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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621787
2.
Bernoche, Claudia; Timerman, Sergio; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi; Giannetti, Natali Schiavo; Siqueira, Adailson Wagner da Silva; Piscopo, Agnaldo; Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Reis, Amélia Gorete Afonso da Costa; Tanaka, Ana Cristina Sayuri; Thomaz, Ana Maria; Quilici, Ana Paula; Catarino, Andrei Hilário; Ribeiro, Anna Christina de Lima; Barreto, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Azevedo Filho, Antonio Fernando Barros de; Pazin Filho, Antonio; Timerman, Ari; Scarpa, Bruna Romanelli; Timerman, Bruno; Tavares, Caio de Assis Moura; Martins, Cantidio Soares Lemos; Serrano Junior, Carlos Vicente; Malaque, Ceila Maria Sant'Ana; Pisani, Cristiano Faria; Batista, Daniel Valente; Leandro, Daniela Luana Fernandes; Szpilman, David; Gonçalves, Diego Manoel; Paiva, Edison Ferreira de; Osawa, Eduardo Atsushi; Lima, Eduardo Gomes; Adam, Eduardo Leal; Peixoto, Elaine; Evaristo, Eli Faria; Azeka, Estela; Silva, Fabio Bruno da; Wen, Fan Hui; Ferreira, Fatima Gil; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Fernandes, Felipe Lourenço; Ganem, Fernando; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Feitosa Filho, Gilson Soares; Foronda, Gustavo; Guimarães, Helio Penna; Abud, Isabela Cristina Kirnew; Leite, Ivanhoé Stuart Lima; Linhares Filho, Jaime Paula Pessoa; Moraes Junior, João Batista de Moura Xavier; Falcão, João Luiz Alencar de Araripe; Ramires, Jose Antônio Franchini; Cavalini, José Fernando; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Abrão, Karen Cristine; Pinto, Lecio Figueira; Bianchi, Leonardo Luís Torres; Lopes, Leonardo Nícolau Geisler Daud; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares; Kopel, Liliane; Godoy, Lucas Colombo; Tobase, Lucia; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Dallan, Luís Augusto Palma; Caneo, Luiz Fernando; Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Canesin, Manoel Fernandes; Park, Marcelo; Rabelo, Marcia Maria Noya; Malachias, Marcus Vinícius Bolívar; Gonçalves, Maria Aparecida Batistão; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco de; Souza, Maria Francilene Silva; Favarato, Maria Helena Sampaio; Carrion, Maria Julia Machline; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Bortolotto, Maria Rita de Figueiredo Lemos; Macatrão-Costa, Milena Frota; Shimoda, Mônica Satsuki; Oliveira-Junior, Mucio Tavares de; Ikari, Nana Miura; Dutra, Oscar Pereira; Berwanger, Otávio; Pinheiro, Patricia Ana Paiva Corrêa; Reis, Patrícia Feitosa Frota dos; Cellia, Pedro Henrique Moraes; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Guinsburg, Ruth; Managini, Sandrigo; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelas; Yeu, So Pei; Franchi, Sonia Meiken; Shimoda-Sakano, Tania; Accorsi, Tarso Duenhas; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci; Guimarães, Vanessa; Sallai, Vanessa Santos; Ávila, Walkiria Samuel; Sako, Yara Kimiko.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038561
3.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058947

