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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238673, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153461

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 186-192, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605907

RESUMO

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) paves the way for many health problems ranging from discomforts of continuous wetness and irritation to social isolation and depression in women. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of UI in women aged 40 and older as well as its risk factors and also its effect on quality of life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 286 women included in the sample. Subjects were selected randomly. The data were collected using a questionnaire, which was prepared by the researchers, and the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using number, percentage, mean, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression analysis in the SPSS program. Results: It was found that 86 (30.1%) of the women experienced the symptom of UI. The women had mostly the mixed UI. The correlations between UI and age, educational level, status of employment, the presence of chronic diseases, chronic constipation, difficult birth history, and state of menopause were significant. Total mean score of the women with UI for the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire was 73.62 ± 24.36 and the most affected domain of the quality of life field was social embarrassment. Conclusions: In the present study, it was found that UI was prevalent in Turkish women and impaired their quality of life. The results can help to provide education and counseling services to women in a society-sensitive manner.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Incontinência Urinária , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
4.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 32(1): 51-70, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401979

RESUMO

A Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay was used to screen the FDA-approved compound library against the MERS-CoV helicase, an essential enzyme for virus replication within the host cell. Five compounds inhibited the helicase activity with submicromolar potencies (IC50, 0.73-1.65 µM) and ten compounds inhibited the enzyme with micromolar potencies (IC50, 19.6-502 µM). The molecular operating environment (MOE) was used to dock the identified inhibitors on the MERS-CoV helicase nucleotide binding. Strong inhibitors docked well in the nucleotide-binding site and established interactions with some of the essential residues. There was a reasonable correlation between the observed IC50 values and the MOE docking scores of the strong inhibitors (r 2 = 0.74), indicating the ability of the in silico docking model to predict the binding of strong inhibitors. In silico docking could be a useful complementary tool used with the FRET-based assay to predict new MERS-CoV helicase inhibitors. The identified inhibitors could potentially be used in the clinical development of new antiviral treatment for MERS-CoV and other coronavirus related diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Helicases/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(5): 526-534, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377499

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to develop a novel disinfectant from various essential oils containing active components with antimicrobial activity. The mixture of oregano, cinnamon and clove oils (1 : 1 : 1) with 10% oil concentration (SOM) was used as potential disinfectant on various areas and showed the highest antimicrobial activity among oil combinations tested. SOM reduced the numbers of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB; 2·27 log CFU per 25 cm2 ) and Escherichia coli (4·60 log CFU per 25 cm2 ) under the detection limits. Application of SOM (1, 2, 3, 4 and 6%) into incubators reduced TMAB and mould-yeast counts of incubator air by 82·9 and 100% respectively. SOM application (3%) into ambient air also reduced its TMAB and mould-yeast counts by 92 and 84·6% respectively. While ethanol is commonly used for the disinfection of environments, equipment and surfaces, SOM is an important alternative that may also be used for the disinfection of various surfaces as well as air.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Origanum/química , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101008, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors for mortality in adult patients with candidemia by investigating the causative agents, underlying conditions and predisposing factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data including causative Candida species, predisposing factors, and underlying conditions of candidemia patients between the years 2015-2017 were collected and the impact of these factors on mortality was evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups as died (died patients within 30 days of the onset of candidemia) and survived and risk factors were evaluated for each group. RESULTS: We found 163 adult candidemia cases during the study period. Overall 30-day mortality was 40.5%. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequent causative agent (49.1%). C. parapsilosis candidemia was more common in the survived group compared with the died group (n: 49 (61.3%) vs. n: 31 (38.8%), P=0.888). Mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with dialysis (n: 27 (69.2%) vs. n: 12 (30.8%), P<0.00) and concurrent bacteremia (n: 20 (57.1%) vs. n: 15 (42.9%), P=0.024). Survival rates were significantly higher in patients with follow-up blood cultures (n: 75 (65.8%) vs. n: 39 (34.2%), P=0.013). The most important source of candidemia was catheter (49.7%), and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent (58%). The catheter was removed in 96.3% of these patients and the mortality rate was 38.5%. All of the patients received antifungal therapy and there was no significant difference between the effects of antifungals on mortality (n: 65 (39.9%) vs. 98 (60.1%), P=0.607). CONCLUSIONS: Dialysis and concurrent bacteremia are strong predictors of mortality in 30 days within patients with candidemia, whereas follow-up blood cultures have a protective role with lower mortality rates. In our study, the most important source of candidemia was catheter, and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent. The catheter was removed in almost all patients and the mortality rate was almost one third among these patients.


