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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 26(2): 123-128, 2017 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746441

RESUMO

In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA), state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST) or Conventional Treatment (CT). In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (%) of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG) ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05) between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5%) and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%). The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41) and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81) in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/terapia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/economia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 123-128, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-899278

RESUMO

Abstract In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA), state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST) or Conventional Treatment (CT). In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (%) of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG) ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05) between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5%) and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%). The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41) and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81) in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.


Resumo Na Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Federal de Lavras (FE-UFLA), Minas Gerais, Brasil, no dia do nascimento, bezerras da raça holandesa foram sorteadas de forma aleatória para compor um dos dois grupos, formados por 15 animais cada: Tratamento Estratégico-Seletivo (TE-S) ou Tratamento Convencional (TC). No TE-S, as bezerras foram tratadas após exames coproparasitológicos de acordo com critérios previamente estabelecidos pelos pesquisadores. No TC, as bezerras foram tratadas conforme orientação do veterinário da FE-UFLA. Em ambos grupos, as bezerras foram monitoradas a cada 14 dias, do nascimento até os 12 meses de idade, por meio de exames coproparasitológicos. Para análise estatística, considerou-se a frequência (%) de amostras fecais com contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) ≥300, contagem de oocistos por grama de fezes (OoPG) ≥500, e amostras fecais com contagem de cistos de Giardia spp. ≥1. A frequência média global de amostras fecais com contagem de OPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 e cistos de Giardia spp. ≥1, respectivamente, foi similar (p >0,05) entre TE-S (20,3%; 17,3%; e 31,5%) e TC (26,4%; 23,9%; e 37,3%). O custo operacional efetivo, por animal, em 12 meses, foi R$ 784,58 (US$ 241.40) e R$ 83,90 (US$ 25.81) para TE-S e TC, respectivamente. O TE-S necessita de ajustes para que possa ser indicado como uma alternativa, tecnicamente eficiente e economicamente viável, no controle das parasitoses gastrointestinais em bezerras leiteiras.

3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 25(2): 142-50, 2016 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334814

RESUMO

The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%); and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%), 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8%) and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%), respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4%) were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2%) for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8%) for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE). The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Neospora , Sarcocystis , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(2): 142-150, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-785162

RESUMO

Abstract The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%); and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%), 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8%) and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%), respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4%) were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2%) for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8%) for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE). The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections.


Resumo Este estudo determinou, pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), a soroprevalência de Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora spp., e avaliou as variáveis associadas com a infecção, em 506 equinos, aparentemente sadios, criados no Sul de Minas, Brasil. O estudo foi realizado no período de abril de 2012 a outubro de 2013. Entre equinos, a prevalência verdadeira para S. neurona foi de 26% (IC 95%= 22,0-30,4%); para T. gondii de 19,9% (IC 95%= 15,5-24,8%); e para Neospora spp. de 23,9% (IC 95%= 19,9-28,1%); e entre propriedades, 88,3% (IC 95%= 74,4-91,6%), 71,6% (IC 95% = 41-92,8%), e 85% (IC 95%= 70,7-96,1%), respectivamente. Em relação à infecção mista, 17 (3,4%) equinos foram soropositivos para S. neurona e T. gondii, 16 (3,2%) para T. gondii e Neospora spp., e 14 (2,8%) para S. neurona e Neospora spp. A associação entre soropositividade e variáveis relacionadas à estrutura da propriedade, manejo e sanidade, foi analisada, utilizando-se a análise de regressão logística estimada por Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Os resultados sugerem que o Sul de Minas é área enzoótica para S. neurona, T. gondii e Neospora spp. em equinos, com predomínio de infecções subclínicas ou crônicas, assintomáticas.

5.
Res Vet Sci ; 94(3): 584-6, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23200513

RESUMO

This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in serum samples from 667 goats, collected from 90 herds in 90 municipalities in eight of the twelve mesoregions of Minas Gerais State. The presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies was determined by IFAT with a cut-off value of 1:50. The true herd-level seroprevalence in the entire study area was 75.2% (CI 95%: 59.5-90.9%). The true individual-level seroprevalence in the entire study area was 10.7% (CI 95%: 8.3-13.4%) with titers ranging from 50 (50.5%) to 3200 (1.7%). The serological evidence from this study indicated that N. caninum infection is widely distributed among goat-rearing herds in Minas Gerais and further studies are needed in order to evaluate the impact of this parasite as a cause of reproductive disorders.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Neospora , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 45(5): 1093-8, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23212838

