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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246455, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278524

RESUMO

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Resumo A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246455, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161463

RESUMO

The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Assuntos
Annona , Annonaceae , Annona/genética , Brasil , Frutas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/genética
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 133-141, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089302

RESUMO

Abstract Beauveria bassiana is a promising fungus for the biological control of insect pests. The growing costs of conidia production have raised the need to ascertain the efficiency of some low cost substrates. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential use of different raw substrates without nutritional supplement for B. bassiana conidiogenesis. Growth and sporulation were evaluated using 30 g of substrate and 0.3 μL of a conidia suspension (1 x 106 conidia/mL). After 10 days of incubation (70 ± 10% humidity and temperature (T) = 29 ± 1 °C), rice (2.00 x 106 conidia/g substrate), algaroba (2.36 x 106 conidia/g), malt A (1.22 x 106 conidia/g) and malt B (1.75 x 106 conidia/g) showed the highest levels of conidia production. The resulting conidia showed insecticidal activity higher than 80% on coconut termites. These new raw substrates may represent viable alternatives for the production of entomopathogenic fungi for use in the biological control of various insect pests.


Resumo Beauveria bassiana é um fungo promissor no controle biológico de insetos-praga. As crescentes despesas na produção de conídios levantam a necessidade de averiguar a eficiência de alguns substratos de baixo custo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o potencial de utilização de diferentes substratos brutos para a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O crescimento e esporulação foram realizados utilizando 30 g do substrato e 0,3 µL da suspensão de conídios (1 x 106 conídios/mL). Após 10 dias de incubação (umidade 70 ± 10% e temperatura T = 29 ± 1° C), o arroz (2,00 x 106 conídios/g de substrato), algaroba (2,36 x 106 conídios/g), malte A (1,22 x 106 conídios/g) e B (1,75 x 106 conídios/g), apresentaram maior produção de conídios. Os conídios produzidos mostraram atividade inseticida sobre o cupim do coqueiro acima de 80% de mortalidade. Estes novos substratos brutos podem representar uma alternativa viável para produção de fungos entomopatogênicos para uso no controle biológico de vários insetos praga.


Assuntos
Fungos Mitospóricos , Beauveria , Esporos Fúngicos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Umidade
4.
Braz J Biol ; 80(1): 133-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017241

RESUMO

Beauveria bassiana is a promising fungus for the biological control of insect pests. The growing costs of conidia production have raised the need to ascertain the efficiency of some low cost substrates. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential use of different raw substrates without nutritional supplement for B. bassiana conidiogenesis. Growth and sporulation were evaluated using 30 g of substrate and 0.3 µL of a conidia suspension (1 x 106 conidia/mL). After 10 days of incubation (70 ± 10% humidity and temperature (T) = 29 ± 1 °C), rice (2.00 x 106 conidia/g substrate), algaroba (2.36 x 106 conidia/g), malt A (1.22 x 106 conidia/g) and malt B (1.75 x 106 conidia/g) showed the highest levels of conidia production. The resulting conidia showed insecticidal activity higher than 80% on coconut termites. These new raw substrates may represent viable alternatives for the production of entomopathogenic fungi for use in the biological control of various insect pests.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Fungos Mitospóricos , Umidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Esporos Fúngicos
5.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(3)2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973748

RESUMO

Selection indices commonly utilize economic weights, which become arbitrary genetic gains. In popcorn, this is even more evident due to the negative correlation between the main characteristics of economic importance - grain yield and popping expansion. As an option in the use of classical biometrics as a selection index, the optimal procedure restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased predictor (REML/BLUP) allows the simultaneous estimation of genetic parameters and the prediction of genotypic values. Based on the mixed model methodology, the objective of this study was to investigate the comparative efficiency of eight selection indices estimated by REML/BLUP for the effective selection of superior popcorn families in the eighth intrapopulation recurrent selection cycle. We also investigated the efficiency of the inclusion of the variable "expanded popcorn volume per hectare" in the most advantageous selection of superior progenies. In total, 200 full-sib families were evaluated in two different areas in the North and Northwest regions of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The REML/BLUP procedure resulted in higher estimated gains than those obtained with classical biometric selection index methodologies and should be incorporated into the selection of progenies. The following indices resulted in higher gains in the characteristics of greatest economic importance: the classical selection index/values attributed by trial, via REML/BLUP, and the greatest genotypic values/expanded popcorn volume per hectare, via REML. The expanded popcorn volume per hectare characteristic enabled satisfactory gains in grain yield and popping expansion; this characteristic should be considered super-trait in popcorn breeding programs.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética , Seleção Artificial , Zea mays/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Genéticos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(3)2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973751

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the genetic control and to estimate the general and specific combining abilities of popcorn for agronomic attributes and attributes related to resistance to northern leaf blight (NLB). The 56 hybrids (F1 and reciprocals), together with the eight parent lines and six controls, were evaluated in two harvests, in a randomized-block design with four replications. Dominance components were more expressive than the additive components for grain yield and expression of resistance, and hybridization was the most suitable option for obtaining resistant and productive genotypes. For grain yield, popping expansion, and resistance to NLB, there was no significance for reciprocal effects, which indicates that the direction in which the cross is performed does not interfere with the hybrid's performance. Then, the superior hybrids recommended for more profitable growth were P8 x L61, L61 x L76, and L61 x L77.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genótipo , Seleção Artificial , Zea mays/genética , Helminthosporium/patogenicidade , Hibridização Genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Zea mays/imunologia , Zea mays/microbiologia
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 145(1): 11-7, 2013 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23123264

