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1.
Chemotherapy ; : 1-5, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484176

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections are one of the main infectious complications in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Triazoles (voriconazole, posaconazole) are the main prophylactic and therapeutic options for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis. However, pharmacological interactions and hepatotoxicity limit its use. Isavuconazole (ISV) is a recently approved azole with a promising interaction and safety profile. We present a case with invasive aspergillosis in the post-allogeneic SCT setting in a critically ill patient with severe multiorgan failure due to veno-occlusive disease. The patient was treated with ISV and B amphotericin during severe kidney and liver failure and multiple immunosuppressants, without significant drug-related toxicity and with favorable outcome. The interaction and safety profile of ISV is discussed along the reported experience. ISV can be an effective salvage therapy even in complex clinical situations with multiple potential interactions.

2.
Med Mycol ; 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231772

RESUMO

Mould-active prophylaxis is affecting the epidemiology of invasive mycoses in the form of a shift toward less common entities such as fusariosis. We analyze the characteristics of invasive fusariosis and its association to antifungal prophylaxis in a retrospective cohort (2004-2017) from a tertiary hospital in Madrid, Spain. Epidemiological, clinical, microbiological, and antifungal consumption data were retrieved. Isolates were identified to molecular level, and antifungal susceptibility was tested. Eight cases of invasive fusariosis were diagnosed. Three periods were identified according to incidence: <2008 (three cases), 2008-2013 (zero cases), >2014 (five cases). All except one case involved breakthrough fusariosis. During the earliest period, the episodes occurred while the patient was taking itraconazole (two) or fluconazole (one); more recently, while on micafungin (three) or posaconazole (one). Early cases involved acute leukemia at induction/consolidation, recent cases relapsed/refractory disease (P = .029). Main risk factor for fusariosis (62.5%) was prolonged neutropenia (median 44 days). Galactomannan and beta-D-glucan were positive in 37.5% and 100% of cases, respectively. All isolates except F. proliferatum presented high minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against the azoles and lower MIC to amphotericin B. Most patients received combined therapy. Mortality at 42 days was 62.5%. Resolution of neutropenia was associated with survival (P = .048). Invasive fusariosis occurs as breakthrough infection in patients with hematologic malignancy, prolonged neutropenia, and positive fungal biomarkers. Recent cases were diagnosed in a period of predominant micafungin use in patients who had more advanced disease and protracted neutropenia and for whom mortality was extremely high. Resolution of neutropenia was a favorable prognostic factor.

3.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13128, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206924

RESUMO

We report the first case of disseminated infection by Gymnascella hyalinospora in a solid organ transplant recipient. This case highlights the role of low-virulence environmental molds as an emerging cause of breakthrough invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts. Nosocomial strategies of infection control including antimicrobial stewardship and advances on fast diagnostic methods are strongly encouraged to improve patient prognosis.

5.
Med Mycol ; 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874807

RESUMO

We aim to assess intra- and interspecies differences in the virulence of Candida spp. strains causing candidemia using the invertebrate Galleria mellonella model. We studied 739 Candida spp. isolates (C. albicans [n = 373], C. parapsilosis [n = 203], C. glabrata [n = 92], C. tropicalis [n = 53], and C. krusei [n = 18]) collected from patients with candidemia admitted to Gregorio Marañon Hospital (Madrid, Spain). Species-specific infecting inocula (yeast cells/larva) were adjusted (5 × 105 [C. albicans, and C. tropicalis], 2 × 106-5 × 106 [C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei]) and used to infect 10 larvae per isolate; percentage of survival and median survival per isolate were calculated. According to the interquartile range of the median survival, isolates with a median survival under P25 were classified as of high-virulence and isolates with a median survival over P75 as of low virulence. The median survival of larvae infected with different species was variable: C. albicans (n = 2 days, IQR <1-3 days), C. tropicalis (n = 2 days, IQR 1.5-4 days), C. parapsilosis (n = 2 days, IQR 2-3.5 days), C. glabrata (n = 3 days, IQR 2-3 days), and C. krusei (n = 7 days, 6.5->8 days) (P < .001). Differences in virulence among species were validated by histological examination (day +1 post-infection) in the larvae infected by the isolates of each virulence category and species. Virulence-related gene expression in C. albicans isolates did not reach statistical significance. We report species-specific virulence patterns of Candida spp. and show that isolates within a given species have different degrees of virulence in the animal model.