RESUMO

Importance: Translating evidence into clinical practice in the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is challenging, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: To assess the effect of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention on adherence to evidence-based therapies for care of patients with AIS and TIA. Design, Setting and Participants: This 2-arm cluster-randomized clinical trial assessed 45 hospitals and 2336 patients with AIS and TIA for eligibility before randomization. Eligible hospitals were able to provide care for patients with AIS and TIA in Brazil, Argentina, and Peru. Recruitment started September 12, 2016, and ended February 26, 2018; follow-up ended June 29, 2018. Data were analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle. Interventions: The multifaceted quality improvement intervention included case management, reminders, a roadmap and checklist for the therapeutic plan, educational materials, and periodic audit and feedback reports to each intervention cluster. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite adherence score for AIS and TIA performance measures. Secondary outcomes included an all-or-none composite end point of performance measures, the individual process measure components of the composite end points, and clinical outcomes at 90 days after admission (stroke recurrence, death, and disability measured by the modified Rankin scale). Results: A total of 36 hospitals and 1624 patients underwent randomization. Nineteen hospitals were randomized to the quality improvement intervention and 17 to routine care. The overall mean (SD) age of patients enrolled in the study was 69.4 (13.5) years, and 913 (56.2%) were men. Overall mean (SD) composite adherence score for the 10 performance measures in the intervention group hospitals compared with control group hospitals was 85.3% (20.1%) vs 77.8% (18.4%) (mean difference, 4.2%; 95% CI, -3.8% to 12.2%). As a secondary end point, 402 of 817 patients (49.2%) at intervention hospitals received all the therapies that they were eligible for vs 203 of 807 (25.2%) in the control hospitals (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.22-5.53; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: A multifaceted quality improvement intervention did not result in a significant increase in composite adherence score for evidence-based therapies in patients with AIS or TIA. However, when using an all-or-none approach, the intervention resulted in improved adherence to evidence-based therapies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02223273.

4.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(7): 928-938, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089761

RESUMO

PURPOSE: New-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) is common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, its clinical importance and management in critically ill patients are not well described. The aim of this scoping review is to assess the epidemiology and management strategies of NOAF during critical illness. METHOD: The review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for studies assessing the incidence, outcome and management strategies of NOAF in adult critically ill patients. The quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: A total of 99 studies were included, of which 79 were observational and 20 were interventional. The incidence of NOAF varied from 1.7% to 43.9% with considerable inter-population variation (very low quality of evidence). Commonly identified risk factors for NOAF included higher age, cardiovascular comorbidities and sepsis. The occurrence of NOAF was associated with adverse outcomes, including stroke, prolonged length of stay and mortality (very low quality of evidence). We found limited data on the optimal management strategy with no evidence for firm benefit or harm for any intervention (very low/low quality of evidence). CONCLUSIONS: The definition and incidence of NOAF in critically ill patients varied considerably and many risk factors were identified. NOAF seemed to be associated with adverse outcomes, but data were very limited and current management strategies are not evidence-based.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(5): 408-417, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942842

RESUMO

Importance: Studies have found that patients at high cardiovascular risk often fail to receive evidence-based therapies in community practice. Objective: To evaluate whether a multifaceted quality improvement intervention can improve the prescription of evidence-based therapies. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this 2-arm cluster randomized clinical trial, patients with established atherothrombotic disease from 40 public and private outpatient clinics (clusters) in Brazil were studied. Patients were recruited from August 2016 to August 2017, with follow-up to August 2018. Data were analyzed in September 2018. Interventions: Case management, audit and feedback reports, and distribution of educational materials (to health care professionals and patients) vs routine practice. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was prescription of evidence-based therapies (ie, statins, antiplatelet therapy, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers) using the all-or-none approach at 12 months after the intervention period in patients without contraindications. Results: Of the 1619 included patients, 1029 (63.6%) were male, 1327 (82.0%) had coronary artery disease (843 [52.1%] with prior acute myocardial infarction), 355 (21.9%) had prior ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, and 197 (12.2%) had peripheral vascular disease, and the mean (SD) age was 65.6 (10.5) years. Among randomized clusters, 30 (75%) were cardiology sites, 6 (15%) were primary care units, and 26 (65%) were teaching institutions. Among eligible patients, those in intervention clusters were more likely to receive a prescription of evidence-based therapies than those in control clusters (73.5% [515 of 701] vs 58.7% [493 of 840]; odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.14-4.65). There were no differences between the intervention and control groups with regards to risk factor control (ie, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes). Rates of education for smoking cessation were higher among current smokers in the intervention group than in the control group (51.9% [364 of 701] vs 18.2% [153 of 840]; odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 2.20-57.43). The rate of cardiovascular mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke was 2.6% for patients from intervention clusters and 3.4% for those in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.43-1.34). Conclusions and Relevance: Among Brazilian patients at high cardiovascular risk, a quality improvement intervention resulted in improved prescription of evidence-based therapies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02851732.

