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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924880

RESUMO

The altered function of adipose tissue can result in obesity, insulin resistance, and its metabolic complications. Leptin, acting on the central nervous system, modifies the composition and function of adipose tissue. To date, the molecular changes that occur in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) during chronic leptin treatment are not fully understood. Herein we aimed to address whether PPARß/δ could mediate the metabolic actions induced by leptin in eWAT. To this end, male 3-month-old Wistar rats, infused intracerebroventricularly (icv) with leptin (0.2 µg/day) for 7 days, were daily co-treated intraperitoneally (ip) without or with the specific PPARß/δ receptor antagonist GSK0660 (1 mg/kg/day). In parallel, we also administered GSK0660 to control rats fed ad libitum without leptin infusion. Leptin, acting at central level, prevented the starvation-induced increase in circulating levels of FGF21, while induced markedly the endogenous expression of FGF21 and browning markers of eWAT. Interestingly, GSK0660 abolished the anorectic effects induced by icv leptin leading to increased visceral fat mass and reduced browning capacity. In addition, the pharmacological inhibition of PPARß/δ alters the immunomodulatory actions of central leptin on eWAT. In summary, our results demonstrate that PPARß/δ is involved in the up-regulation of FGF21 expression induced by leptin in visceral adipose tissue.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11265, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647290

RESUMO

Microbial detoxification has been proposed as a new alternative for removing toxins and pollutants. In this study, the biodetoxification activities of yeasts against aflatoxin B1 and zinc were evaluated by HPLC and voltammetric techniques. The strains with the best activity were also subjected to complementary assays, namely biocontrol capability and heavy-metal resistance. The results indicate that the detoxification capability is toxin- and strain-dependent and is not directly related to cell growth. Therefore, we can assume that there are some other mechanisms involved in the process, which must be studied in the future. Only 33 of the 213 strains studied were capable of removing over 50% of aflatoxin B1, Rhodotrorula mucilaginosa being the best-performing species detected. As for zinc, there were 39 strains that eliminated over 50% of the heavy metal, with Diutina rugosa showing the best results. Complementary experiments were carried out on the strains with the best detoxification activity. Biocontrol tests against mycotoxigenic moulds showed that almost 50% of strains had an inhibitory effect on growth. Additionally, 53% of the strains grew in the presence of 100 mg/L of zinc. It has been proven that yeasts can be useful tools for biodetoxification, although further experiments must be carried out in order to ascertain the mechanisms involved.

3.
Food Chem ; 310: 125917, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835218

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was the development of functional edible oils with potential health promoting effects, enriched with phenolic-rich extracts obtained from pistachio and walnut. A high phenolic content, 10860 mg/kg and 7030 mg/kg in walnut and pistachio kernels respectively, with a corresponding strong radical scavenging effect (DPPH, 106 and 20 mmol/kg Trolox) were found. The remarkable antioxidant capacity of the phenolic-rich extracts prepared form walnut (255 mol/kg Trolox, measured by DPPH, 1500 times higher than its kernel) and pistachio (13 mol/kg, 630 times higher) makes them good candidates to evaluate their potential as bioactive ingredients. In the different enriched edible oils studied, a phenolic concentration of 340-570 mg/kg has been reached, showing the functional oils a great antioxidant activity, which was apparently much higher when walnut extracts were employed (e.g. 54 mmol/kg Trolox, as DPPH).


Assuntos
Juglans/química , Pistacia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química
4.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234581

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Coffea/toxicidade , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
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