6.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878313

RESUMO

Automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing devices are widely implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories in Spain, mainly using EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) breakpoints. In 2007, a group of experts published recommendations for including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations in these systems. Under the patronage of the Spanish Antibiogram Committee (Comité Español del Antibiograma, COESANT) and the Study Group on Mechanisms of Action and Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents (GEMARA) from the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC), and aligned with the Spanish National Plan against Antimicrobial Resistance (PRAN), a group of experts have updated this document. The main modifications from the previous version comprise the inclusion of new antimicrobial agents, adaptation of the ranges of concentrations to cover the EUCAST breakpoints and epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs), and the inference of new resistance mechanisms. This proposal should be considered by different manufacturers and users when designing new panels or cards. In addition, recommendations for selective reporting are also included. With this approach, the implementation of EUCAST breakpoints will be easier, increasing the quality of antimicrobial susceptibility testing data and their microbiological interpretation. It will also benefit epidemiological surveillance studies as well as the clinical use of antimicrobials aligned with antimicrobial stewardship programs.

7.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(3): 607-614, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680572

RESUMO

To investigate the causes and the clinical significance of persistent candidemia (PC) in adults diagnosed in a tertiary hospital with an active antifungal stewardship program. Retrospective cohort including all adults with candidemia from 2010 to 2018. PC was defined as any positive follow-up blood culture (BC) obtained ≥ 5 days from the first BCs yielding the same Candida species. PC was detected in 35/255 (13.7%) patients. There were no differences regarding antifungal adequacy in PC vs. non-PC (94.3% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.084) and primary source control (63.3% vs. 76.4%, p = 0.172) at the time of the follow-up BCs. The average time until source control (2 [0-37] vs. 2 days [0-44], p = 0.311) or adequate antifungal treatment (2 [0-26] vs. 2 days [- 2-10], p = 0.748) was similar. Patients with PC had more non-ocular complications (31.4% vs. 10.5%, p = 0.002). No impact on 30-day mortality was observed (31.4% vs. 22.3%, p = 0.238). The only independent factor associated with PC was to have a previously undetected site of infection [OR 4.28, 95%CI (1.77-10.34), p = 0.001]. Persistent candidemia was not associated with inadequate or delayed therapeutic management, nor higher 30-day mortality rates. Timely screening and control of unexpected infection sources are encouraged to shorten hospitalization and improve patient care.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559139

RESUMO

Infections caused by the coexistence of Candida glabrata echinocandin-resistant and echinocandin-susceptible cells may be possible, and the detection of FKS mutants when the proportions of FKS mutants are underrepresented poses a problem. We assessed the role of EUCAST and methods directly performed on positive blood cultures-Etest (ETDIR) and anidulafungin-containing agar plate assays-for detecting resistance in C. glabrata isolates containing different amounts of echinocandin-susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata isolates. We studied 10 pairs of C. glabrata isolates involving parental echinocandin-susceptible isolates and isogenic echinocandin-resistant FKS mutant isolates. Three inocula per pair (1 × 103 to 5 × 103, 1 × 102 to 5 × 102, and 10 to 50 CFU/ml) spanning suspensions with different amounts of susceptible/resistant isolates (9/1, 5/5, and 1/9 proportions for each the three inocula) were prepared. The suspensions were spiked in Bactec bottles and incubated until they were positive, and the three methods were compared. The EUCAST method showed echinocandin resistance when the bottles were spiked with susceptible/resistant isolates at 5/5 and 1/9 proportions; the results for the suspensions with a 9/1 proportion of susceptible/resistant isolates were susceptible for three pairs. We observed with the ETDIR resistance to both echinocandins in all pairs (resistance to micafungin and anidulafungin; MICs, ≥0.064 mg/liter and ≥0.125 mg/liter, respectively) and a double ring of growth inhibition in two pairs. The anidulafungin-containing plates showed fungal growth in the 90 spiked blood cultures at 48 h. Testing of echinocandin susceptibility with the ETDIR directly on the positive blood culture bottles is a reliable and rapid method to detect echinocandin resistance in C. glabrata On the other hand, resistance can be missed with the EUCAST method when resistant isolates are underrepresented.