6.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 34, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although light sedation levels are associated with several beneficial outcomes for critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation, the majority of patients are still deeply sedated. Organizational factors may play a role on adherence to light sedation levels. We aimed to identify organizational factors associated with a moderate to light sedation target on the first 48 h of mechanical ventilation, as well as the association between early achievement of within-target sedation and mortality. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a multicenter two-phase study (prospective cohort followed by a cluster-randomized controlled trial) performed in 118 Brazilian ICUs. We included all critically ill patients who were on mechanical ventilation 48 h after ICU admission. A moderate to light level of sedation or being alert and calm (i.e., the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale of - 3 to 0) was the target for all patients on mechanical ventilation during the study period. We collected data on the type of hospital (public, private, profit and private, nonprofit), hospital teaching status, nursing and physician staffing, and presence of sedation, analgesia, and weaning protocols. We used multivariate random-effects regression with ICU and study phase as random-effects and correction for patients' Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. We also performed a mediation analysis to explore whether sedation level was just a mediator of the association between organizational factors and mortality. RESULTS: We included 5719 patients. Only 1710 (29.9%) were on target sedation levels on day 2. Board-certified intensivists on the morning and afternoon shifts were associated with an adequate sedation level on day 2 (OR = 2.43; CI 95%, 1.09-5.38). Target sedation levels were associated with reduced hospital mortality (OR = 0.63; CI 95%, 0.55-0.72). Mediation analysis also suggested such an association, but did not suggest a relationship between the physician staffing model and hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Board-certified intensivists on morning and afternoon shifts were associated with an increased number of patients achieving lighter sedation goals. These findings reinforce the importance of organizational factors, such as intensivists' presence, as a modifiable quality improvement target.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/normas , Sedação Profunda/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Lista de Checagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Escala Psicológica Aguda Simplificada
7.
Am. heart j. ; 207: 40-48, Jan. 2019. gráfico, ilustração
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1023779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translating evidence into clinical practice in the management of high cardiovascular risk patients is challenging. Few quality improvement interventions have rigorously evaluated their impact on both patient care and clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives are to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention on adherence to local guidelines for the prescription of statins, antiplatelets and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers for high cardiovascular risk patients, as well as on the incidence of major cardiovascular events. DESIGN: We designed a pragmatic two arm cluster randomized trial involving 40 clusters. Clusters are randomized to receive a multifaceted quality improvement intervention or to routine practice (control). The multifaceted intervention includes: reminders, care algorithms, training of a case manager, audit and feedback reports, and distribution of educational materials to health care providers. The primary endpoint is the adherence to combined evidence-based therapies (statins, antiplatelet therapy and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers) at 12 months after the intervention period in patients without contra-indications for these medications. All analyses follow the intention-to-treat principle and take the cluster design into account using linear mixed logistic regression modeling. SUMMARY: If proven effective, this multifaceted intervention would have wide utility as a means of promoting optimal usage of evidence-based interventions for the management of high cardiovascular risk patients. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação
8.
Am Heart J ; 207: 40-48, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translating evidence into clinical practice in the management of high cardiovascular risk patients is challenging. Few quality improvement interventions have rigorously evaluated their impact on both patient care and clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives are to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention on adherence to local guidelines for the prescription of statins, antiplatelets and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers for high cardiovascular risk patients, as well as on the incidence of major cardiovascular events. DESIGN: We designed a pragmatic two arm cluster randomized trial involving 40 clusters. Clusters are randomized to receive a multifaceted quality improvement intervention or to routine practice (control). The multifaceted intervention includes: reminders, care algorithms, training of a case manager, audit and feedback reports, and distribution of educational materials to health care providers. The primary endpoint is the adherence to combined evidence-based therapies (statins, antiplatelet therapy and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers) at 12 months after the intervention period in patients without contra-indications for these medications. All analyses follow the intention-to-treat principle and take the cluster design into account using linear mixed logistic regression modeling. SUMMARY: If proven effective, this multifaceted intervention would have wide utility as a means of promoting optimal usage of evidence-based interventions for the management of high cardiovascular risk patients.

