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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171069

RESUMO

Rationale: The Global Burden of Disease programme identified smoking, and ambient and household air pollution as the main drivers of death and disability from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Objective: To estimate the attributable risk of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO), a quantifiable characteristic of COPD, due to several risk factors. Methods: The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study is a cross-sectional study of adults, aged≥40, in a globally distributed sample of 41 urban and rural sites. Based on data from 28,459 participants, we estimated the prevalence of CAO, defined as a post-bronchodilator one-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity ratio < lower limit of normal, and the relative risks associated with different risk factors. Local RR were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical model borrowing information from across sites. From these RR and the prevalence of risk factors, we estimated local Population Attributable Risks (PAR). Measurements and Main Results: Mean prevalence of CAO was 11.2% in men and 8.6% in women. Mean PAR for smoking was 5.1% in men and 2.2% in women. The next most influential risk factors were poor education levels, working in a dusty job for ≥10 years, low body mass index (BMI), and a history of tuberculosis. The risk of CAO attributable to the different risk factors varied across sites. Conclusions: While smoking remains the most important risk factor for CAO, in some areas poor education, low BMI and passive smoking are of greater importance. Dusty occupations and tuberculosis are important risk factors at some sites.

2.
Eur Clin Respir J ; 7(1): 1799540, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944202

RESUMO

Rationale: There is limited knowledge on the effect of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) on lung cancer risk in COPD patients with and without a history of asthma. This study aims to examine whether AECOPD is associated with risk of lung cancer, and whether the effect depends on a history of asthma. Methods: In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 852 subjects with COPD performed spirometry, and filled out questionnaires on smoking habits, symptoms and disease history. These data were linked to lung cancer data from the Cancer Registry of Norway through 2013. AECOPD, measured at baseline was the main predictor. To quantify differences in lung cancer risk, we performed Cox-proportional hazards regression. We adjusted for sex, age, smoking variables, body mass index, and lung function. Measurements and results: During follow-up, 8.8% of the subjects with, and 5.9% of the subjects without exacerbations were diagnosed with lung cancer. Cox regression showed a significant increased risk of lung cancer with one or more exacerbations in COPD patients without a history of asthma, HRR = 2.77 (95% CI 1.39-5.52). We found a significant interaction between a history of asthma and AECOPD on lung cancer. Conclusions: AECOPD is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in COPD patients without a history of asthma.

3.
Respir Med ; 170: 106060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between respiratory symptoms and mortality in four cohorts of the general population in Norway aged 15-75 years and in selected subgroups in the pooled sample. METHODS: The study comprised 158,702 persons, who were drawn randomly from the Norwegian population register. All subjects received a standardized, self-administered questionnaire on 11 respiratory symptoms between 1972 and 1998, with follow-up of death until December 31, 2017. Analyses were performed on 114,380 respondents. RESULTS: The hazard of death was closely associated with sex, age, and education. The hazard ratios (HR) for death and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) by risk factors were similar in the four cohorts. After adjustment for demographic and environmental, modifiable factors, the HR for death was 1.90 (95% CI 1.80-2.00) for breathlessness score 3, 1.28 (1.21-1.37) for cough/phlegm score 5 and 1.09 (1.05-1.14) for attack of breathlessness/wheeze score 2 compared to the referent (no symptom), respectively. The cough/phlegm score was associated with death in current smokers but not in never smokers or ex-smokers. Breathlessness score was associated with death in men and women. CONCLUSION: Among persons aged 45-75 years, respiratory symptoms were significant predictors of all cause mortality. Education and smoking habits influenced only the associations between coughing and mortality. The associations were independent of study sites.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
5.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1639-1655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413559

