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Meat Sci ; 160: 107975, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669863


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacement maniçoba hay by spineless cactus on the performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of confined lambs. Thirty-two male lambs, with an average body weight of 20.8 ±â€¯2.9 kg, were fed with different levels of spineless cactus in replacement for 0, 33, 66 or 100% of maniçoba hay (i.e. 0, 200, 400, 600 g kg-1 of dietary DM). The replacement maniçoba hay by spineless cactus did not influence dry matter intake (g d-1) and cold carcass weight (P > .05), but increased (P < .05) the carcass finishing fat but did not influence (P < .05) the physical characteristics of the lambs' meat. Lower values for odor, flavor and purchase intention of meat were observed with 66% of replacement. Therefore, replacement of 33% maniçoba hay by spineless cactus can be recommended as optimal level, because it improve the fattening of the carcass, without causing negative effects on performance or meat quality.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848832


The histomorphometric parameters of the fore-stomach epithelium of lambs fed with spineless cactus genotypes resistant to Dactylopius sp. were evaluated. Thirty-two lambs (23.0 ± 2.06 kg body weight) were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replications. The treatments consisted of the base diet and diets in which part of the elephant grass hay and all ground corn was replaced by the Miúda, IPA-Sertânia, or Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (OEM) spineless cacti. The keratin layers of the ruminal epithelium of the animals consuming the spineless cacti Miúda and OEM presented greater thickening relative to the control diet: 47.31, 41.30, and 25.81 µm, respectively. The heights of the ruminal papillae were higher in the animals that were fed with the OEM spineless cactus. The Miúda spineless cactus caused an enlargement in the keratinized layer of the reticulum epithelium, as well as a decrease in the thickness of the non-keratinized layers. The diet containing OEM spineless cactus resulted in greater thickening of the keratin layer of the omasal epithelium and decreased thickness of the non-keratinized layers. The spineless cacti Miúda and OEM changed the morphology of the fore-stomach epithelium and increased the dry matter intake and weight gain of lambs.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; : 1882-1888, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011007


Objective: An experiment was conducted to the effects of increasing levels of crude glycerin (0, 6, 12 and 18%) used as a substitute for corn in lamb feed on the quantitative characteristics of the carcass. Methods: A total of 40 crossbred Santa Inês lambs that were four months old with a mean initial weight of 21.0 ± 0.8 kg were randomly distributed in four treatments with ten replicates. The animals were slaughtered after 66 days of confinement. The effects of crude glycerin as a replacement for corn in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield and carcass measurements were studied. Results: There was an increasing linear effect for body weight at slaughter with the replacement of corn by crude glycerin. The dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes, weight of the empty body, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight showed a quadratic effect, with maximum crude glycerin levels estimated at 10.9, 9.8, 10.83, 11.78 and 11.35%, respectively. The initial pH was not influenced by the substitution of corn for crude glycerin, while the final pH presented a quadratic effect. The other parameters of the carcass and the weights and yields of commercial cuts were not influenced. There was also no effect of the diets on carcass morphometric measurements, except for the thoracic perimeter and the carcass compactness index, which presented quadratic and linear effects, respectively. Conclusion: Crude glycerin can replace up to 18% of corn because favour the muscle tissue deposition without promoting changes in the main carcass characteristics of lambs.

Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(6): 1717-1723, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919319


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the substitution of Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon spp.) with spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera) on the intake, digestibility of nutrients and ingestive behaviour of sheep. Eight rumen-cannulated sheep were used, with an average body weight of 58.44 ± 13.5 kg. The treatments consisted of the replacement of Tifton 85 hay with cactus at levels of 0, 333, 666 and 1000 g/kg. Samples of food and leftovers were collected at the beginning of each trial period. Digestibility was estimated using indigestible acid detergent fibre. Ingestive behaviour was evaluated via scan sampling. The replacement of Tifton 85 hay with spineless cactus had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the intake and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and non-fibre carbohydrates. The rumination efficiency of neutral detergent fibre was not affected (P > 0.05) by the substitution of Tifton 85 hay with spineless cactus. However, plasma glucose, phosphorus and magnesium were linearly influenced by Tifton 85 hay replacement with spineless cactus. Therefore, spineless cactus can be used to replace up to 500 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay in complete diets for sheep.