RESUMO

Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by Neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular cyst-forming protozoan considered a major cause of miscarriage in dairy cattle in many parts of the world. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity to N. caninum in 1,204 dairy cows from 40 farms located in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Producers were interviewed, and blood samples were collected to perform indirect immunofluorescence tests (IFAT 1:200). Association between reproductive abnormalities and seropositivity in cattle was evaluated with generalized estimating equations. The true herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum was 95 % (83.3-99.1), while the individual-level true seroprevalence was 21.6 % (19.2-24.2). Several reproductive abnormalities were significantly associated with seropositivity to N. caninum: occurrence of repeated estrus (p=0.02; OR=3.84; 95 % CI=1.239-11.893), repeated miscarriages (p=0.001; OR=2.54; 95 % CI=1.423-5.402), and temporary anestrus (p=0.001; OR=3.44; 95 % CI=1.976-5.994). Furthermore, loose dogs (p=0.041; OR=2.20; 95 % CI=1.033-4.672) when fed raw meat (p=0.001; OR=1.91; 95 % CI=1.443-2.519) are risk factors for N. caninum infection. We observed that seropositivity to N. caninum in cattle increases risk of miscarriage by almost twice throughout the reproductive life of cows (p=0.004; OR=1.978; 95 % CI=1.249-3.131). Serologic evidence in this study indicates that N. caninum infection is widely distributed among dairy herds and significantly associated with reproductive disorders, especially miscarriage, repeated estrus, and temporary anestrus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Anestro , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Indústria de Laticínios , Cães/fisiologia , Estro , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Modelos Logísticos , Carne , Neospora/imunologia , Prevalência , Reprodução , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 21(3): 224-31, 2012 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23070431

RESUMO

Milk producers in Lavras, Passos and Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, were interviewed with the aim of evaluating their perceptions and attitudes regarding control over Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Multivariate correlation between the variables was done by means of principal component analysis. The producers' perceptions and attitudes regarding R. (B.) microplus were similar: most of them did not have any basic knowledge of tick biology or control, and they applied acaricide products through backpack spraying, without any defined technical criteria. Some of the results obtained were: I. a negative correlation between schooling level and the frequency of spraying cattle with acaricides; II. a positive correlation between milk production, quality of equipment for acaricide application and technological level of the farm; III. farm properties with greater production and technification tended to keep the intervals between acaricide applications constant over the course of the year. After applying principal component analysis, a positive correlation was observed between schooling level, technological level of the farm and perceptions regarding R. (B.) microplus, but without any correlation with attitudes towards controlling this tick. It was concluded that higher technological level and schooling level improved the producers' perceptions relating to the biology of the tick R. (B.) microplus, but did not achieve effectiveness with regard to using controls more rationally.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Indústria de Laticínios , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Análise de Componente Principal , Rhipicephalus , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Feminino , Leite
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 21(3): 294-7, 2012 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23070443

RESUMO

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the rate of vertical transmission and to investigate horizontal transmission of Neospora caninum and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in seropositive dairy cows on two farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The frequency of cows seropositive for N.caninum according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was 39.4% (93/236) for Farm A and 31.4% (32/102) for the Farm B (p > 0.05). The mean vertical transmission rates for N. caninum were 29% and 9% for the herds of Farms A and B, respectively. No negative effects (p > 0.05) from infection by N.caninum were observed regarding milk production and occurrences of reproductive abnormalities in herds A and B.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Coccidiose/veterinária , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Neospora , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Coccidiose/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 21(3): 224-231, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-653709

RESUMO

Milk producers in Lavras, Passos and Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, were interviewed with the aim of evaluating their perceptions and attitudes regarding control over Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Multivariate correlation between the variables was done by means of principal component analysis. The producers' perceptions and attitudes regarding R. (B.) microplus were similar: most of them did not have any basic knowledge of tick biology or control, and they applied acaricide products through backpack spraying, without any defined technical criteria. Some of the results obtained were: I. a negative correlation between schooling level and the frequency of spraying cattle with acaricides; II. a positive correlation between milk production, quality of equipment for acaricide application and technological level of the farm; III. farm properties with greater production and technification tended to keep the intervals between acaricide applications constant over the course of the year. After applying principal component analysis, a positive correlation was observed between schooling level, technological level of the farm and perceptions regarding R. (B.) microplus, but without any correlation with attitudes towards controlling this tick. It was concluded that higher technological level and schooling level improved the producers' perceptions relating to the biology of the tick R. (B.) microplus, but did not achieve effectiveness with regard to using controls more rationally.