Assuntos
Candidemia/etiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida parapsilosis/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109712, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654867

RESUMO

Mycotoxicosis is the second most important problem faced by the Pakistan poultry industry, after high feed prices. The present experimental study was designed to investigate the toxicopathological effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in commercial broiler chicks and its amelioration with locally produced mycotoxin binder. Total of 125 broiler chicks was divided into five equal groups (A-E). Group A served as negative control, group B (300 µg AFB1/kg feed) as positive control, group C (300 µg AFB1/kg + Local Mycotoxin Binder (LMB), 1 g/kg feed), group D (300 µg AFB1/kg + 2 g LMB/kg feed), and group E (300 µg AFB1/kg + Commercial Mycotoxin Binder (CMB), 2 g/kg of feed). Parameters studied included mortality, feed intake, bodyweights, absolute and relative organ weights, and gross and microscopic lesions in visceral organs. Clinical signs including alertness, fecal consistency, and feather shine were significantly lower in group B compared with control group A. The feed intake of 2 g/kg LMB treated group was significantly higher than that of the positive control group B. Also mean bodyweights of group D birds was higher than that of group B birds indicating an ameliorative effect of LMB. Histopathological results showed that moldy feed produced necrotic changes in the liver and kidneys in group B birds. However, in group D and E birds, the hepatic and renal parenchyma was normal, showing a protective effect of LMB. In the present study, a higher dose of LMB (2 g/kg) in group D showed higher bodyweights and feed intake. In group D, birds hepatic and renal parenchyma was also normal. The results suggested that local mycotoxin binder ameliorated the toxicopathological effects of AFB1 in mortality, feed intake, bodyweights, organ weights and, gross and microscopic lesions in visceral organs. These ameliorative effects of LMB were dose-dependent. The results of the present study concluded that AFB1 intoxication leads to decrease in bodyweights, feed intake in dose-related manner. The mortality was also dose-dependent. Gross and microscopic changes in the aflatoxin groups were more pronounced, however, all these deleterious effects were ameliorated in higher dose of LMB (group D) and CMB (group E). In group C, these deleterious effects were partially ameliorated. Local mycotoxin binder is an economical solution for aflatoxicosis problem, making poultry production more cost-effective.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Aflatoxina B1/química , Animais , Bentonita/administração & dosagem , Bentonita/química , Galinhas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Tamanho do Órgão , Paquistão , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química
9.
Biotech Histochem ; 94(5): 366-373, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982354

RESUMO

We investigated the effectiveness of crocin for preventing oxidative damage in experimentally produced periodontitis. We used three groups of 10 female Wistar rats divided into: control (C); experimental periodontitis (EP), experimental periodontitis + crocin (Cr-EP). Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were measured. We examined histopathology and inflammatory cell infiltration in gingiva and periodontal ligament. MDA and TOS levels, and SOD and CAT activities increased significantly in rats with induced periodontitis compared to the control group, while GSH and TAS levels were decreased significantly compared to the control group. Histopathologic examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltration in gingiva epithelium and subepithelial connective tissue in the EP group. Histological damage was reduced significantly after crocin treatment compared to the EP group. Crocin supplementation may help reduce oxidative damage to periodontal tissues.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligamento Periodontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Gengiva/metabolismo , Gengiva/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal/patologia , Periodontite/metabolismo , Periodontite/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(4): 249-255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023046