9.
Am Heart J ; 207: 49-57, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translating evidence into clinical practice in the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is challenging especially in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention on adherence to evidence-based therapies for AIS and TIA patients care. DESIGN: We designed a pragmatic, 2-arm cluster-randomized trial involving 36 clusters and 1624 patients from Brazil, Argentina, and Peru. Hospitals are randomized to receive a multifaceted quality improvement intervention (intervention group) or to routine care (control group). The BRIDGE Stroke multifaceted quality improvement intervention includes case management, reminders, health care providers' educational materials (including treatment algorithms), interactive workshops, and audit and feedback reports. Primary outcome is a composite adherence score to AIS and TIA performance measures. Secondary outcomes include an "all or none" composite end point to performance measures, the individual components of the composite end points, and clinical outcomes at 90 days following admission (stroke recurrence, death, and disability measured by the modified Rankin scale). SUMMARY: The BRIDGE Stroke Trial is an international pragmatic evaluation of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention. If effective, this intervention could be potentially extended widely to improve the quality of care and outcomes of patients with AIS or TIA.

10.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3)jul.-ago. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-916547

RESUMO

A incidência exata de parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR) mesmo em países com registros clínicos bem estruturados ainda é desconhecida, mas as estimativas variam de 180.000 a mais de 450.000 mortes anuais. A etiologia mais comum da PCR é a doença cardiovascular isquêmica que ocasiona no desenvolvimento de arritmias letais. A sobrevivência decorrente da PCR apresenta desfechos divergentes. No cenário extra-hospitalar, os estudos relataram taxas de sobrevida de 1% a 6%. Três revisões sistemáticas de alta hospitalar sobre a PCR extra-hospitalar mostraram 5% a 10% de sobrevida entre aqueles tratados através de serviços médicos de emergência e 15% quando o distúrbio do ritmo era a fibrilação ventricular (FV). O suporte básico de vida consiste em ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP) e, quando disponível, desfibrilação com desfibrilador externo automático (DEA). As chaves para a sobrevivência após a PCR são reconhecimento e tratamento precoces, especificamente, início imediato de excelente RCP e desfibrilação precoce. O presente artigo discutirá os princípios do suporte básico de vida em adultos do pré-hospitalar à sala de emergência, conforme descritos nas Diretrizes de Ressuscitação Cardiopulmonar e Atendimento Cardiovascular de Emergência do ILCOR e AHA, atualizadas em novembro de 2017


The exact incidence of cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) even in countries with well-structured clinical records is still unknown, but estimates range from 180,000 to over 450,000 annual deaths. The most common etiology of CRA is ischemic cardiovascular disease, resulting in the development of lethal arrhythmias. Survival of CRA shows divergent outcomes. In the out-of-hospital setting, studies have reported survival rates of 1% to 6%. Three systematic reviews of hospital discharge on extra-hospital CRA showed 5% to 10% survival between those treated by emergency medical services and 15% when the rhythm disorder was ventricular fibrillation (VF). Basic life support consists of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, when available, defibrillation with an automatic external defibrillator (AED). The keys to survival of CRA are early recognition and treatment, specifically, immediate onset of excellent CPR and early defibrillation. This article will discuss the basics of adult life support from prehospital to emergency room, as outlined in the ILCOR and AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care, updated in November 2017


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Guias como Assunto/normas , Assistência Pré-Hospitalar/métodos , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Desfibriladores , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Eletrodos , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
11.
Am Heart J ; 198: 129-134, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous evidence suggests that acute treatment with statins reduce atherosclerotic complications, including periprocedural myocardial infarction, but currently, there are no large, adequately powered studies to define the effects of early, high-dose statins in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management. OBJECTIVES: The main goal of Statins Evaluation in Coronary procedUres and REvascularization (SECURE-PCI) Trial is to determine whether the early use of a loading dose of 80 mg of atorvastatin before an intended percutaneous coronary intervention followed by an additional dose of 80 mg 24 hours after the procedure will be able to reduce the rates of major cardiovascular events at 30 days in patients with an ACS. DESIGN: The SECURE-PCI study is a pragmatic, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial planned to enroll around 4,200 patients in 58 different sites in Brazil. The primary outcome is the rate of major cardiovascular events at 30 days defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and coronary revascularization. SUMMARY: The SECURE PCI is a large randomized trial testing a strategy of early, high-dose statin in patients with ACS and will provide important information about the acute treatment of this patient population.

