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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299793

RESUMO

Grounded in SDT, several studies have highlighted the role of teachers' motivating and demotivating styles for students' motivation, learning, and physical activity in physical education (PE). However, most of these studies focused on a restricted number of motivating strategies (e.g., offering choice) or dimensions (e.g., autonomy support). Recently, researchers have developed the Situations-in-School (i.e., SIS-Education) questionnaire, which allows one to gain a more integrative and fine-grained insight into teachers' engagement in autonomy-support, structure, control, and chaos through a circular structure (i.e., a circumplex). Although teaching in PE resembles teaching in academic courses in many ways, some of the items of the original situation-based questionnaire (e.g., regarding homework) are irrelevant to the PE context. In the present study, we therefore sought to develop a modified, PE-friendly version of this earlier validated SIS-questionnaire-the SIS-PE. Findings in a sample of Belgian (N = 136) and French (N = 259) PE teachers, examined together and as independent samples, showed that the variation in PE teachers' motivating styles in this adapted version is also best captured by a circumplex structure, with four overarching styles and eight subareas differing in their level of need support and directiveness. The SIS-PE possesses excellent convergent and concurrent validity. With the adaptations being successful, great opportunities for future research on PE teachers (de-)motivating styles are created.


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Humanos , Motivação , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Front Psychol ; 12: 618362, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692722

RESUMO

Objectives: The aims of this research were (1) to compare the levels of physical activity of eHealth users and non-users, (2) to determine the effects of these technologies on motivations, and (3) to establish the relationship that could exist between psychological constructs and physical activity behaviors. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 569 adults who responded to an online questionnaire during confinement in France. The questions assessed demographics, usage of eHealth for exercise and physical activity, and behavioral levels. The questionnaire also measured the constructs of Social Cognitive Theory, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and automaticity facets toward eHealth for exercise and physical activity. Results: Participants who were users of eHealth for exercise and physical activity presented significantly higher levels of vigorous physical activity and total physical activity per week than non-users (p < 0.001). The chi-square test showed significant interactions between psychological constructs toward eHealth (i.e., self-efficacy, behavioral attitudes, intentions, and automaticity) and physical activity levels (all interactions were p < 0.05). Self-efficacy was significantly and negatively correlated with walking time per week. Concerning the automaticity facets, efficiency was positive and significantly correlated with vigorous physical activity levels per week (p < 0.05). Then, regressions analyses showed that self-efficacy and automaticity efficiency explained 5% of the variance of walking minutes per week (ß = -0.27, p < 0.01) and vigorous physical activity per week (ß = 0.20, p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusion: This study has shown that people during confinement looked for ways to stay active through eHealth. However, we must put any technological solution into perspective. The eHealth offers possibilities to stay active, however its benefits and the psychological mechanisms affected by it remains to be demonstrated: eHealth could be adapted to each person and context.

3.
Eur J Sport Sci ; : 1-11, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295854

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to shed light on the associations between emotion regulation (ER) strategies used, their emotional processes (including cognitive appraisals and discrete emotions), and subjective performance across a competitive season. A sample of fifteen national-level rink hockey players completed ER questionnaire at the beginning of the season (T0) and reported their experiences of everyday appraisal, emotions, and subjective performance every week. A series of hierarchical linear modelling analyses (HLM) were performed to investigate the associations between the variables. Sobel tests were computed to identify the mediating effects of emotions and appraisals on these relationships. HLM results revealed that (a) T0 adaptive ER strategies were positively related to adaptive appraisals; (b) adaptive appraisals were positively related to pleasant emotions and negatively with unpleasant emotions and opposite relationships emerged for maladaptive appraisals; (c) happiness was positively associated with subjective performance. Sobel tests provided evidence of mediating effects of (a) appraisals in the relationships between T0 adaptive ER and pleasant emotions; and (b) happiness in the relationships between appraisals and subjective performance. The results highlighted the positive relationships between the adaptive dispositional ER strategies at the beginning of the season and the emotional experiences. Moreover, the analyses revealed relationships between appraisals, emotions, and subjective performance of athletes. In sum, this study provided additional knowledge about the capture of the emotional process during a competitive season highlighting the associations between a variety of emotions and selected key variables in a competitive context (i.e. ER strategies, appraisal, subjective performance).