9.
Mycopathologia ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506286

RESUMO

Mycopathologia was founded in 1938 to 'diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists.' This was an important mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5-5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrophic lifestyles of most fungi to colonize and infect humans and animals. Medical and veterinary mycology is the subdiscipline of microbiology that dwells into the mysteries of parasitic, fungal lifestyles. Among the oldest continuing scientific publications on the subject, Mycopathologia had its share of 'classic papers' since the first issue was published in 1938. An analysis of the eight decades of notable contributions reveals many facets of host-pathogen interactions among 183 volumes comprising about 6885 articles. We have analyzed the impact and relevance of this body of work using a combination of citation tools (Google Scholar and Scopus) since no single citation metric gives an inclusive perspective. Among the highly cited Mycopathologia publications, those on experimental mycology accounted for the major part of the articles (36%), followed by diagnostic mycology (16%), ecology and epidemiology (15%), clinical mycology (14%), taxonomy and classification (10%), and veterinary mycology (9%). The first classic publication, collecting nearly 200 citations, appeared in 1957, while two articles published in 2010 received nearly 150 citations each, which is notable for a journal covering a highly specialized field of study. An empirical analysis of the publication trends suggests continuing interests in novel diagnostics, fungal pathogenesis, review of clinical diseases especially with relevance to the laboratory scientists, taxonomy and classification of fungal pathogens, fungal infections and carriage in pets and wildlife, and changing ecology and epidemiology of fungal diseases around the globe. We anticipate that emerging and re-emerging fungal pathogens will continue to cause significant health burden in the coming decades. It remains vital that scientists and physicians continue to collaborate by learning each other's language for the study of fungal diseases, and Mycopathologia will strive to be their partner in this increasingly important endeavor to its 100th anniversary in 2038 and beyond.

10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409509

RESUMO

The Spanish Antibiogram Committee (Comité Español del Antibiograma, COESANT) presents in this document a simple "roadmap" or decalogue of recommendations, with a view to facilitating the transition from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) antimicrobial susceptibility testing regulations to the Clinical Microbiology Spanish laboratories that still use the CLSI guidelines. The objectives are to adapt the closer European regulations to the Spanish clinical and epidemiological reality and to fully implement the EUCAST recommendations in all microbiology laboratories in Spain.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397068

RESUMO

The high rates of antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata may be facilitated by the presence of alterations in the MSH2 gene. We aimed to study the sequence of the MSH2 gene in 124 invasive C. glabrata isolates causing incident episodes of candidemia (n=81), subsequent candidemia episodes (n=9), endocarditis (n=2), and in vitro-generated echinocandin-resistant isolates (n=32) and assessed its relationship with genotypes, acquisition of antifungal resistance in vivo and in vitro, and patient prognosis. MSH2 gene was sequenced and isolates were genotyped using six microsatellite markers and MLST based on six housekeeping genes. According to EUCAST, isolates causing candidemia (n = 90) were echinocandin susceptible, and four of them were fluconazole resistant (MIC ≥ 64 mg/L). One isolate from the heart valve was resistant to micafungin and anidulafungin (MIC= 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively). MSH2 gene mutations were present in 44.4% of incident isolates, the most common being V239L. Presence of MSH2 mutations was not correlated with in vitro or in vivo antifungal resistance. Microsatellite and MLST respectively revealed 27 genotypes and 17 sequence types. Fluconazole-resistant isolates were unrelated. Most MSH2 mutations were found in cluster isolates; conversely, some mutations were found in more than one genotype. No clinical differences - including previous antifungal use - were found between patients infected by wild-type MSH2 gene isolates and isolates with any point mutation. The presence of MSH2 gene mutations in C. glabrata isolates causing candidemia is not correlated with specific genotypes, the promotion of antifungal resistance, or the clinical outcome.

