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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201351, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468491

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus development and is characterized by an abnormal expansion of adipose tissue and low-grade chronic inflammation that contribute to insulin resistance. Although there are multiple treatments, most therapies can produce undesirable side effects and therefore, new and effective treatments with fewer side effects are necessary. Previously, we demonstrated that a natural extract from the leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis (OBE100) has anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. The major compounds identified in OBE100 were three pentacyclic triterpenoids, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid lactone. Triterpenoids have shown multiples biological activities. This current study compared the biological effect produced by OBE100 with five different reconstituted mixtures of these triterpenoids. Different cell lines were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production, inflammatory cytokine expression, glucose uptake induction, leptin and adiponectin expression, and lipid accumulation. OBE100 treatment was the most efficacious and none of the formulated triterpenoid mixtures significantly improved on this. Moreover, OBE100 was less toxic and reduced reactive oxygen species production. Our study showed that the proven beneficial properties of triterpenoids may be enhanced due to the interaction with minor secondary metabolites present in the natural extract improving their anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Eucalyptus , Resistência à Insulina , Triterpenos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113298, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860892

RESUMO

ETNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Eu) is a plant species used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. Eu leaf extracts have been shown to regulate immuno-metabolic activities that are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. OBE100 and OBE104 are two natural Eu extracts that are rich in pentacyclic triterpenes. The major compounds identified in OBE100 are ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA), and ursolic acid lactone (UAL), and the major compounds identified in OBE104 are UA and OA. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effects of two extracts from Eu leaves with different triterpene composition in a nutritional animal model of prediabetes. METHODS: A mouse model of diet-induced obesity was used to analyze the effects of the OBE100 and OBE104 treatments on metabolic markers and gene expression in liver and visceral adipose tissue. RESULTS: Treating the prediabetic mouse model with OBE100 and OBE104 increased glucose tolerance. However, only the Eu extract that contained three triterpenes reduced mouse body weight, hepatic and adipose fat content, and plasma lipid levels. OBE100 treatment also led to decreased hepatic mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1A, and SERBP1. In visceral adipose tissue, OBE100 treatment reduced expression of PPARA and ACACA and increased UCP1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that developing a new multitargeting bioactive compound from the natural extract from Eu may help combat obesity and diabetes. Treatment with OBE100 had better effects than OBE104 in a diet-induced obesity mouse model, suggesting that the OBE100 extract, which contains three triterpenes, may be beneficial in combating obesity.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
3.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 851: 88-98, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771349

RESUMO

Pomolic acid (PA) isolated from Licania pittieri has hypotensive effects in rats, inhibits human platelet aggregation and elicits endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortic rings. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of PA on cardiomyocytes. Trabeculae and enzymatically isolated cardiomyocytes from rats were used to evaluate the concentration-dependent effects of PA on cardiac muscle tension and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) by recording Ca2+ transients reported with Fluo-3 and Fura-2, as well as L-type Ca2+ currents (LTCC). PA reduced the contractile force in rat cardiac trabeculae with an EC50 = 14.3 ±â€¯2.4 µM. PA also reduced the amplitude of Ca2+ transients in a concentration-dependent manner, with an EC50 = 10.5 ±â€¯1.3 µM, without reducing sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading. PA decreased the half width of the Ca2+ transient by 31.7 ±â€¯3.3% and increased the decay time and decay time constant (τ) by 7.6 ±â€¯2.7% and 75.6 ±â€¯3.7%, respectively, which was associated with increased phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation. PA also reversibly reduced the macroscopic LTCC in the cardiomyocyte membrane, but did not demonstrate any effects on skeletal muscle ECC. In conclusion, PA reduces LTCC, Ca2+ transients and cardiomyocyte force, which along with its vasorelaxant effects explain its hypotensive properties. Increased PLN phosphorylation protected the SR from Ca2+ depletion. Considering the effects of PA on platelet aggregation and the cardiovascular system, we propose it as a new potential, multitarget cardiovascular agent with a demonstrated safety profile.