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to determine the protective effect of melatonin and agomelatine on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats by electrocardiographic, scintigraphic and biochemical methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine male Wistar rats were randomly separated into seven groups; control (CON), doxorubicin (DOX), melatonin (MEL), agomelatine (AGO), melatonin+doxorubicin (MEL+DOX), agomelatine+doxorubicin (AGO+DOX) and melatonin+ agomelatine+ doxorubicin (MEL+AGO+DOX) groups. Cardiotoxicity was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of DOX (18 mg/kg daily for three days). Rats receiving MEL and AGO treatment in the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity group received MEL and AGO (40 mg/kg/day, i.p., for seven days). They were injected with doxorubicin (18 mg/kg, i.p.) on days 5, 6, and 7. The rats were given MEL and AGO as substance control (40 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 7 days). On day 8 of the experiment, animals were evaluated by means of electrocardiography (ECG) and 99mtechnetium pyrophosphate (99mTc PYP) scintigraphy and their biochemical parameters [blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac troponin T (cTnT)] were examined. RESULTS: DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rats is characterized by conduction abnormalities in the ECG pattern (including decreased P wave and QRS complex duration, increased QT and RR intervals, and ST-segment elevation), increased serum BUN, CK, and cTnT parameters and increased 99mTc PYP uptake (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with MEL, AGO, or MEL+AGO effectively alleviated DOX-induced ECG abnormalities close to normal (p < 0.001). Moreover, serum biochemical evidence and 99mTc PYP uptake values demonstrated that pretreatment with MEL, AGO, or MEL+AGO has the same protective effect against the abnormalities produced in the heart by DOX (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MEL and AGO have a potential protective effect on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. At the same time, this study suggests that 99mTc PYP is a non-invasive method suitable for early determination of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (Tab. 3, Fig. 5, Ref. 41).


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Cardiotoxicidade , Doxorrubicina , Melatonina , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Miocárdio , Cintilografia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(2): 113-118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the possible protective effects of melatonin and agomelatine on an animal model of adriamycin nephrotoxicity by 99mTc DMSA renal scintigraphy and biochemical methods. METHODS: Ten weeks old 49 male Wistar rats were randomly separated into seven groups; namely control (CON), adriamycin (ADR), melatonin (MEL), agomelatine (AGO), melatonin + adriamycin (MEL+ADR), agomelatine + adriamycin (AGO+ADR) and melatonin + agomelatine + adriamycin (MEL+AGO+ADR) groups. Nephrotoxicity was induced by a three-dose of 18 mg/kg adriamycin, i.p. at a 24 h interval on the 5th, 6th and 7th days. A dose of melatonin and agomelatine (40 mg/kg/i.p, the same doses) were injected for 7 days before and after the injected of ADR (18 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. On the 8th day of the experiment, all animals were evaluated and scintigraphic and biochemical parameters were assessed, respectively. RESULTS: ADR significantly increased blood urea nitrogen (1040 %) and plasma creatinine (1020 %), and decreased 99mTc DMSA uptake levels (59 %) compared to the control (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with MEL, AGO, MEL+AGO mitigated these abnormalities produced by ADR in the kidney (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: 99mTc DMSA for the early determination of ADR-induced nephrotoxicity had an important role. Also, a significant correlation was found between biochemical and scintigraphy parameters. Adriamycin caused significant damages to kidneys that were reduced with MEL and AGO (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 39).


Assuntos
Acetamidas , Lesão Renal Aguda , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Doxorrubicina , Melatonina , Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais , Cintilografia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Biotech Histochem ; 93(8): 623-631, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273072

RESUMO

Owing to its lipophilic property, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is rapidly absorbed by both the liver and brain. We investigated the protective effects of crocin against brain damage caused by CCl4. Fifty rats were divided into five groups of ten: control, corn oil, crocin, CCl4 and CCl4 + crocin. CCl4 administration decreased glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels, and catalase (CAT) activity, while significant increases were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The cerebral cortex nuclear lamina developed a spongy appearance, neuronal degeneration was observed in the hippocampus, and heterochromatic and pyknotic neurons with increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia were observed in the hippocampus after CCl4 treatment. Because crocin exhibits strong antioxidant properties, crocin treatment increased GSH and TAS levels and CAT activities, and decreased MDA and TOS levels and SOD activity; significant improvements also were observed in histologic architecture. We found that crocin administration nearly eliminated CCl4 induced brain damage by preventing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Encéfalo , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Padrões de Referência
13.
Biotech Histochem ; 93(6): 453-462, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701106