RESUMO

Rationale: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 is based on an ABCD assessment tool of symptoms and exacerbation history and grade 1-4 of airflow limitation severity, facilitating classification either into 4 groups (ABCD) or 16 groups (1A-4D). We aimed to compare the GOLD 2011, GOLD 2017 ABCD, and GOLD 2017 1A-4D classifications in terms of their distribution and prediction of mortality and hospitalizations. Methods: In the GenKOLS study, 912 COPD patients with FEV1 less than 80% of the predicted answered questionnaires and performed lung function testing in 2003-2005. The patients were recruited from a hospital patient registry (n=662) and from the general population (n=250), followed up until 2011 with respect to all-cause and respiratory mortality, and all-cause and respiratory hospitalizations. We performed logistic regression and receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses for the different classifications with estimations of area under the curve (AUC) for comparisons. Results: Mean age at baseline was 60 years (SD 11), 55% were male. Mean duration of follow-up was 91 months. By GOLD 2011, 21% were classified as group A, 29% group B, 6% group C, and 43% as group D, corresponding percentages for GOLD 2017 were: 25%, 52%, 3%, and 20%. The GOLD 2011 classification had higher AUC values than the GOLD 2017 group ABCD classification for respiratory mortality and hospitalization, but after inclusion of airflow limitation severity in GOLD 2017 groups 2A-4D, AUC values were significantly higher with GOLD 2017. Conclusion: In a clinically relevant sample of COPD patients, the GOLD 2017 classification doubles the prevalence of group B and halves the prevalence of groups C and D as compared to the GOLD 2011 classification. The prediction of respiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization was better for GOLD 2017 2A-4D taking airflow limitation severity into account, as compared to GOLD 2017 ABCD and GOLD 2011.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Testes de Função Respiratória , Área Sob a Curva , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/classificação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
8.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
9.
Clin Respir J ; 13(2): 114-119, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Based on the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST), guidelines on screening programs for lung cancer have recommended low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). De Torres et al made a score for COPD patients (COPD-LUCSS) to improve their selection criteria. OBJECTIVE: To examine and compare the discriminating value of both scores in a community-based cohort of COPD patients. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-two ever-smokers with COPD from the GenKOLS study in Bergen were merged with the Cancer Registry of Norway. We divided the patients into groups of high and low risk according to the COPD-LUCSS and the NLST criteria. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to analyse the associations between the scores and lung cancer. We used Harrell's C and area under the curve (AUC) to estimate discriminating values and to compare the models. RESULTS: Hazard ratio for the high risk vs the low risk in the COPD-LUCSS was 3.0 (1.4-6.5 95% CI), P < 0.01. Hazard ratio for the NLST criteria was 2.2 (95% CI 1.1-4.5), P < 0.05. Harrell's C was 0.63 for the COPD-LUCSS and 0.59 for the NLST selection criteria. AUC was 0.61 for COPD-LUCSS and 0.59 for NLST criteria. Comparing tests showed no differences (P = 0.76). CONCLUSION: Although the COPD-LUCSS and the NLST criteria were associated with increased risk of lung cancer, the AUC and Harrell's C values showed that these models have poor discriminating abilities in our cohort of COPD patients. The COPD-LUCSS was not significantly better than the NLST criteria.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
10.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 60(5): 523-531, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694715