12.
JAMA ; 319(13): 1331-1340, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525821

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of loading doses of statins on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management remain uncertain. Objective: To determine if periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin decrease 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ACS and planned invasive management. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 53 sites in Brazil among 4191 patients with ACS evaluated with coronary angiography to proceed with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if anatomically feasible. Enrollment occurred between April 18, 2012, and October 6, 2017. Final follow-up for 30-day outcomes was on November 6, 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 2 loading doses of 80 mg of atorvastatin (n = 2087) or matching placebo (n = 2104) before and 24 hours after a planned PCI. All patients received 40 mg of atorvastatin for 30 days starting 24 hours after the second dose of study medication. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was MACE, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization through 30 days. Results: Among the 4191 patients (mean age, 61.8 [SD, 11.5] years; 1085 women [25.9%]) enrolled, 4163 (99.3%) completed 30-day follow-up. A total of 2710 (64.7%) underwent PCI, 333 (8%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 1144 (27.3%) had exclusively medical management. At 30 days, 130 patients in the atorvastatin group (6.2%) and 149 in the placebo group (7.1%) had a MACE (absolute difference, 0.85% [95% CI, -0.70% to 2.41%]; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11; P = .27). No cases of hepatic failure were reported; 3 cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported in the placebo group (0.1%) and 0 in the atorvastatin group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with ACS and planned invasive management with PCI, periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin did not reduce the rate of MACE at 30 days. These findings do not support the routine use of loading doses of atorvastatin among unselected patients with ACS and intended invasive management. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01448642.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia
13.
JAMA ; 318(14): 1335-1345, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973363

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration on clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain uncertain. Objective: To determine if lung recruitment associated with PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance decreases 28-day mortality of patients with moderate to severe ARDS compared with a conventional low-PEEP strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized trial conducted at 120 intensive care units (ICUs) from 9 countries from November 17, 2011, through April 25, 2017, enrolling adults with moderate to severe ARDS. Interventions: An experimental strategy with a lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance (n = 501; experimental group) or a control strategy of low PEEP (n = 509). All patients received volume-assist control mode until weaning. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality until 28 days. Secondary outcomes were length of ICU and hospital stay; ventilator-free days through day 28; pneumothorax requiring drainage within 7 days; barotrauma within 7 days; and ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month mortality. Results: A total of 1010 patients (37.5% female; mean [SD] age, 50.9 [17.4] years) were enrolled and followed up. At 28 days, 277 of 501 patients (55.3%) in the experimental group and 251 of 509 patients (49.3%) in the control group had died (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.42; P = .041). Compared with the control group, the experimental group strategy increased 6-month mortality (65.3% vs 59.9%; HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.38; P = .04), decreased the number of mean ventilator-free days (5.3 vs 6.4; difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.1; P = .03), increased the risk of pneumothorax requiring drainage (3.2% vs 1.2%; difference, 2.0%; 95% CI, 0.0% to 4.0%; P = .03), and the risk of barotrauma (5.6% vs 1.6%; difference, 4.0%; 95% CI, 1.5% to 6.5%; P = .001). There were no significant differences in the length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ICU mortality, and in-hospital mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe ARDS, a strategy with lung recruitment and titrated PEEP compared with low PEEP increased 28-day all-cause mortality. These findings do not support the routine use of lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration in these patients. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374022.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Falha de Tratamento
14.
Acta Cir Bras ; 32(7): 587-598, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793043

RESUMO

Purpose: : To evaluate severity and built a pilot of a national databank about pediatric trauma and to determine its severity. Methods:: Prospective study of unintentional pediatric trauma in five hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Results:: 916 patients in 4 months. 61.5% of traumatized children were male, average 6.5 years. 48. 4% were falls. Most families had an average monthly income less than three minimum wages. 42% of accidents occurred at home. 18.9% of children were alone. 59,8% of parents thought it could be prevented. 26.5% of children had previous accidents. GCS was severe: 5 patients, moderate: 8 patients. 21 patients were intubated (2.4%), RTS <7 in 10.2%, PTS<8 in 3.6%. 8.5% patients were considered severe, which was related to falls (p=0.001); sports (p=0.045); pedestrian (p=0.006); child education (p=0.015) and cared by male (p=0.007). Conclusions:: Severity occurred in 8.5% and was associated to falls, sports, traffic, child education, and cared by male. Simple preventive measures could have prevented most of the accidents. The tested tool for details was successful and can be used throughout the country.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(7): 587-598, July 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-886214