RESUMO

We investigated changes in rat liver tissues following administration of thymoquinone (TQ) against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced hepatotoxicity. Fifty rats were assigned randomly to five groups of 10 as follows: control, corn oil, TCDD, TQ and TCDD + TQ. Biochemical and histopathological analyses were conducted on liver tissue. We found that 30 day TCDD administration caused histopathological changes in liver including thickening of Glisson's capsule, intracytoplasmic vacuolization in hepatocytes, sinusoidal dilation, vascular and sinusoidal congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration. TCDD administration increased malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in rat liver tissue and reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels compared to all other groups. In the TQ treated group, GSH, SOD, CAT and TAS levels increased compared to all other groups. MDA, TOS, ALT, AST, ALP levels decreased compared to all other groups. Our histological findings were consistent with the biochemical findings. The oxidative and histologic effects of TCDD were eliminated by TQ treatment. TCDD administration caused oxidative stress in rat liver and TQ administered with TCDD prevented TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. TQ could be considered an alternative anti-TCDD toxicity agent.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 16(3): 348-351, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27310664

RESUMO

Acute hepatitis E virus infection after liver transplant is a challenging clinical phenomenon. Due to its unspecific clinical and histological presentation, the diagnosis of acute or chronic hepatitis E virus infection can be difficult in unclear cases of elevated liver enzymes. Here, we report the case of a 56-year-old male patient who presented to our center for 17-year follow-up after liver transplant with α1-antitrypsin deficiency. The patient was asymptomatic but had remarkably increased transaminases and cholestasis parameters. Blood levels for immunosuppressives were in the normal range, and cholestasis and deteriorated liver perfusion were excluded by ultrasonographic examination. A liver biopsy was performed that was histologically interpreted as acute cellular rejection grade I. Accordingly, the patient was treated with 5-day high-dose intravenous steroids and increased doses of the maintenance immunosuppressive agents, resulting in the slow normalization of the liver enzymes. Extended laboratory examinations revealed presence of acute hepatitis E virus infection, and a retrospectively immunohistologic staining of the liver biopsy was positive for hepatitis E virus antigen. Acute hepatitis E virus infection can be a reason for acute allograft dysfunction after liver transplant. This differential diagnosis should be kept in mind, especially when graft dysfunction occurs long after transplant.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Biópsia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Hepatite E/patologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Med Hypotheses ; 105: 34-47, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735650

RESUMO

Despite aggressive intervention, patients who survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) generally have very poor prognoses, with nationwide survival rates of approximately 10-20%. Approximately 90% of survivors will have moderate to severe neurological injury ranging from moderate cognitive impairment to brain death. Currently, few early prognostic indicators are considered reliable enough to support patients' families and clinicians' in their decisions regarding medical futility. Blood biomarkers of neurological injury after OHCA may be of prognostic value in these cases. When most bodily tissues are oxygen-deprived, cellular metabolism switches from aerobic to anaerobic respiration. Neurons are a notable exception, however, being dependent solely upon aerobic respiration. Thus, after several minutes without circulating oxygen, neurons sustain irreversible damage, and certain measurable biomarkers are released into the circulation. Prior studies have demonstrated value in blood biomarkers in prediction of survival and neurologic impairment after OHCA. We hypothesize that understanding peptide biomarker kinetics in the early return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) period, especially in the setting of refractory cardiac arrest, may assist clinicians in determining prognosis earlier in acute resuscitation. Specifically, during and after immediate resuscitation and return of ROSC, clinicians and families face a series of important questions regarding patient prognosis, futility of care and allocation of scarce resources such as the early initiation of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). The ability to provide early prognostic information in this setting is highly valuable. Currently available, as well as potential biomarkers that could be good candidates in prognostication of neurological outcomes after OHCA or in the setting of refractory cardiac arrest will be reviewed and discussed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/sangue , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/sangue , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Proteína Básica da Mielina/sangue , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Neuropeptídeos/sangue , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Prognóstico , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/sangue , Secretogranina II/sangue , Espectrina/sangue , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/sangue , Proteínas tau/sangue
16.
Andrologia ; 49(7)2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686236