12.
Med Mycol ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339238

RESUMO

We studied the growth kinetic parameters of clinically relevant Candida species to verify the differences between species following the incubation and medium conditions recommended by the EUCAST. We analyzed 705 susceptible Candida spp. from patients with candidemia and Candida glabrata isolates resistant to echinocandins or fluconazole (n = 38) and calculated the average growth rate, maximum peak, time to maximum rate, and lag phase. We also examined inter- and intra-species differences, as well as the percentage of isolates reaching an optical density of 0.2 over time. Interspecies differences in growth phases and kinetic parameters were found. C. glabrata was the fastest growing species and the lag phase of C. parapsilosis was longer than that of the other species considered in this study. Strain-to-strain variations were found between species. A positive correlation between the average growth rate and maximum peak was determined. Echinocandin-resistant C. glabrata isolates had significantly lower average growth rate but higher time to maximum rate in comparison to wild-type C. glabrata isolates. Incubation periods of 12-15 hours allowed reaching the 0.2 optical density threshold in 100% of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei isolates. We show differences in kinetic parameters between Candida spp. C. glabrata was the fastest growing species and C. parapsilosis showed the longest lag phase. Resistance to echinocandins may affect the growth kinetic curve. Speeding up antifungal susceptibility results could be possible for some isolates, particularly C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei.

13.
Mycoses ; 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus isolates with high MICs to fluconazole are increasingly reported and a potential clinical impact has been advocated. However, there are different methods to evaluate fluconazole MICs and comparative analysis among such techniques and their comprehensive correlation with clinical outcome are not available. METHODS: Over a 13-year period (2000-2013), fluconazole MICs were determined for 62 cryptococcal isolates recovered from 22 patients with cryptococcosis using CLSI M27-A3, EUCAST, E-test and Sensititre YeastOne, simultaneously. The relationship between the fluconazole MICs, and the clinical outcome at week 10 was assessed in patients who received fluconazole as induction or maintenance therapy (n=16). RESULTS: The percentage of cryptococcal strains with MIC values ≥ 16 µg/mL according to different methods was CLSI 1.6%, EUCAST 16.1%, E-test 31.6%, and Sensititre YeastOne 56.2%. Among the 16 patients treated with fluconazole, no correlation between clinical outcome and any MIC value obtained with either method was observed. The only variable independently associated with a poor outcome was having a disseminated disease. CONCLUSIONS: There is a weak correlation between fluconazole MICs against Cryptococcus spp. as determined by CLSI, EUCAST, E-test and Sensititre YeastOne. Neither procedure could predict the clinical outcome of patients with cryptococcosis receiving fluconazole-based therapy. With present methods, fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus may be clinically misleading. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Med Mycol ; 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202852

RESUMO

The biofilm formation ability of Candida species seems to have a role in the prognosis of patients with candidemia. Biofilm formation is usually tested using 96 well flat bottom polystyrene microtiter plates, although the type of plastic used is not commonly reported. This study compares biofilm formation by Candida spp. on six types of plates from three brands (three non-tissue-treated and three tissue-treated). Thirty isolates of each of the following species were selected: C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, as well as 15 isolates of C. krusei (n = 135 isolates) from patients with candidemia. Biofilm production was evaluated by measuring biomass production and metabolic activity. Our results show higher biomass production and metabolic activity of biofilms formed on non-tissue-treated plates in comparison to those formed on tissue-treated plates (P < .001). We only found significant differences in metabolic activity of biofilms formed on non-tissue-treated plates (P < .003). All comparisons including biofilm formation and metabolic activity among plates of the same brand yielded higher biofilm formation on non-treated plates compared to treated plates (P < .001). Significant difference in biomass production by C. parapsilosis was only seen when comparing between the various tissue-treated plastics (P < .03). In contrast, comparisons of different non-tissue-treated tray brands yielded significant metabolic activity differences for all species except for C. parapsilosis (P < .05). Biofilm formation and metabolic activity is significantly affected by the plastic composition of non-tissue-treated trays leading to increased biofilm formation.