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate severity and built a pilot of a national databank about pediatric trauma and to determine its severity. Methods: Prospective study of unintentional pediatric trauma in five hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Results: 916 patients in 4 months. 61.5% of traumatized children were male, average 6.5 years. 48. 4% were falls. Most families had an average monthly income less than three minimum wages. 42% of accidents occurred at home. 18.9% of children were alone. 59,8% of parents thought it could be prevented. 26.5% of children had previous accidents. GCS was severe: 5 patients, moderate: 8 patients. 21 patients were intubated (2.4%), RTS <7 in 10.2%, PTS<8 in 3.6%. 8.5% patients were considered severe, which was related to falls (p=0.001); sports (p=0.045); pedestrian (p=0.006); child education (p=0.015) and cared by male (p=0.007). Conclusions: Severity occurred in 8.5% and was associated to falls, sports, traffic, child education, and cared by male. Simple preventive measures could have prevented most of the accidents. The tested tool for details was successful and can be used throughout the country.

16.
JAMA ; 315(14): 1480-90, 2016 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115264

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The effectiveness of checklists, daily goal assessments, and clinician prompts as quality improvement interventions in intensive care units (ICUs) is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a multifaceted quality improvement intervention reduces the mortality of critically ill adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study had 2 phases. Phase 1 was an observational study to assess baseline data on work climate, care processes, and clinical outcomes, conducted between August 2013 and March 2014 in 118 Brazilian ICUs. Phase 2 was a cluster randomized trial conducted between April and November 2014 with the same ICUs. The first 60 admissions of longer than 48 hours per ICU were enrolled in each phase. INTERVENTIONS: Intensive care units were randomized to a quality improvement intervention, including a daily checklist and goal setting during multidisciplinary rounds with follow-up clinician prompting for 11 care processes, or to routine care. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: In-hospital mortality truncated at 60 days (primary outcome) was analyzed using a random-effects logistic regression model, adjusted for patients' severity and the ICU's baseline standardized mortality ratio. Exploratory secondary outcomes included adherence to care processes, safety climate, and clinical events. RESULTS: A total of 6877 patients (mean age, 59.7 years; 3218 [46.8%] women) were enrolled in the baseline (observational) phase and 6761 (mean age, 59.6 years; 3098 [45.8%] women) in the randomized phase, with 3327 patients enrolled in ICUs (n = 59) assigned to the intervention group and 3434 patients in ICUs (n = 59) assigned to routine care. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the intervention group and the usual care group, with 1096 deaths (32.9%) and 1196 deaths (34.8%), respectively (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.26; P = .88). Among 20 prespecified secondary outcomes not adjusted for multiple comparisons, 6 were significantly improved in the intervention group (use of low tidal volumes, avoidance of heavy sedation, use of central venous catheters, use of urinary catheters, perception of team work, and perception of patient safety climate), whereas there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group for 14 outcomes (ICU mortality, central line-associated bloodstream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, mean ventilator-free days, mean ICU length of stay, mean hospital length of stay, bed elevation to ≥30°, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, diet administration, job satisfaction, stress reduction, perception of management, and perception of working conditions). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among critically ill patients treated in ICUs in Brazil, implementation of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention with daily checklists, goal setting, and clinician prompting did not reduce in-hospital mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01785966.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Metas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Visitas com Preceptor , Brasil , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Implement Sci ; 10: 8, 2015 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25928627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The uptake of evidence-based therapies in the intensive care environment is suboptimal, particularly in limited-resource countries. Checklists, daily goal assessments, and clinician prompts may improve compliance with best practice processes of care and, in turn, improve clinical outcomes. However, the available evidence on the effectiveness of checklists is unreliable and inconclusive, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to evaluate whether the use of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention, including the use of a checklist and the definition of daily care goals during multidisciplinary daily rounds and clinician prompts, can improve the in-hospital mortality of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Our secondary objectives are to assess the effects of the study intervention on specific processes of care, clinical outcomes, and the safety culture and to determine which factors (the processes of care and/or safety culture) mediate the effect of the study intervention on mortality. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a cluster randomized trial involving 118 ICUs in Brazil conducted in two phases. In the observational preparatory phase, we collect baseline data on processes of care and clinical outcomes from 60 consecutive patients with lengths of ICU stay longer than 48 h and apply the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to 75% or more of the health care staff in each ICU. In the randomized phase, we assign ICUs to the experimental or control arm and repeat data collection. Experimental arm ICUs receive the multifaceted quality improvement intervention, including a checklist and definition of daily care goals during daily multidisciplinary rounds, clinician prompting, and feedback on rates of adherence to selected care processes. Control arm ICUs maintain usual care. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality, truncated at 60 days. Secondary outcomes include the rates of adherence to appropriate care processes, rates of other clinical outcomes, and scores on the SAQ domains. Analysis follows the intention-to-treat principle, and the primary outcome is analyzed using mixed effects logistic regression. DISCUSSION: This is a large scale, pragmatic cluster-randomized trial evaluating whether a multifaceted quality improvement intervention, including checklists applied during the multidisciplinary daily rounds and clinician prompting, can improve the adoption of proven therapies and decrease the mortality of critically ill patients. If this study finds that the intervention reduces mortality, it may be widely adopted in intensive care units, even those in limited-resource settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01785966.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Brasil , Lista de Checagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Segurança do Paciente
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(6): 502-510, jun. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-679133