Ração Animal/análise , Cactaceae , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Rúmen/metabolismo
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(8): 1807-1814, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804283


This aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, blood parameters, and performance of lambs fed two roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratios, with or without liquid residue of cassava (LRC). Forty lambs (19.5 ± 1.45 kg body weight) were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design. The intake of dry matter (1311 g/day) and total digestible nutrients (755 g/day), and the intake (172 g/day) and digestibility (552 g/kg) of crude protein were higher for lambs fed R:C of 40:60. The R:C ratio of 80:20 promoted a higher intake (585 g/day) and digestibility (461 g/kg) of neutral detergent fiber. There was an intake of LRC of 1.37 L/day for lambs fed R:C of 80:20 and 0.42 L/day for lambs fed R:C of 40:60. The lambs fed R:C of 80:20 spent more time in feeding (326 m/day) and rumination (530 m/day). The metabolic profile and performance of lambs were not affected by LRC inclusion. The body weight gain (220 g/day) was higher in lambs fed R:C of 40:60. A roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60 is recommended for lambs because it resulted in the best performance, regardless of supplementation with liquid residue of cassava.

Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Fibras na Dieta , Manihot/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Comportamento Alimentar , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Verduras , Ganho de Peso
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(2): 309-315, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963649


The effects of corn replacement by cassava dreg in diets of crossbred goat kids were evaluated. We tested the impacts of 0, 33, 66 and 100% replacement on intake, digestibility, feeding behaviour, performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-six goat kids, aged between 4 and 5 months and with initial body weights of 17.61 ± 1.98 kg, were used in a completely randomised design. Analysis of regression revealed a negative linear effect on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake and a positive linear effect on non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and hydrocyanic acids (HCN) intake. Cassava dreg use had a positive linear effect on organic matter digestibility and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Based on our results, cassava dreg use did not negatively impact animal performance, feeding behaviour and carcass characteristics, suggesting that it may replace corn up to 100% in the diets of confined goat kids.

Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Cabras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manihot , Zea mays , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Masculino , Manihot/química , Zea mays/química
Rev. colomb. cienc. pecu ; 29(3): 178-187, jul.-set. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-959971


Summary Background: the high volume of mangos harvested during the season, associated with inappropriate management of the fruit after harvesting results in increased waste of this valuable resource. Mango fruit, rich in carbohydrates, has potential use in animal feeding. Objective: to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with whole mango meal (0, 330, 660, and 1000 g/Kg on dry matter basis) in the diets of dairy goats on rumen fermentation kinetics, intake, milk yield and composition, and economic results. Methods: eight lactating Saanen crossbred goats (48.7 ± 1.99 Kg body weight) were used in the experiment, which started 48 days postpartum and lasted until completing 124 days of lactation. The experimental design consisted of a double Latin square (4×4) with four treatments, four periods and four animals per square. Results: a reduction (p<0.05) was observed in gas production from total carbohydrates and fiber carbohydrates. Replacement of corn with whole mango meal showed no effect on DM intake (1,890 g/d), crude protein (278 g/d) and neutraldetergent fiber (959 g/d). Milk production (4% fat-corrected) and milk composition were not affected by the treatments, except for fat and myristoleic fatty acid contents. The economic evaluation showed a reduction in the total feeding cost and a better benefit:cost ratio. Conclusion: whole mango meal can replace corn up to 330 g/Kg in the diet of lactating goats.

Resumen Antecedentes: la alta producción de mango asociado con una gestión inadecuada durante la producción y pos-cosecha, resulta en un aumento de los residuos en el medio ambiente. Debido a que el mango es una fruta rica en carbohidratos (fuente de energía) es posible su utilización en la alimentación de los animales. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la sustitución de maíz con harina integral de mango (0, 330, 660 y 1000 g/Kg en base a materia seca) en las dietas de cabras lecheras sobre la cinética de fermentación ruminal, consumo, producción y composición láctea y evaluación económica de las dietas. Métodos: ocho cabras Saanen mestizas en lactación (48,7 ± 1,99 Kg de peso corporal) fueron utilizadas en el experimento desde el día 48 hasta el día 124 de lactancia. Se utilizó un diseño experimental doble cuadrado latino (4×4) con cuatro tratamientos, cuatro períodos y cuatro animales. Resultados: se observó una reducción (p<0,05) en la producción y volumen de gas de los carbohidratos totales y carbohidratos fibrosos. La sustitución de maíz con harina de mango integral no mostró ningún efecto sobre el consumo de materia seca (1890 g/d), proteína bruta (278 g/d) y fibra detergente neutra (959 g/d). La producción de leche (corregida al 4% de grasa) y su composición no fueron afectadas por los tratamientos, excepto para el contenido de grasa y ácido graso miristoleico. La evaluación económica mostró una reducción en el costo total de la alimentación y una mejor relación costo:beneficio. Conclusión: se recomienda sustituir el maíz por la harina de mango integral en hasta 330 g/Kg en las dietas de cabras lecheras.