4.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 20(9): 1255-1267, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910736

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore relationships between contextual self-determined motivation, everyday appraisals and emotions related to the competitive environment and subjective performance of young elite athletes. Thirty-one young tennis players (18.45 years ± 4.63) involved in intensive training centres completed initial (Time 0 - T0) self-determined motivation questionnaire and a fortnightly logbook including everyday cognitive appraisals, discrete emotions and subjective performance. We computed a series of hierarchical linear modelling analyses (HLM) to explore the relationships between the variables and Sobel tests to examine the mediating effects. HLM results showed that: (a) T0 autonomous motivation was positively associated with adaptive appraisals (challenge and benefits); (b) threat and loss were positively related to unpleasant emotions (anxiety, anger, dejection) and negatively associated with pleasant emotions whereas challenge and benefits were positively related to pleasant emotions and negatively associated with unpleasant emotions; (c) subjective performance was positively associated with happiness and negatively associated with dejection. Moreover, the Sobel tests revealed that: (a) appraisal was a mediator of the relationship between T0 self-determined motivation and discrete emotions; and; (b) emotions were mediators of the relationship between appraisals and subjective performance. In sum, the present study showed that young athletes' self-determined motivation assessed at the beginning of the study impacted their everyday cognitive appraisals, their experience of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, and their subjective performance levels along a 4-month period. To conclude, this study highlighted the relationships between the self-determined motivation, the emotional process and the performance of young elite athletes involving in intensive training settings.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Emoções , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Tênis/psicologia , Adolescente , Ira , Ansiedade , Cognição , Comportamento Competitivo , Felicidade , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(11-12): 1368-1379, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500511

RESUMO

Grounded in Lazarus's (1999) cognitive motivational relational theory of emotions, this study aimed to explore longitudinal relationships between appraisals, everyday emotions related to the competitive environment and emotional regulation strategies during a competitive season. Forty adolescent soccer players (Mage = 15.8) involved in an intensive training centre from a professional club voluntarily participated to the study. A series of hierarchical linear modelling analyses were conducted upon the 9 measurement times to: (a) examine the relationships between appraisals (threat, challenge, loss), pleasant (happiness, excitement) and unpleasant (anxiety, dejection, anger) emotions, and emotional regulation strategies (adaptive and less adaptive); and (b) ascertain whether the relationships between appraisals and emotions were mediated by emotion regulation strategies. The results of the random coefficient regression models showed: (a) positive relationships between challenge appraisal, adaptive emotion regulation, and pleasant emotions as well as between threat and loss appraisals, less adaptive emotion regulation and unpleasant emotions; and (b) mediating effects of emotional regulation strategies in the appraisals - emotions relationships. As a whole, this study furthered knowledge base about the competitive environment in showing that appraisals, emotion regulation and emotions are intertwined psychological constructs in a dynamic relationship allowing athletes to continuously adjust to their constantly changing everyday demands.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Emoções , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Futebol/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Angústia Psicológica
6.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 41(1): 24-35, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909847

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the factor structure, the simplex structure, and the self-determination continuum of the Youth Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (YBRSQ); to test longitudinal invariance of the YBRSQ and to examine differential item functioning in the YBRSQ responses as a function of sex, type of sport, and competitive level; and to explore the dynamics of change and stability of motivational regulation across the competitive season in a sample of 736 adolescent athletes involved in intensive training settings across 3 measurement points (beginning, middle, and end). Results provided evidence of a simplex structure of YBRSQ scores and revealed differences between self-determination-theory-based measures of motivation in various contexts. Results revealed partial strict temporal invariance of the YBRSQ and did not reveal differential item functioning. Finally, the results demonstrated an increase in amotivation and external regulation and a decrease in intrinsic motivation across the season, probably because of daily pressures.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Motivação , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Autonomia Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 40(4): 186-195, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157692