RESUMO

DlCO is a widely used pulmonary function test in clinical practice and a particularly useful measure for assessing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that elucidating genetic determinants of DlCO could lead to better understanding of the genetic architecture of COPD. We estimated the heritability of DlCO using common genetic variants and performed genome-wide association analyses in four cohorts enriched for subjects with COPD (COPDGene [Genetic Epidemiology of COPD], NETT [National Emphysema Treatment Trial], GenKOLS [Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease study], and TESRA [Treatment of Emphysema With a Gamma-Selective Retinoid Agonist study]) using a combined European ancestry white dataset and a COPDGene African American dataset. We assessed our genome-wide significant and suggestive associations for DlCO in previously reported genome-wide association studies of COPD and related traits. We also characterized associations of known COPD-associated variants and DlCO. We estimated the SNP-based heritability of DlCO in the European ancestry white population to be 22% (P = 0.0004). We identified three genome-wide significant associations with DlCO: variants near TGFB2, CHRNA3, and PDE11A loci (P < 5 × 10-8). In addition, 12 loci were suggestively associated with DlCO in European ancestry white (P < 1 × 10-5 in the combined analysis and P < 0.05 in both COPDGene and GenKOLS), including variants near NEGR1, CADM2, PCDH7, RETREG1, DACT2, NRG1, ANKRD18A, KRT86, NTN4, ARHGAP28, INSR, and PCBP3. Some DlCO-associated variants were also associated with COPD, emphysema, and/or spirometric values. Among 25 previously reported COPD loci, TGFB2, CHRNA3/CHRNA5, FAM13A, DSP, and CYP2A6 were associated with DlCO (P < 0.001). We identified several genetic loci that were significantly associated with DlCO and characterized effects of known COPD-associated loci on DlCO. These results could lead to better understanding of the heterogeneous nature of COPD.


Assuntos
3',5'-GMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/genética , 3',5'-GMP Cíclico Fosfodiesterases/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Citocromo P-450 CYP2A6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2A6/metabolismo , Desmoplaquinas/genética , Desmoplaquinas/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etnologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(6): 714-722, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is a major environmental risk factor for many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are shared genetic influences on cigarette smoking and COPD. Genetic risk factors for cigarette smoking in cohorts enriched for COPD are largely unknown. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association analyses for average cigarettes per day (CPD) across the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) non-Hispanic white (NHW) (n = 6659) and African American (AA) (n = 3260), GenKOLS (the Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) (n = 1671), and ECLIPSE (the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) (n = 1942) cohorts. In addition, we performed exome array association analyses across the COPDGene NHW and AA cohorts. We considered analyses across the entire cohort and stratified by COPD case-control status. RESULTS: We identified genome-wide significant associations for CPD on chromosome 15q25 across all cohorts (lowest p = 1.78 × 10-15), except in the COPDGene AA cohort alone. Previously reported associations on chromosome 19 had suggestive and directionally consistent associations (RAB4, p = 1.95 × 10-6; CYP2A7, p = 7.50 × 10-5; CYP2B6, p = 4.04 × 10-4). When we stratified by COPD case-control status, single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 15q25 were nominally associated with both NHW COPD cases (ß = 0.11, p = 5.58 × 10-4) and controls (ß = 0.12, p = 3.86 × 10-5) For the gene-based exome array association analysis of rare variants, there were no exome-wide significant associations. For these previously replicated associations, the most significant results were among COPDGene NHW subjects for CYP2A7 (p = 5.2 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: In a large genome-wide association study of both common variants and a gene-based association of rare coding variants in ever-smokers, we found genome-wide significant associations on chromosome 15q25 with CPD for common variants, but not for rare coding variants. These results were directionally consistent among COPD cases and controls. IMPLICATIONS: We examined both common and rare coding variants associated with CPD in a large population of heavy smokers with and without COPD of NHW and AA descent. We replicated genome-wide significant associations on chromosome 15q25 with CPD for common variants among NHW subjects, but not for rare variants. We demonstrated for the first time that common variants on chromosome 15q25 associated with CPD are similar among COPD cases and controls. Previously reported associations on chromosome 19 showed suggestive and directionally consistent associations among common variants (RAB4, CYP2A7, and CYP2B6) and for rare variants (CYP2A7) among COPDGene NHW subjects. Although the genetic effect sizes for these single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 15q25 are modest, we show that this creates a substantial smoking burden over the lifetime of a smoker.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Proteínas rab4 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 195, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from several studies show poor guideline adherence to COPD treatment, but no such study has been undertaken in Norway. The objectives of this study, was to estimate and compare the guideline adherence to COPD treatment in general population-based and hospital-recruited COPD patients, and find possible predictors of guideline adherence. METHODS: From the prospective, observational EconCOPD-study, we analysed guideline adherence for 90 population-based COPD cases compared to 245 hospital-recruited COPD patients. Overall guideline adherence was defined as correct pharmacological treatment, and influenza vaccination the preceding year, and having received smoking cessation advice. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with the dichotomous outcome overall guideline adherence adjusting for relevant variables. RESULTS: The overall guideline adherence for population-based COPD cases was 6.7%, significantly lower than the 29.8% overall guideline-adherence amongst hospital-recruited COPD patients. Adherence to pharmacological treatment guidelines was 10.0 and 35.5%, for the two recruitment sources, respectively. GOLD-stage 3 to 4 was associated with significantly better guideline adherence compared to GOLD-stage 2 (OR (95% CI) 18.9 (8.37,42.7)). The unadjusted difference between the two recruitment sources was completely explained by degree of airflow obstruction. CONCLUSION: Overall guideline adherence was very low for both recruitment sources. We call for increased attention from authorities and healthcare personnel to improve the quality of care given to this patient group.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Diretivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
13.
Eur Respir J ; 49(5)2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28495686