Produtores de leite de Lavras, Passos e Divinópolis, MG, foram entrevistados com objetivo de avaliar sua percepção e atitude no controle do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. A análise da correlação multivariada entre as variáveis foi feita através de componentes principais (ACP). A percepção e atitude sobre o R. (B.) microplus foram semelhantes entre os produtores, sendo que a maioria deles não tem o conhecimento básico sobre a biologia e o controle desse carrapato, aplicando os produtos carrapaticidas por meio de bomba costal, e sem critérios técnicos definidos. Alguns resultados obtidos foram: I. correlação negativa entre escolaridade e frequência de aplicação de carrapaticidas bovinos; II. correlação positiva entre produção de leite, qualidade do equipamento para aplicação carrapaticida e nível tecnológico da fazenda; III. propriedades com maior produção e tecnificação tenderam a manter o intervalo de aplicação carrapaticida constante ao longo do ano. Após aplicação da ACP foi observada correlação positiva entre escolaridade, nível tecnológico da fazenda e percepção sobre o R. (B.) microplus, porém, sem correlação com a atitude no controle deste carrapato. Concluiu-se que o nível tecnológico e a escolaridade melhoram a percepção dos produtores sobre a biologia do carrapato R. (B.) microplus, mas não alcança efetivos na utilização do controle de forma mais racional.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Indústria de Laticínios , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Análise de Componente Principal , Rhipicephalus , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Brasil , Leite
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 21(2): 161-4, 2012 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22832759

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and risk factors associated with seropositivity in 240 dogs from rural areas of the Lavras, Belo Horizonte and Nanuque regions, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) with a cutoff of 50 was used to assess the frequency of seropositive dogs. The risk factor analysis was performed using the Chi-square test (χ2) and multiple logistic regression. The frequency of seropositivity for N. caninum was 15% of the dogs (36/240). Presence of dogs without defined breed (p = 0.018; OR = 5.9) and presence of cattle on the farm (p = 0.053, OR = 4.3) were associated with N. caninum seropositivity. Dogs in the Nanuque region had higher seropositivity for N. caninum (29.9%) than did those in the Lavras (6.2%) and Belo Horizonte (2.2%) regions (p < 0.05). The presence of seropositive dogs in rural areas of Minas Gerais demonstrates the potential risk of horizontal transmission of N. caninum to cattle, especially from dogs without defined breed, which were four times more likely to be seropositive than purebred dogs were.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cães/sangue , Neospora/imunologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Rural
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 21(2): 171-5, 2012 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22832761

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with infection by Eimeria spp. and gastrointestinal nematodes in 356 calves on 20 dairy farms located in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ten species of Eimeria spp. were identified, of which E. bovis (37.6%) and E. zuernii (17.9%) were the most frequent. From fecal cultures, four genera of gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered, of which Cooperia spp. (74.6%) and Haemonchus (19.4%) were the most frequent. Variables relating to higher levels of technology used on dairy farms showed a significant association (p < 0.05) with higher OPG and EPG counts, and are discussed in this study.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Eimeria , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 188(1-2): 168-71, 2012 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22475416

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with infection due to Neospora caninum in serum samples from 488 sheep originating from 63 farms in 63 municipalities distributed across eight of the twelve mesoregions of the state Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. For detection of N. caninum the sheep serum samples were subjected to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT ≥ 50). To identify the risk factors associated with infection due to N. caninum a questionnaire was filled out for each herd by interviewing, the individual responsible for the herd, demanding information on the general characteristics of the property. Sixty-four sheep sera (13.1%; 95% CI=10.3-16.4) presented IgG-specific anti-N. caninum antibodies with the following titers: 50 (49; 76.6%), 100 (7; 10.9%), 200 (4; 6.2%), 400 (3; 4.7%) and 800 (1; 1.6%). The prevalence of infected sheep per mesoregion ranged from 0 to 28.1%. Out of the 63 farms sampled, 31 (49.2%; 95% CI=36.4-62.1) presented at least one seropositive sheep. No significant association was found between the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies and the risk factors evaluated on the farms, except for the mesoregion variable (p=0.004; OR=0.429; CI95%=0.182-1.008). These results indicate that there is a need for additional research to define the epidemiological importance of this parasite as a cause of reproductive problems in sheep herds in Minas Gerais.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 20(4): 281-8, 2011 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22166381