Assuntos
Acoplamento Excitação-Contração/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
4.
Phytomedicine ; 50: 109-117, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm (Myrtaceae) is a plant used in traditional medicine to control obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Chronic adipose tissue inflammation is involved in generating insulin resistance, the greatest risk factor in developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, a mixture of triterpenes, as obtained from the starting plant material, was evaluated in inflamed adipose tissue cells models. AIM: Our goal is to advance into the understanding, at the cellular level, of the immunometabolic effects of the triterpene mixes from Eucalyptus tereticornis in in vitro models of mouse and human adipose tissues. METHODS: Triterpene mixes were obtained from Eucalyptus tereticornis leaves by organic extraction. The major compounds of these mixes were identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR in addition to HPLC using primary and secondary standards of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid lactone. To provide an approach for evaluating the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which triterpene mixes act to modify the metabolic processes associated with obesity, mouse macrophage and adipocyte cell lines, human macrophage cell line and primary culture of human adipocytes were used as models. RESULTS: Adipocytes treated with the two natural chemically characterized triterpene mixes partially reduce lipogenesis and leptin expression. Additionally, an increase in the transcriptional expression of PPARγ, and C/EBPα is observed. In macrophages, these triterpene mixes, decrease the transcriptional and translational expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and tumoral necrosis factor α (TNFα). Conditioned medium of 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the triterpene mix shows a stronger anti-inflammatory response on activated J774A.1 macrophages. CONCLUSION: The mixtures of the three triterpenes in the proportions obtained from the plant material may act on different components of the cell, generating a different response, which, in some cases, is more powerful than that seen when exposure to only two triterpenes. It makes this three triterpenes mix a good phytotherapeutic prototype for pathologies as complex as those associated with obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eucalyptus/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Obesidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Células U937
5.
Adv Pharmacol Sci ; 2015: 418673, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26366171

RESUMO

Eucalyptus tereticornis is a plant used in traditional medicine to control diabetes, but this effect has not been proved scientifically. Here, we demonstrated through in vitro assays that E. tereticornis extracts increase glucose uptake and inhibit their production in insulin-resistant C2C12 and HepG2 cells, respectively. Furthermore, in a nutritional model using diabetic mice, the administration of ethyl acetate extract of E. tereticornis reduced fasting glycaemia, improved tolerance to glucose, and reduced resistance to insulin. Likewise, this extract had anti-inflammatory effects in adipose tissue when compared to control diabetic mice. Via bioguided assays and sequential purification of the crude extract, a triterpenoid-rich fraction from ethyl acetate extracts was shown to be responsible for the biological activity. Similarly, we identified the main compound responsible for the antihyperglycemic activity in this extract. This study shows that triterpenes found in E. tereticornis extracts act as hypoglycemic/antidiabetic compounds and contribute to the understanding of their use in traditional medicine.

6.
Molecules ; 20(4): 6181-93, 2015 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25859777

RESUMO

Jatropha gossypifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but there are few scientific reports validating its activity in this area. In this work and through a bioguided assay, a crude extract stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes up to 30%, thereby reducing insulin resistance induced by fatty acids compared to the basal control. A chromatographic fraction applied intraperitoneally (IP) in mice reduced glucose by 42% in a mouse model of T2DM, after administration of 10 doses during 20 days. A flavanone was purified from this active fraction and its structure was assigned by 1H- and 13C-NMR (1D and 2D) and MS. This compound retains the previously reported activity, stimulating in vitro the glucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. This study indicates that Jatropha gossypifolia L. extracts enhance glucose uptake in cultured myotubes and adipocytes and also improving glucose tolerance in an in vivo model.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Jatropha/química , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química
7.
J Muscle Res Cell Motil ; 34(5-6): 379-93, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24129906

RESUMO

We have quantified Ca(2+) entry through store operated calcium channels in mice muscle fibres, measuring the rates of change of myoplasmic [Ca(2+)], d[Ca(2+)](myo)/dt, and of Ca(2+) removal, d[Ca(2+)](Removal)/dt, turning store operated calcium entry (SOCE) ON, and OFF, by switching on or off external Ca(2+). In depleted fibres, poisoned with 10 µM cyclopiazonic acid SOCE influx was about 3 µM/s. Ryanodine (50 µM) caused a robust, nifedipine (50 µM) independent, increase in SOCE activation to 8.6 µM/s. Decreasing medium osmolarity from 300 to 220 mOsm/L, decreased SOCE to 0.9 µM/s, while increasing osmolarity from 220 to 400 mOsm/L potentiated SOCE to 43.6 µM/s. Ryanodine inhibited the effects of hypotonicity. Experiments using 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, nifedipine, or Mn(2+) quenching, strongly suggest that the increased [Ca(2+)](myo) by ryanodine or hypertonic shock is mediated by potentiated SOCE activation. The Ca(2+) response decay, quantified by d[Ca(2+)](Removal)/dt, indicates a robust residual Ca(2+) removal mechanism in sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase poisoned fibres. SOCE high sensitivity to osmotic shocks, or to ryanodine receptor (RyR) binding, suggests its high dependency on the structural relationship between its molecular constituents, Orai1 and stromal interaction molecule and the sarcoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes, in the triadic junctional region, where RyRs, are conspicuously present. This study demonstrates that SOCE machinery is highly sensitive to structural changes caused by binding of an agonist to its receptor or by imposed osmotical volume changes.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Rianodina/farmacologia , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pressão Osmótica , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
8.
J Physiol Sci ; 59(4): 317-28, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19440817