RESUMO

There is limited knowledge about the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness in cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate if using CT to quantitatively assess the amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness independently predicts the subsequent incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer.In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 947 ever-smokers performed spirometry and underwent CT examination. The main predictors were the amount of emphysema measured by the percentage of low attenuation areas (%LAA) on CT and standardised measures of airway wall thickness (AWT-PI10). Cancer data from 2003-2013 were obtained from the Norwegian Cancer Register. The hazard ratio associated with emphysema and airway wall thickness was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression for cancer diagnoses.During 10 years of follow-up, non-pulmonary cancer was diagnosed in 11% of the subjects with LAA <3%, in 19% of subjects with LAA 3-10%, and in 17% of subjects with LAA ≥10%. Corresponding numbers for lung cancer were 2%, 3% and 11%, respectively. After adjustment, the baseline amount of emphysema remained a significant predictor of the incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Airway wall thickness did not predict cancer independently.This study offers a strong argument that emphysema is an independent risk factor for both non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Noruega/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Enfisema Pulmonar/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Espirometria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 57(3): 367-375, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441029

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by a complex interaction of environmental exposures, most commonly cigarette smoke, and genetic factors. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure in the mouse is a commonly used animal model of COPD. We aimed to expand our knowledge about the variable susceptibility of inbred strains to this model and test for genetic variants associated with this trait. To that end, we sought to measure differential susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in the mouse, identify genetic loci associated with this quantitative trait, and find homologous human genes associated with COPD. Alveolar chord length (CL) in 34 inbred strains of mice was measured after 6 months of exposure to cigarette smoke. After testing for association, we connected a murine candidate locus to a published meta-analysis of moderate-to-severe COPD. We identified deleterious mutations in a candidate gene in silico and measured gene expression in extreme strains. A/J was the most susceptible strain in our survey (Δ CL 7.0 ± 2.2 µm) and CBA/J was the least susceptible (Δ CL -0.3 ± 1.2 µm). By integrating mouse and human genome-wide scans, we identified the candidate gene Abi3bp. CBA/J mice harbor predicted deleterious variants in Abi3bp, and expression of the gene differs significantly between CBA/J and A/J mice. This is the first report of susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in 34 inbred strains of mice, and Abi3bp is identified as a potential contributor to this phenotype.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Simulação por Computador , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Mutação/genética , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(8): 1584-1596, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334838