RESUMO

Neosporosis is an important cause of abortion in cattle and information on their genetics and host parasite relationships are desirable. Neospora caninum samples obtained from 24 bovine fetuses from Minas Gerais, were genetically analyzed in part of the rDNA region, coding for rRNAs. Previously, brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, ovary or testis, uterus and skin of the ear were analyzed by conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Of these, eight had lesions compatible in the brain and heart and two also in skeletal muscle and liver. Three brains showed antigen identification in immunohistochemistry. Brain and heart tissues were subjected to DNA extraction for PCR, whose product of 588 bp of ITS-1 region was sequenced in three samples. We obtained 96% similarity with dozens of sequences N. caninum deposited in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree showed great conservation among isolates of N. caninum in this study and those deposited in GenBank, while well-defined and specific branches were generated against other Apicomplexa. PCR for this region is useful as a diagnosis, with good analytical specificity, but the ITS-1 region is not suitable for genetic differentiation intra species because the sequences obtained were identical to the others analyzed.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feto/parasitologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 20(4): 289-94, 2011 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22166382

RESUMO

One hundred semi-systematized interviews were applied with the aim of surveying the perceptions of milk producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais regarding the biology of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Content analysis was conducted on each of the variables surveyed and their descriptions, highlighting the higher frequencies in order to construct profiles of perceptions about each of the matters surveyed. In addition, each of the producers was categorized regarding their readiness to proceed with efficient control, from the assessment of their responses. Among the variables surveyed were the tick lifespan, duration of parasitic life, time of greatest incidence, survival in pastures and egg-laying volume. These questions are considered important for defining the knowledge needed for rational combat. It was concluded that the information needed for adopting effective practices to combat ticks was insufficient among the milk farm properties in Divinópolis. Moreover, the producers interviewed had a good perception of what they observed in their daily routine, but did not have complementary information about the tick life cycle.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rhipicephalus/fisiologia
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 20(4): 295-302, 2011 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22166383

RESUMO

Semi-systematized interviews were conducted with 100 dairy cattle producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, with the aim of ascertaining their perceptions regarding the importance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and of combating it. Content analysis was performed and the frequency distribution of each of the variables was used to construct profiles of the producers interviewed. The production losses caused by ticks were perceived incompletely by the producers, who were unaware of the pathogen transmission caused by the parasite and the indirect losses through combating it, such as the cost of acaricide and labor. The combat operations were performed in a traditional manner, with an excessive number of inefficient treatments that aimed to control the level of infestation at that moment. The quality of the acaricide dipping/spraying applied was affected by the quality of the equipment used to apply the products, lack of knowledge of the mode of action of these products, lack of the specific information needed and lack of motivation caused by unawareness of the disadvantages of chemical combat. It was concluded that the lack of knowledge about combat methods and the acceptance of endemicity of the parasitosis were impediments to changing the realities encountered.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Rhipicephalus , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 20(4): 303-7, 2011 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22166384

RESUMO

The frequency of species of the genus Eimeria in a dairy herd in the municipality of Boa Esperança, Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais was assessed. From 37 females of the Friesian breed aged three to seven months, 259 feces samples were analyzed between May and September 2008. The examinations to quantify oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and identify Eimeria species were conducted at the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras. Eleven species of Eimeria were identified, namely: E. bovis (23.2%), E. zuernii (22.6%), E. ellipsoidalis (20.3%), E. cylindrica (14.1%), E. subspherica (5.4%), E. canadensis (3.5%), E. alabamensis (2.4%), E. auburnensis (2.4%), E. pellita (2.1%), E. brasiliensis (2%) and E. bukidnonensis (1.9%). E. bovis, E. zuernii and E. ellipsoidalis were the most frequent and the ones with the highest oocyst shedding over time (p < 0.05). Differences in OPG counts were found between most months studied (p < 0.05). The large number of Eimeria species found, in particular E. bovis and E. zuernii, indicates that Eimeria sp. has significant pathogenic potential in dairy cattle in the South of Minas Gerais.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Desmame
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(4): 281-288, Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-609120