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: O Brasil carece de registros multicêntricos publicados de síndrome coronariana aguda. OBJETIVO: O Registro Brasileiro de Síndrome Coronariana Aguda é um estudo multicêntrico nacional com objetivo de apresentar dados representativos das características clínicas, e manejo e evolução hospitalares dessa síndrome. MÉTODOS: Participaram 23 hospitais de 14 cidades. Foram elegíveis pacientes que se apresentaram com suspeita de síndrome coronariana aguda nas primeiras 24 horas, com quadro clínico sugestivo, associado a alterações eletrocardiográficas compatíveis e/ou marcadores de necrose. O seguimento foi realizado até o óbito ou a alta hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Entre os anos de 2003 e 2008, foram incluídos 2.693 pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana aguda, sendo 864 (32,1%) mulheres. O diagnóstico final foi de angina instável para 1.141 (42,4%) pacientes, com mortalidade de 3,06% deles; de infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnível de ST para 529 (19,6%) pacientes, com mortalidade de 6,8% deles; e de infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível de ST para 950 (35,3%) pacientes, com mortalidade de 8,1% deles; tiveram diagnóstico não confirmado 73 (2,7%) pacientes, com mortalidade de 1,36% deles. A mortalidade global foi de 5,53%. O modelo de regressão logística múltipla identificou o gênero feminino (OR=1,45), o diabetes melito (OR=1,59), o índice de massa corporal (OR=1,27) e a intervenção coronariana percutânea (OR=0,70) como fatores de risco de óbito, para demografia e intervenções. Um modelo para óbito por complicações maiores identificou choque cardiogênico/Edema Agudo de Pulmão (OR=4,57), reinfarto (OR=3,48), acidente vascular cerebral (OR=21,56), sangramento grave (OR=3,33), parada cardiorrespiratória (OR=40,27) e classe funcional de Killip (OR=3,37). CONCLUSÃO: Os dados do Registro Brasileiro de Síndrome Coronariana Aguda não diferem de outros coletados fora do país. Seus achados poderão ajudar a promover um melhor planejamento e manejo do atendimento da síndrome coronariana aguda a nível público e privado.