15.
Med Mycol ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212901

RESUMO

In cases where catheter-related candidemia (CRC) must be managed without catheter withdrawal, antifungal lock therapy using highly active anti-biofilm (HAAB) agents is combined with systemic treatment. However, the activity of HAAB agents has never been studied in in vivo models using bioluminescence. We assessed the efficacy of micafungin using a bioluminescent Candida albicans SKCA23-ACTgLuc strain in an animal model of CRC. We divided 33 female Wistar rats into five groups: sham (A), infected nontreated (B), treated with lock therapy (0.16 mg/ml) (C), systemically treated only (1 mg/kg) (D), and systemically treated+lock (E). Catheters were colonized 24 h before insertion into the femoral vein (day 0). Treatment started on day 1 and lasted 7 days, followed by 7 days of surveillance. Bioluminescence assays were carried out on days 1, 3, 5, and 14, together with daily monitoring of clinical variables. Postmortem microbiological cultures from the catheter and several tissue samples were also obtained. Overall, 28 rats (84.8%) completed the study. Group B animals showed significant weight loss at days 2, 4, and 5 compared with groups C and D (P < .05). In group B, no animals survived after day 7, 75% had CRC, and bioluminescence remained constant 5 days after catheter implantation. Positive catheter culture rates in groups C, D, and E were, respectively, 83.3%, 62.5%, and 25.0% (P = .15). Micafungin proved to be a HAAB agent when administered both systemically and in lock therapy in an animal model of CRC, although the bioluminescence signal persists after treatment. This persistence should be further analyzed.

16.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1626, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079058

RESUMO

Aspergillus fumigatus molecular typing has become increasingly more important for detecting outbreaks as well as for local and global epidemiological investigations and surveillance. Over the years, many different molecular methods have been described for genotyping this species. Some outstanding approaches are based on microsatellite markers (STRAf assay, which is the current gold standard), or based on sequencing data (TRESP typing improved in this work with a new marker and was renamed TRESPERG). Both methodologies were used to type a collection of 212 A. fumigatus isolates that included 70 azole resistant strains with diverse resistance mechanisms from different geographic locations. Our results showed that both methods are totally reliable for epidemiological investigations showing similar stratification of the A. fumigatus population. STRAf assay offered higher discriminatory power (D = 0.9993) than the TRESPERG typing method (D = 0.9972), but the latter does not require specific equipment or skilled personnel, allowing for a prompt integration into any clinical microbiology laboratory. Among azole resistant isolates, two groups were differentiated considering their resistance mechanisms: cyp51A single point mutations (G54, M220, or G448), and promoter tandem repeat integrations with or without cyp51A modifications (TR34/L98H, TR46/Y121F/A289T, or TR53). The genotypic differences were assessed to explore the population structure as well as the genetic relationship between strains and their azole resistance profile. Genetic cluster analyses suggested that our A. fumigatus population was formed by 6-7 clusters, depending on the methodology. Also, the azole susceptible and resistance population showed different structure and organization. The combination of both methodologies resolved the population structure in a similar way to what has been described in whole-genome sequencing works.

17.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 22: 24-26, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094135

RESUMO

The risk of transmission of infectious diseases from allograft to recipient is well known. Viruses and bacteria are the most frequent causes of transmissible infections. Donor-derived invasive aspergillosis is rare and occurred under particular circumstances. We report 2 cases of kidney transplant recipients who acquired aspergillosis from a single donor.