RESUMO

Neosporosis is an important cause of abortion in cattle and information on their genetics and host parasite relationships are desirable. Neospora caninum samples obtained from 24 bovine fetuses from Minas Gerais, were genetically analyzed in part of the rDNA region, coding for rRNAs. Previously, brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, ovary or testis, uterus and skin of the ear were analyzed by conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Of these, eight had lesions compatible in the brain and heart and two also in skeletal muscle and liver. Three brains showed antigen identification in immunohistochemistry. Brain and heart tissues were subjected to DNA extraction for PCR, whose product of 588 bp of ITS-1 region was sequenced in three samples. We obtained 96 percent similarity with dozens of sequences N. caninum deposited in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree showed great conservation among isolates of N. caninum in this study and those deposited in GenBank, while well-defined and specific branches were generated against other Apicomplexa. PCR for this region is useful as a diagnosis, with good analytical specificity, but the ITS-1 region is not suitable for genetic differentiation intra species because the sequences obtained were identical to the others analyzed.


A neosporose é uma importante causa de abortos em bovinos, e informações sobre sua genética e relação parasito-hospedeiro são desejáveis. Amostras de Neospora caninum, obtidas de 24 conceptos bovinos oriundos de Minas Gerais, foram analisadas geneticamente em parte da região rDNA, codificadora de rRNAs. Previamente, cérebro, coração, fígado, músculo esquelético, pulmão, rim, baço, timo, linfonodos, ovário ou testículo, útero e pele da orelha foram analisados por histopatologia convencional e imuno-histoquímica. Dessas, oito apresentaram lesões compatíveis no encéfalo e coração e dois também no músculo esquelético e fígado. Três cérebros apresentaram identificação antigênica na imuno-histoquímica. Tecidos cerebral e cardíaco foram submetidos a extração de DNA para PCR, cujo produto de 588 pb da região ITS-1 foi sequenciado em três amostras. Obteve-se similaridade de 96 por cento com dezenas de sequências de N. caninum depositadas no GenBank. A árvore filogenética mostrou grande conservação entre isolados de N. caninum deste estudo e aqueles depositadas no GenBank, enquanto ramos bem definidos e específicos foram gerados em relação a outros apicomplexa. A PCR para esta região é útil como diagnóstico, com boa especificidade analítica, mas a região ITS-1 não é apropriada para a diferenciação genética intraespécie, pois as sequências obtidas foram idênticas às demais analisadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feto/parasitologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Brasil
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(4): 289-294, Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-609121

RESUMO

One hundred semi-systematized interviews were applied with the aim of surveying the perceptions of milk producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais regarding the biology of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Content analysis was conducted on each of the variables surveyed and their descriptions, highlighting the higher frequencies in order to construct profiles of perceptions about each of the matters surveyed. In addition, each of the producers was categorized regarding their readiness to proceed with efficient control, from the assessment of their responses. Among the variables surveyed were the tick lifespan, duration of parasitic life, time of greatest incidence, survival in pastures and egg-laying volume. These questions are considered important for defining the knowledge needed for rational combat. It was concluded that the information needed for adopting effective practices to combat ticks was insufficient among the milk farm properties in Divinópolis. Moreover, the producers interviewed had a good perception of what they observed in their daily routine, but did not have complementary information about the tick life cycle.


Foram aplicadas 100 entrevistas semissistematizadas com o objetivo de levantar a percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre a biologia do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" de cada uma das variáveis levantadas e sua descrição com destaque das maiores frequências para a construção de perfis de percepção sobre cada um dos aspectos levantados. Além disso, cada um dos produtores foram categorizados quanto a estar ou não apto a proceder um controle eficiente pela avaliação de suas respostas. Algumas das variáveis levantadas foram tempo de vida do carrapato, tempo de vida parasitária, época de maior incidência, sobrevivência nas pastagens e volume de postura, questões consideradas importantes para se definir o conhecimento necessário a um combate racional. Concluiu-se que as informações necessárias à adoção de práticas efetivas de combate aos carrapatos são insuficientes nas propriedades de leite de Divinópolis e, ainda, que os produtores entrevistados têm boa percepção no que se observa no dia a dia e não têm informações complementares sobre o ciclo de vida dos carrapatos.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indústria de Laticínios , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Rhipicephalus , Brasil , Rhipicephalus/fisiologia
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(4): 295-302, Dec. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-609122

RESUMO

Semi-systematized interviews were conducted with 100 dairy cattle producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, with the aim of ascertaining their perceptions regarding the importance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and of combating it. Content analysis was performed and the frequency distribution of each of the variables was used to construct profiles of the producers interviewed. The production losses caused by ticks were perceived incompletely by the producers, who were unaware of the pathogen transmission caused by the parasite and the indirect losses through combating it, such as the cost of acaricide and labor. The combat operations were performed in a traditional manner, with an excessive number of inefficient treatments that aimed to control the level of infestation at that moment. The quality of the acaricide dipping/spraying applied was affected by the quality of the equipment used to apply the products, lack of knowledge of the mode of action of these products, lack of the specific information needed and lack of motivation caused by unawareness of the disadvantages of chemical combat. It was concluded that the lack of knowledge about combat methods and the acceptance of endemicity of the parasitosis were impediments to changing the realities encountered.