Resumo Antecedentes: a elevada produção de manga associada a um manejo inadequado durante a produção e pós- colheita, resulta em aumento de resíduos no ambiente. Por ser uma fruta rica em carboidratos (fonte de energia) é possível a sua utilização na alimentação animal. Objetivo: avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pelo farelo de manga integral (0, 330, 660 e 1000 g/Kg na matéria seca) na dieta de cabras leiteiras sobre a cinética de fermentação ruminal, consumo, produção e composição do leite, e também avaliação econômica das dietas. Métodos: oito cabras mestiças Saanen em lactação (48,7 ± 1,99 Kg de peso corporal) foram introduzidas no experimento 48 dias pós-parto e mantidas até 124 dias de lactação. Foi utilizado um delineamento em duplo quadrado Latino (4×4), com quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos e quatro animais por quadrado. Resultados: houve redução (p<0,05) na produção máxima de gás a partir dos carboidratos totais e o volume de gás produzido a partir de carboidratos fibrosos. A substituição do milho pelo farelo de manga integral não mostrou nenhum efeito sobre o consumo de matéria seca (1890 g/d), proteína bruta (278 g/d) e fibra em detergente neutro (959 g/d). A produção de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura e a composição do leite não foram afetadas pelos tratamentos, com exceção do teor de gordura e o ácido graxo miristoleico. A avaliação econômica mostrou uma redução no custo total da alimentação e uma melhor relação custo:benefício. Conclusão: recomenda-se substituir o milho pelo farelo de manga integral até 330 g/Kg na dieta de cabras leiteiras.

Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 322-328, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-787564


Objetivou-se avaliar balanço hídrico e excreção renal de metabólitos em borregos sem raça definida, alimentados com diferentes quantidades de palma forrageira (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck), na forma in natura e em farelo. Foram utilizados 20 borregos, com peso vivo médio inicial de 20 Kg e foram distribuídos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As dietas experimentais consistiram em uma dieta controle à base de feno de tífton, farelo de soja, suplemento mineral e calcário, os demais tratamentos visaram testar níveis diferentes de palma forrageira corrigida com ureia em duas formas: in natura e farelada e em dois níveis de substituição (50 e 100%) da matéria seca do feno de tífton. Amostras de sangue e urina foram coletadas para determinação de diferentes metabólitos e minerais e utilização de equações para obtenção dos índices de excreção urinária destes metabólitos, taxa de depuração endógena de creatinina e reabsorção de água livre de eletrólitos, além do registro de ingestão de água e volume de urina. A ingestão voluntária de água sofreu influência das dietas, sendo que os animais submetidos às dietas contendo farelo de palma e feno e farelo de palma foram superiores aos demais tratamentos. A ingestão de água via alimentos também sofreu influência da dieta, sendo maior nos animais que receberam palma in natura e farelo mais palma in natura. Com relação à ingestão total de água foi maior para os animais alimentados com dietas contendo palma in natura em relação aos demais tratamentos. As dietas experimentais influenciaram na excreção renal de metabólitos derivados purínicos e minerais, sem alterar a função renal. A presença da palma forrageira tanto na condição de farelo como in natura proporciona aumento do volume urinário sem alterar a função renal, além de que deve ser considerado como uma excelente estratégia alimentar no semiárido.

This study aimed to assess fluid balance and renal excretion of metabolites in lambs without defined breed standard, fed different forage cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck), in natura and bran. 20 lambs were used, with initial body weight of 20 kg and were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and four repetitions. The experimental diets consisted of a control diet based on Bermuda grass hay, soybean meal, limestone and mineral supplement, other treatments aimed at testing different levels of cactus pear plus urea in two forms: fresh and mash and two levels of substitution (50 and 100%) of dry matter of hay. Blood and urine samples were collected for determination of different metabolites and minerals and use of equations to determine the rates of urinary excretion of these metabolites, rate of endogenous creatinine clearance and electrolyte reabsorption of free water, in addition to recording of water intake and urine volume. The voluntary water intake was influenced by the diets, and the animals subjected to diets containing soybean meal and hay palm and cactus meal were higher than other treatments. Water intake via food was also influenced by diet, being higher in animals fed palm fresh and bran over palm in nature. With respect to total water intake was greater for cows fed diets containing palm in nature compared to the other treatments. The experimental diets influenced the renal excretion of purine metabolites and minerals derived, without changing renal function. The presence of cactus pear both as bran as in nature provides increased urine volume without changing renal function, and to be considered as an excellent food strategy in semiarid.

Animais , Balanço Hídrico/análise , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Eliminação Renal , Rim/fisiologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais na Dieta/análise