18.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960829

RESUMO

Aspergillus infection is a significant cause of morbi-mortality in an at-risk population. The Study Group of Fungal Infections (GEMICOMED) from the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) has reviewed announcements made in invasive aspergillosis management. We have organized our recommendations in such a way as to provide a guide in resolving different clinical situations concerning the entire spectrum of invasive diseases caused by Aspergillus in various populations. Diagnostic approach, treatment and preventions strategies are outlined. It is not our aim that these guidelines supplant clinical judgment with respect to specific patients; however, it is our objective to perform a comprehensive summary of quality of care evidence for invasive aspergillosis management in different settings.

19.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(6): 375-381, jun.-jul. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176589

RESUMO

Las infecciones asociadas a biopelículas suponen un grave problema sanitario ya que representan entre el 65 y el 80% de todas las infecciones. Estas son generalmente crónicas y están caracterizadas por la persistencia del microorganismo debido a su resistencia al sistema inmunitario y a los antimicrobianos. Las biopelículas se pueden localizar tanto en tejidos humanos como sobre dispositivos exógenos tales como catéteres, marcapasos, prótesis, implantes, sondas urinarias, etc. Tradicionalmente, los laboratorios de microbiología clínica realizan los estudios de sensibilidad sobre microorganismos en crecimiento planctónico. Sin embargo, de esta manera se pierden las características propias de la biopelícula con lo que la antibioterapia basada en estos estudios podría asociarse con fracaso terapéutico o recurrencias. El diagnóstico microbiológico y los estudios de sensibilidad en las infecciones relacionadas con biopelículas son complejos y, hoy por hoy, representan un reto que clínicos y microbiólogos han de abordar en equipo ya que no existe todavía un consenso global ni protocolos estandarizados


Biofilm-related infections represent a serious health problem, accounting for 65- 80% of all infections. The infections are generally chronic and characterized by the persistence of the microorganism, due to the increased resistance of biofilms to both the immune system and antimicrobials. Biofilms can be located to almost every human body tissue and on exogenous devices such as catheters, pacemakers, prosthetic material, implants, urinary catheters, etc. Traditional antimicrobial susceptibility studies in clinical microbiology laboratories have lied on the study of planktonic form of microorganisms. However, this approach might lead to miss the biofilm characteristics and to a treatment failure. Microbiological diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility studies of biofilm-related infections are complex and, nowadays, represent a challenge that clinicians and microbiologists have to address as a team in the absence of consensus or standardized protocols


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 56(7)2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743306

RESUMO

The presence of clusters in units with a high incidence of candidemia suggests the need for the prevention of candidemia. We analyzed the percentage of patients involved in clusters and its evolution over a large period of time in a tertiary hospital. We studied 432 patients admitted to Gregorio Marañón Hospital with candidemia caused by Candida albicans (n = 276) or Candida parapsilosis (n = 156) between January 2007 and December 2014. Incident isolates were genotyped. A cluster was defined as a group of ≥2 patients infected by an identical genotype; we considered clusters to be "tracking clusters" when the patients involved in the cluster were admitted to the same ward within a period of 24 months. The study period was split into two periods, 2007 to 2010 (period 1) and 2011 to 2014 (period 2). The number of episodes of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis candidemia (n = 262 versus n = 170, respectively), the mean incidence (1.62 versus 1.36 episodes per 1,000 admissions, respectively), and the percentage of episodes caused by clusters (overall clusters [40% versus 12%] and tracking clusters [18% versus 3%], respectively) were significantly lower in period 2 than in period 1. Linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation between the overall number of episodes of candidemia and episodes caused by clusters (r2 = 0.89). We found a reduction in the number of episodes of candidemia caused by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis and a decrease in the percentage of episodes caused by clusters over time. Interestingly, the reduction was accompanied by the implementation of a campaign to reduce the number of catheter-related infections.

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