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Remirea maritima Aubl., popularly known as "capim-da-praia", is popularly employed in the treatment of diarrhea, kidney disease, fever, and for analgesic and anti-inflammatory purposes through the preparation of teas. Few studies have focused on the chemical composition and its biological properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work evaluated the antinocipetive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract from Remirea maritima Aubl. as well as the isolation and identification of the chemical compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Compounds were isolated from aqueous extract of Remirea maritima through preparative HPLC and the structures were identified by means of NMR and MS analysis. The tests for antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, along with motor coordination test (Rota rod), were performed over the aqueous extract. RESULTS: The phytochemical investigation of aqueous extract of Remirea maritima resulted in the isolation of three flavone glycosides. The structures of these compounds were determined by means of MS and 1D and 2D NMR data as vitexin-2″-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, isovitexin-2″-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide. Acute pretreatment with aqueous extract (100, 200 or 400mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the number of abdominal writhes. In the formalin test, higher doses significantly inhibited the late (inflammatory pain) phase of formalin-induced licking (p<0.05 or 0.001). In the hot plate test, there was no significant difference in nociceptive behavior, discarding the possible central effect of the aqueous extract. In the rota rod test, it was verified that the aqueous extract in all concentration evaluated does not alter the motor coordination of mice, such antinociceptive results were unlikely to be caused by motor abnormality. In the peritonitis test, induced by carrageenan, the treatment with aqueous extract produced a significant reduction in leukocyte migration in all concentration evaluated. Additionally, a significant reduction of lipoperoxidation (TBARS test) and in nitric oxide formation (.NO Scavenging assay) was observed in antioxidant activity assay. CONCLUSION: The biological and phytochemical investigations of the aqueous extract of Remirea maritima resulted in the identification of three flavone glycosides that have been described here for the first time in Remirea and effective analgesic activity in various pain models, probably mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators which could be related to its strong antioxidant effect observed in vitro.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carragenina , Cyperaceae/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod/métodos
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 151(3): 277-83, 2011 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21978657

RESUMO

Twenty-three Bacillus cereus isolates from food poisoning outbreaks associated with a diarrheal-type syndrome, fourteen foodborne isolates not associated with food poisoning and fifteen isolates from Brazilian soil samples were analyzed for the presence and genetic diversity (by RE-PCR) of the virulence genes ces (emetic toxin, cereulide), plcR-papR (pleiotropic regulator PlcR and peptide PapR), nheA (a component of the NHE complex), bceT (diarrheal enterotoxin bc-D-ENT), gyrB (B subunit of DNA gyrase), cytK-2 (necrotic enterotoxin cytotoxin K-2), and plcA (phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C). Additionally, these isolates were phenotypically characterized for motility, hemolytic and lecithinase activities, as well as HBL enterotoxin production. The group of isolates associated with food poisoning had the highest occurrence of the phenotypically analyzed factors and the most frequent occurrence and highest genetic diversity of the plcR-papR, nheA, bceT, cytK-2, plcA, and gyrB genes. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), in which all loci were analyzed, demonstrated that the genetic variation intragroup of isolates (92%) was significantly higher than that intergroup (8%) (P<0.05). These results were corroborated by an analysis of the genetic differentiation between the groups, which was low/moderate, the result of a high degree of allele sharing. Our results suggest that B. cereus isolates with the potential to cause food poisoning outbreaks do not have a specific genetic profile characterized by the presence of a particular gene or allele among the genes assessed. On the contrary, different combinations of genes encoding virulence factors may be present in different isolates of B. cereus that potentially cause food poisoning outbreaks.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bacillus cereus/química , Bacillus cereus/genética , Bacillus cereus/patogenicidade , Brasil , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/metabolismo , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Enterotoxinas/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
9.
Phytother Res ; 25(8): 1236-41, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21674632

RESUMO

In this study, we describe the antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract (EE), chloroform (CF) and methanol (MF) fractions obtained from Sida cordifolia, popularly known in Brazil as "malva branca" or "malva branca sedosa". Leaves of S. cordifolia were used to produce the crude ethanol extract and after CF and MF. Experiments were conducted on Swiss mice using the glutamate and formalin-induced orofacial nociception. In the formalin test, all doses of EE, CF and MF significantly reduced the orofacial nociception in the first (p < 0.001) and second phase (p < 0.001), which was also naloxone-sensitive. In the glutamate-induced nociception test, only CF and MF significantly reduced the orofacial nociceptive behavior with inhibition percentage values of 48.1% (100 mg/kg, CF), 56.1% (200 mg/kg, CF), 66.4% (400 mg/kg, CF), 48.2 (200 mg/kg, MF) and 60.1 (400 mg/kg, MF). Furthermore, treatment of the animals with EE, CF and MF was not able to promote motor activity changes. These data demonstrate that S. cordifolia has a pronounced antinociceptive activity on orofacial nociception. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are necessary in order to characterize the responsible mechanisms for this antinociceptive action and also to identify other bioactive compounds present in S. cordifolia.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Dor Facial/tratamento farmacológico , Malvaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta/química
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