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal profiles of sport motivation using a 3-wave design (beginning, middle, and end of the season) among a sample of 736 adolescent athletes involved in intensive training centers. The authors explored whether several subgroups of athletes representing distinct motivation profiles emerged from the analyses and whether athletes reporting various scores of satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs (BPNS and BPNT) at time 1 (T1) belonged to distinct motivational profiles at T1, T2, and T3. Results of latent profile transition analyses showed 4 different profiles: highly self-determined, self-determined, moderate autonomous and controlled motivation, moderately self-determined (T1 and T2), and high autonomous and controlled motivation (T3) profiles. Moreover, the likelihood of belonging to particular profiles was significantly predicted by athletes' BPNS and BPNT scores assessed at T1. Thus, a motivational profile approach may prove useful in understanding sport motivation as a dynamic system.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Satisfação Pessoal , Adolescente , Feminino , França , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
8.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 37(4): 436-48, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26442773

RESUMO

This study examined (a) the developmental trajectories of athlete burnout perceptions, (b) the gender differences on these trajectories, and (c) the interactions in the developmental trajectories of the three burnout dimensions. A five-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 895 athletes (47.6% female; Mage = .67). Results of multilevel growth models revealed that during adolescence, "reduced sense of accomplishment" linearly decreased and was higher for girls than boys. Moreover, "emotional/physical exhaustion" increased then decreased, and seemed to have been attenuated at time points in which athletes also had higher levels of "sport devaluation." Finally, "sport devaluation" increased over time with higher increases for girls than boys. Results of our study depicted the general and the gendered shape of the trajectory of burnout perceptions during adolescence, and underlined the advantages of considering the multifaceted nature of burnout to enable a deeper examination of the within-person synergies in the development of the three dimensions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Atletas/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
9.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 37(2): 117-26, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25996103

RESUMO

Using self-determination theory as the framework, we examined the temporal ordering between satisfaction and thwarting of basic psychological needs and motivation. We accomplished this goal by using a two-wave 7-month partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM) among a sample of 94 adolescent athletes (Mage = 15.96) in an intensive training setting. The PLS-PM results showed significant paths leading: (a) from T1 satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence to T2 identified regulation, (b) from T1 external regulation to T2 thwarting and satisfaction of basic psychological need for competence, and (c) from T1 amotivation to T2 satisfaction of basic psychological need for relatedness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between basic psychological need and motivation varied depending on the type of basic need and motivation assessed. Basic psychological need for competence predicted identified regulation over time whereas amotivation and external regulation predicted basic psychological need for relatedness or competence over time.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoeficácia , Esportes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Sports Sci ; 32(17): 1648-58, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24802802

RESUMO

Using self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum) as the theoretical framework, we conducted a longitudinal investigation of the temporal ordering between motivation and burnout among youth athletes in intensive training setting. Data were collected from 145 table tennis players in intensive training centres at three time points during a 2-month period characterised by a simultaneous increase in social, physical and psychological demands for these athletes. Structural equation modelling of cross-lagged panel models was used to test the hypotheses. Results showed significant paths leading from athlete burnout - especially sport devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment - at time 1 to amotivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivations at times 2 and 3. Only two significant paths leading from motivation (introjected regulation at time 1) to burnout (emotional/physical exhaustion at time 2 and reduced sense of accomplishment at time 3) were identified. Overall, our results suggest that athlete burnout predicts motivation over time but motivation did not predict athlete burnout over time. Results are discussed in terms of current research findings on SDT.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional , Motivação , Esportes/psicologia , Logro , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tênis
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