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of arsenic on testicular measurements and histology of adult Teddy goats bucks and to examine whether these toxic effects are scavenged by vitamin E. Twelve adult Teddy goat bucks were divided randomly into three groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, the B was given sodium arsenite 5 mg/kg BW per day, and group C was fed with vitamin E 200 mg/kg BW per day + arsenic 5 mg/kg BW per day. This treatment was continued for 84 days. Analysis of data revealed that the testicular measurements (scrotal circumference, width, length and weight) were significantly reduced in arsenic-treated animals, whereas there were ameliorating effects of vitamin E on these parameters. The major histopathological changes were present in the form of loss of germinal epithelium, atrophy of Leydig cells and vacuolations. Vitamin E in combination with sodium arsenite increased the active spermatogenesis as well as restoration of germinal epithelium. It can be concluded from the present findings that sodium arsenite causes toxicity in the male reproductive system of Teddy goat bucks with major changes in parenchyma of testes. Supplementation of vitamin E has protective effects on the toxicity of sodium arsenite on the reproductive system of male Teddy goat bucks.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Cabras , Compostos de Sódio/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Escroto/patologia , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Faraday Discuss ; 194: 621-638, 2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711803

RESUMO

The ultra-bright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of biological and inorganic systems beyond what is possible at synchrotron sources. Although the structure and chemistry at the catalytic sites have been studied intensively in both biological and inorganic systems, a full understanding of the atomic-scale chemistry requires new approaches beyond the steady state X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. Following the dynamic changes in the geometric and electronic structure at ambient conditions, while overcoming X-ray damage to the redox active catalytic center, is key for deriving reaction mechanisms. Such studies become possible by using the intense and ultra-short femtosecond X-ray pulses from an XFEL, where sample is probed before it is damaged. We have developed methodology for simultaneously collecting X-ray diffraction data and X-ray emission spectra, using an energy dispersive spectrometer, at ambient conditions, and used this approach to study the room temperature structure and intermediate states of the photosynthetic water oxidizing metallo-protein, photosystem II. Moreover, we have also used this setup to simultaneously collect the X-ray emission spectra from multiple metals to follow the ultrafast dynamics of light-induced charge transfer between multiple metal sites. A Mn-Ti containing system was studied at an XFEL to demonstrate the efficacy and potential of this method.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X , Elétrons , Lasers , Catálise , Raios X
18.
J Immunotoxicol ; 12(1): 16-23, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24328552

RESUMO

This study sought to assess if chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced immunotoxic effects in orally-treated day-old broiler chicks. Groups of chicks received per os CPF diluted in xylene at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight (CPF-5, CPF-10, and CPF-20) orally daily for 15 days. Xylene and control groups received xylene alone (1 ml/kg BW) and physiological saline, respectively. At various times during/after the exposure regimens, different immune end-points were analyzed in the birds. Humoral immunity was examined by assessing antibody responses to sheep red blood cells. Cell-mediated immunity was measured via lymphoproliferative responses to avian tuberculin. Leukocyte phagocytic ability was measured using a carbon clearance assay. Results showed that CPF administered to broiler chicks caused a dose-dependent decrease in humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, and phagocytic activity. Dose- and time-related pathological changes were observed in bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus in treated birds. These changes were mild, moderate, and severe, respectively, in the 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg CPF groups. The Bursa of Fabricius in treated birds showed increased inter-follicular connective tissue proliferation, severe moderate cytoplasmic vacuolation, edema, and degenerative changes such as pyknosis and fragmentation of nuclei that depleted the follicles of lymphoid cells. In the spleen, disorganization of follicular patterns, severe congestion, cytoplasmic vacuolation, degenerative changes, and hyperplasia of reticular cells were noted. The thymus in treated birds exhibited congestion, hyper-cellularity, and a presence of immature monocytes in the medullary region, as well as myoid cell necrosis. Taken together, these studies clearly demonstrated that chlorpyrifos could induce immunotoxicities in broiler birds.


Assuntos
Bolsa de Fabricius/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Timo/patologia , Xilenos/administração & dosagem
20.
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol ; 41(1): 45-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24707682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and type of laparoscopic complications seen in a teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and forty-one diagnostic and operative laparoscopic procedures were performed by the same senior resident/resident surgical team. Direct entry technique was used for all procedures. RESULTS: The procedures included 74 (16.8%) diagnostic and 367 (83.2%) operative laparoscopies. The overall complication rate was 7.7% (34 cases). Conversion to laparotomy occurred in 16 cases (3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The complication rate was found to be slightly higher than the rates quoted in the literature. This rate of 7.7% is still an acceptable one.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Laparotomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Ureter/lesões
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