Entrevistas semissistematizadas foram aplicadas a 100 produtores de bovinos leiteiros do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de verificar a sua percepção sobre a importância de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus e seu combate. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" e a distribuição de frequência de cada uma das variáveis para a construção de perfis dos produtores entrevistados. Os prejuízos causados à produção pelo carrapato são percebidos de forma incompleta pelos produtores, que ignoram a transmissão de patógenos pelo parasito e as perdas indiretas pelo combate, como o custo do carrapaticida e da mão de obra. O combate era feito de maneira tradicional com número excessivo de tratamentos ineficientes, com o objetivo de controlar o nível da infestação naquele momento. A qualidade da aplicação do banho carrapaticida foi afetada pelo equipamento utilizado para aplicação dos produtos, pelo desconhecimento do modo de ação desses, pela falta de informações específicas necessárias e pela falta de motivação gerada no desconhecimento das desvantagens do combate químico. Conclui-se que a falta de conhecimento sobre modos de combate e a aceitação da endemicidade da parasitose impedem a mudança da realidade encontrada.


Assuntos
Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Rhipicephalus , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Brasil
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(4): 303-307, Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-609123

RESUMO

The frequency of species of the genus Eimeria in a dairy herd in the municipality of Boa Esperança, Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais was assessed. From 37 females of the Friesian breed aged three to seven months, 259 feces samples were analyzed between May and September 2008. The examinations to quantify oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and identify Eimeria species were conducted at the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras. Eleven species of Eimeria were identified, namely: E. bovis (23.2 percent), E. zuernii (22.6 percent), E. ellipsoidalis (20.3 percent), E. cylindrica (14.1 percent), E. subspherica (5.4 percent), E. canadensis (3.5 percent), E. alabamensis (2.4 percent), E. auburnensis (2.4 percent), E. pellita (2.1 percent), E. brasiliensis (2 percent) and E. bukidnonensis (1.9 percent). E. bovis, E. zuernii and E. ellipsoidalis were the most frequent and the ones with the highest oocyst shedding over time (p < 0.05). Differences in OPG counts were found between most months studied (p < 0.05). The large number of Eimeria species found, in particular E. bovis and E. zuernii, indicates that Eimeria sp. has significant pathogenic potential in dairy cattle in the South of Minas Gerais.


Avaliou-se a frequência das espécies do gênero Eimeria em um rebanho leiteiro, criado no município de Boa Esperança, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram analisadas 259 amostras de fezes de 37 fêmeas bovinas, da raça holandesa, com faixa etária compreendida entre três e sete meses, no período de maio a setembro de 2008. O exame para quantificar oocisto por grama de fezes (OPG) e identificação das espécies de Eimeria foi realizado no Laboratório de Parasitologia Veterinária da UFLA. Foram identificadas onze espécies de Eimeria, sendo elas: E. bovis (23,2 por cento), E. zuernii (22,6 por cento), E. ellipsoidalis (20,3 por cento), E. cylindrica (14,1 por cento), E. subspherica (5,4 por cento), E. canadensis (3,5 por cento), E. alabamensis (2,4 por cento), E. auburnensis (2,4 por cento), E. pellita (2,1 por cento), E. brasiliensis (2 por cento) e E. bukidnonensis, sendo E. bovis, E. zuernii e E. ellipsoidalis as mais frequentes e aquelas com maior número de oocistos eliminados ao longo do tempo (p < 0,05). Diferenças na contagem de OPG foram encontradas na maioria dos meses avaliados (p < 0,05). A grande quantidade de espécies de Eimeria encontradas, em especial E. bovis e E. zuernii, indicam um importante potencial patogênico da Eimeria sp. em gado leiteiro no Sul de Minas Gerais.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Indústria de Laticínios , Estações do Ano , Desmame
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