RESUMO

Enzymatically dissociated mouse FDB muscle fibers, loaded with Fura-2 AM, were used to study the effect of mitochondrial uncoupling on the capacitative Ca(2+) entry, SOCE. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) stores were depleted by repetitive exposures to high K(+) or 4-chloro-m-Cresol (4-CmC) in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). SR Ca(2+) store replenishment was substantially reduced using 5 microM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Readmission of external Ca(2+) (5 mM) increased basal [Ca(2+)](i) under two modalities. In mode 1 [Ca(2+)](i) initially increased at a rate of 0.8 +/- 0.1 nM/s and later at a rate of 12.3 +/- 2.6 nM/s, reaching a final value of 477.8 +/- 36.8 nM in 215.7 +/- 25.9 s. In mode 2, [Ca(2+)](i) increased at a rate of 0.8 +/- 0.1 nM/s to a value of 204.9 +/- 20.6 nM in 185.4 +/- 21.1 s. FCCP, 2 microM, reduced this Ca(2+) entry. In nine FCCP-poisoned fibers, the initial rate of Ca(2+) increase was 0.34 +/- 0.1 nM/s (mean +/- SEM), reaching a plateau of 149.2 +/- 14.1 nM in 217 +/- 19 s. The results may likely be explained by the hypothesis that SOCE is inhibited by mitochondrial uncouplers, pointing to a possible mitochondrial role in its activation. Using time-scan confocal microscopy and the dyes CaOr-5N AM or Rhod-2 AM to label mitochondrial Ca(2+), we show that during depletion [Ca(2+)](mito) initially increases and later diminishes. Finally, we show that the increase in basal [Ca(2+)](i), associated with SOCE activation, diminishes upon external Na(+) withdrawal. Na(+) entry through the SOCE pathway and activation of the reversal of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger could explain this SOCE modulation by Na(+).


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbonil Cianeto p-Trifluormetoxifenil Hidrazona/toxicidade , Técnicas In Vitro , Indóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo
9.
Pflugers Arch ; 455(4): 721-31, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17705046

RESUMO

We report the use of the fluorescent dye CalciumOrange-5N (CaOr-5N) as a specific mitochondria Ca(2+) marker in enzymatically dissociated mouse FBD muscle fibers. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy and the dyes Mitotracker Green (MTG), di-8-ANEPPS and endoplasmic reticulum tracker green (ERTG), we determined the relative position of mitochondria, transverse tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum in the sarcomere. Comparison with electron micrographies showed that mitochondria are mostly present at both sides of Z lines and near the triads located at the A-I band border. CaOr-5N fluorescence was mainly distributed in mitochondria, highly co-localised with MTG and basically excluded from the A band space. ERTG localised mostly between the two t-tubules present in each sarcomere. We studied the effect of the protonophore FCCP using CaOr-5N to measure mitochondrial Ca(2+) and JC-1 dye to measure mitochondria inner membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). After FCCP treatment, the CaOr-5N fluorescence diminished by about 33% in 80 s, while JC-1 fluorescence diminished by 36% in 200 s. Our results show the loss of Ca(2+) from mitochondria when DeltaPsi(m) is depolarised and demonstrate the usefulness of CaOr-5N to mark mitochondrial [Ca(2+)](m).


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes , Microscopia Confocal , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Aldeídos , Animais , Benzimidazóis , Carbocianinas , Carbonil Cianeto p-Trifluormetoxifenil Hidrazona/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/ultraestrutura , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Músculo Esquelético/ultraestrutura , Compostos Orgânicos , Compostos de Piridínio , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Desacopladores/farmacologia
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