BACKGROUND: Brazil lacks published multicenter registries of acute coronary syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The Brazilian Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome is a multicenter national study aiming at providing data on clinical aspects, management and hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in our country. METHODS: A total of 23 hospitals from 14 cities, participated in this study. Eligible patients were those who came to the emergency wards with suspected acute coronary syndrome within the first 24 hours of symptom onset, associated with compatible electrocardiographic alterations and/or altered necrosis biomarkers. Follow-up lasted until hospital discharge or death, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2008, 2,693 ACS patients were enrolled, of which 864 (32.1%) were females. T he final diagnosis was unstable angina in 1,141 patients, (42.4%), with a mortality rate of 3.06%, non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 529 (19.6%), with mortality of 6.8%, ST-elevation AMI 950 (35.3%), with mortality of 8.1% and non-confirmed diagnosis 73 (2.7%), with mortality of 1.36%. The overall mortality was 5.53%. The multiple logistic regression model identified the following as risk factors for death regarding demographic factors and interventions: female gender (OR=1.45), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.59), body mass index (OR=1.27) and percutaneous coronary intervention (OR=0.70). A second model for death due to major complications identified: cardiogenic shock/acute pulmonary edema (OR=4.57), reinfarction (OR=3.48), stroke (OR=21.56), major bleeding (OR=3.33), cardiopulmonary arrest (OR=40.27) and Killip functional class (OR=3.37). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome data do not differ from other data collected abroad. The understanding of their findings may help promote better planning and management of acute coronary syndrome care in public and private health services.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 100(6): 502-10, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23657268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil lacks published multicenter registries of acute coronary syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The Brazilian Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome is a multicenter national study aiming at providing data on clinical aspects, management and hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in our country. METHODS: A total of 23 hospitals from 14 cities, participated in this study. Eligible patients were those who came to the emergency wards with suspected acute coronary syndrome within the first 24 hours of symptom onset, associated with compatible electrocardiographic alterations and/or altered necrosis biomarkers. Follow-up lasted until hospital discharge or death, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2008, 2,693 ACS patients were enrolled, of which 864 (32.1%) were females. T he final diagnosis was unstable angina in 1,141 patients, (42.4%), with a mortality rate of 3.06%, non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 529 (19.6%), with mortality of 6.8%, ST-elevation AMI 950 (35.3%), with mortality of 8.1% and non-confirmed diagnosis 73 (2.7%), with mortality of 1.36%. The overall mortality was 5.53%. The multiple logistic regression model identified the following as risk factors for death regarding demographic factors and interventions: female gender (OR=1.45), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.59), body mass index (OR=1.27) and percutaneous coronary intervention (OR=0.70). A second model for death due to major complications identified: cardiogenic shock/acute pulmonary edema (OR=4.57), reinfarction (OR=3.48), stroke (OR=21.56), major bleeding (OR=3.33), cardiopulmonary arrest (OR=40.27) and Killip functional class (OR=3.37). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome data do not differ from other data collected abroad. The understanding of their findings may help promote better planning and management of acute coronary syndrome care in public and private health services.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 31(3): 147-60, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22212499

RESUMO

Tight control of blood glucose reduces cardiovascular events and total mortality is conflicting. To summarize clinical effects of tight versus conventional glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Knowledge with no limits of language and time. Further trials were searched from the reference lists of identified studies. We included randomized controlled comparing different levels of blood glucose control intensity in type 2 diabetic patients. Two independent reviewers extracted data of eligible studies using standard case report forms. We investigated total mortality, cardiovascular and microvascular events, and hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. We used random-effects models to obtain relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 6 trials involving 27,654 patients. There was no significant effect of tight blood glucose control on all-cause mortality (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.90-1.17) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.83-1.29). Tight glucose control reduced the risk for nonfatal MI (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.76-0.95), although had no effect on the incidence of nonfatal stroke (RR 1.02; 95% CI 0.88-1.17). For microvascular events, tight glucose control reduced the risk progression of retinopathy (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.91), incidence of peripheral neuropathy (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.99), and progression of nephropathy (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37-0.80), but had not significant effect on the incidence of nephropathy (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.42-1.14). The risk of severe hypoglycemia increased with tight glucose control (RR 2.39; 95% CI 1.79-3.18). Tight blood glucose control reduces the risk for some macrovascular and microvascular events, without effect on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Tight glucose control increases the risk of severe hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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