in terms of ordering of the 3 d orbitals. According to this orbital model, it can be shown that 1) the large magnetic anisotropy of 4 and 5 arises from splitting of the eg -like orbitals and is due to the difference in the σ-donor strength of NO3- and bpy or HIM2 -py, whereas the difference in anisotropy between the two compounds is due to splitting of the t2g -like orbitals; and 2) the anisotropy of complexes 1-3 arises from the small splitting of the t2g -like orbitals. The direction of the anisotropy axis can be rationalized by the proposed orbital model.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(92): 16475-8, 2015 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440770

RESUMO

This paper demonstrates the engineering and tuning of Ising-type magnetic anisotropy in trigonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes. Here, we predict that employing a ligand that forces a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement and has weak equatorial σ-donating atoms, increases (in absolute value) the negative zero field splitting parameter D. With these considerations in mind, we used a sulfur containing ligand (NS3(iPr)), which imposes a trigonal bipyramidal geometry to the central Co(II) ion with long equatorial Co-S bonds. The resulting complex exhibits a larger anisotropy barrier and a longer relaxation time in comparison to the complex prepared with a nitrogen containing ligand (Me6tren).

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(22): 14375-82, 2015 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25690644

RESUMO

This work re-examines the problem of the broken-symmetry Density-Functional Theory (DFT) solutions in diradical systems, in particular for the calculation of magnetic couplings. The Ms = 0 solution is not an eigenfunction of the S(2) spin operator and the evaluation of the singlet state energy requires a spin-decontamination. A popular approximation is provided by the so-called Yamaguchi formula, which operates using the expectation values of S(2) relative to both Ms = 1 and Ms =0 solutions. Referring to a previous decomposition of the magnetic coupling in terms of direct exchange, kinetic exchange and core polarization, it is shown that this expression will lead to unreliable values of the singlet-triplet energy gap when the spin polarization of the core orbitals becomes large. The here-proposed method of spin-decontamination is based on the Effective Hamiltonian Theory and uses the overlap between the two degenerate Ms = 0 solutions. An approximate and convenient formula, which uses the expectation values of S(2) of the Ms = 0 solutions before and after core polarization is proposed, which is free from the Yamaguchi's formula artefact, as illustrated on an organic diradical presenting a very high value of 〈S(2)〉 for the Ms = 0 solution, the antiferromagnetic coupling being due to the spin polarization mechanism.

15.
Chemistry ; 21(2): 763-9, 2015 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25430555

RESUMO

Herein we evaluate the influence of an electric field on the coupling of two delocalized electrons in the mixed-valence polyoxometalate (POM) [GeV14 O40 ](8-) (in short V14 ) by using both a t-J model Hamiltonian and DFT calculations. In absence of an electric field the compound is paramagnetic, because the two electrons are localized on different parts of the POM. When an electric field is applied, an abrupt change of the magnetic coupling between the two delocalized electrons can be induced. Indeed, the field forces the two electrons to localize on nearest-neighbors metal centers, leading to a very strong antiferromagnetic coupling. Both theoretical approaches have led to similar results, emphasizing that the sharp spin transition induced by the electric field in the V14 system is a robust phenomenon, intramolecular in nature, and barely influenced by small changes on the external structure.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 53(9): 4508-16, 2014 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24758235

RESUMO

A systematic study has been undertaken to determine how local distortions affect the overall (molecular) magnetic anisotropies in binuclear complexes. For this purpose we have applied a series of distortions to two binuclear Ni(II) model complexes and extracted the magnetic anisotropy parameters of multispin and giant-spin model Hamiltonians. Furthermore, local and molecular magnetic axes frames have been determined. It is shown that certain combinations of local distortions can lead to constructive interference of the local anisotropies and that the largest contribution to the anisotropic exchange does not arise from the second-rank tensor normally included in the multispin Hamiltonian, but rather from a fourth-rank tensor. From the comparison of the extracted parameters, simple rules are obtained to maximize the molecular anisotropy by controlling the local magnetic anisotropy, which opens the way to tune the anisotropy in binuclear or polynuclear complexes.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(31): 5876-84, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24580130

RESUMO

This work compares three descriptions of the unpaired electrons distribution in conjugated monoradical and diradical hydrocarbons involving one or two methylene groups attached to an aromatic skeleton. The first one is the simple Hückel topological Hamiltonian, the singly occupied molecular orbitals (SOMO) of which may be analytically obtained. The second one is the restricted open-shell self-consistent field (ROHF-SCF) method. The so-obtained distribution of the unpaired electrons on the skeleton appears deeply different from that predicted by the Hückel Hamiltonian, being more strongly localized on the external methylene groups. More elaborate methods treat all π electrons in the π valence molecular orbitals (MOs) through a full valence π complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) treatment. The distributions of the unpaired electrons (given by the natural MOs of occupation number close to 1) are surprisingly similar to those predicted by the Hückel model. The spin density distributions, including spin polarization effects, can be improved by further configuration interactions involving one hole-one particle excitations and compared with the experimental hyperfine coupling constant ratios. This comparison confirms the lack of delocalization of the magnetic orbitals defined from the self-consistent single-reference treatment. We show that, provided correct SOMO are used, a single excitation CI performed on top of a single reference gives accurate spin densities. Finally, a rationalization of the role of the dynamic correlation in correcting the excessive localization of the unpaired electron(s) at the ROHF level on the exocyclic methylene group(s) is given, attributing it to the dynamic charge polarization of the charge transfer configurations between methylene and the aromatic frame.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(43): 18784-804, 2013 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24104941

RESUMO

The determination of anisotropic magnetic parameters is a task of both experimental and theoretical interest. The added value of theoretical calculations can be crucial for analyzing experimental data by (i) allowing assessment of the validity of the phenomenological spin Hamiltonians, (ii) allowing discussion of the values of parameters extracted from experiments, and (iii) proposing rationalizations and magneto-structural correlations to better understand the relations between geometry, electronic structure, and properties. In this review, we discuss the model Hamiltonians that are used to describe magnetic properties, the computational approaches that can be used to compute magnetic parameters, and review their applications to transition metal and (to a lesser extent) lanthanide based complexes. Perspectives concerning current methodological challenges will then be presented, and finally the need for further joint experimental/theoretical efforts will be underlined.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(8): 3017-26, 2013 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23346898

RESUMO

This paper reports the experimental and theoretical investigations of two trigonal bipyramidal Ni(II) complexes, [Ni(Me(6)tren)Cl](ClO(4)) (1) and [Ni(Me(6)tren)Br](Br) (2). High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on a single crystal of 1 shows a giant uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with an experimental D(expt) value (energy difference between the M(s) = ± 1 and M(s) = 0 components of the ground spin state S = 1) estimated to be between -120 and -180 cm(-1). The theoretical study shows that, for an ideally trigonal Ni(II) complex, the orbital degeneracy leads to a first-order spin-orbit coupling that results in a splitting of the M(s) = ± 1 and M(s) = 0 components of approximately -600 cm(-1). Despite the Jahn-Teller distortion that removes the ground term degeneracy and reduces the effects of the first-order spin-orbit interaction, the D value remains very large. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental results (theoretical D(theor) between -100 and -200 cm(-1)) is obtained.

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