RESUMO

The Asp358Ala variant in the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) gene has been implicated in asthma, autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders, but its role in other respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been investigated. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether there is an association between Asp358Ala and COPD or asthma risk, and to explore the role of the Asp358Ala variant in sIL-6R shedding from neutrophils and its pro-inflammatory effects in the lung. We undertook logistic regression using data from the UK Biobank and the ECLIPSE COPD cohort. Results were meta-analyzed with summary data from a further three COPD cohorts (7,519 total cases and 35,653 total controls), showing no association between Asp358Ala and COPD (OR = 1.02 [95% CI: 0.96, 1.07]). Data from the UK Biobank showed a positive association between the Asp358Ala variant and atopic asthma (OR = 1.07 [1.01, 1.13]). In a series of in vitro studies using blood samples from 37 participants, we found that shedding of sIL-6R from neutrophils was greater in carriers of the Asp358Ala minor allele than in non-carriers. Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells cultured with serum from homozygous carriers showed an increase in MCP-1 release in carriers of the minor allele, with the difference eliminated upon addition of tocilizumab. In conclusion, there is evidence that neutrophils may be an important source of sIL-6R in the lungs, and the Asp358Ala variant may have pro-inflammatory effects in lung cells. However, we were unable to identify evidence for an association between Asp358Ala and COPD.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Asma/sangue , Asma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia
16.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 57(1): 35-46, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28170284

RESUMO

The heritability of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cannot be fully explained by recognized genetic risk factors identified as achieving genome-wide significance. In addition, the combined contribution of genetic variation to COPD risk has not been fully explored. We sought to determine: (1) whether studies of variants from previous studies of COPD or lung function in a larger sample could identify additional associated variants, particularly for severe COPD; and (2) the impact of genetic risk scores on COPD. We genotyped 3,346 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,588 cases (1,803 severe COPD) and 1,782 control subjects from four cohorts, and performed association testing with COPD, combining these results with existing genotyping data from 6,633 cases (3,497 severe COPD) and 5,704 control subjects. In addition, we developed genetic risk scores from SNPs associated with lung function and COPD and tested their discriminatory power for COPD-related measures. We identified significant associations between SNPs near PPIC (P = 1.28 × 10-8) and PPP4R4/SERPINA1 (P = 1.01 × 10-8) and severe COPD; the latter association may be driven by recognized variants in SERPINA1. Genetic risk scores based on SNPs previously associated with COPD and lung function had a modest ability to discriminate COPD (area under the curve, ∼0.6), and accounted for a mean 0.9-1.9% lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted for each additional risk allele. In a large genetic association analysis, we identified associations with severe COPD near PPIC and SERPINA1. A risk score based on combining genetic variants had modest, but significant, effects on risk of COPD and lung function.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(6): 757-771, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27669027

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Emphysema has considerable variability in the severity and distribution of parenchymal destruction throughout the lungs. Upper lobe-predominant emphysema has emerged as an important predictor of response to lung volume reduction surgery. Yet, aside from alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, the genetic determinants of emphysema distribution remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic influences of emphysema distribution in non-alpha-1 antitrypsin-deficient smokers. METHODS: A total of 11,532 subjects with complete genotype and computed tomography densitometry data in the COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]; non-Hispanic white and African American), ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints), and GenKOLS (Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) studies were analyzed. Two computed tomography scan emphysema distribution measures (difference between upper-third and lower-third emphysema; ratio of upper-third to lower-third emphysema) were tested for genetic associations in all study subjects. Separate analyses in each study population were followed by a fixed effect metaanalysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-, gene-, and pathway-based approaches were used. In silico functional evaluation was also performed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified five loci associated with emphysema distribution at genome-wide significance. These loci included two previously reported associations with COPD susceptibility (4q31 near HHIP and 15q25 near CHRNA5) and three new associations near SOWAHB, TRAPPC9, and KIAA1462. Gene set analysis and in silico functional evaluation revealed pathways and cell types that may potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema distribution. CONCLUSIONS: This multicohort genome-wide association study identified new genomic loci associated with differential emphysematous destruction throughout the lungs. These findings may point to new biologic pathways on which to expand diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00608764).


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 56(3): 332-341, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27854507

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease with strong environmental and genetic influences and sexually dimorphic features. Although genetic risk factors for COPD have been identified, much of the heritability remains unexplained. Sex-based genetic association studies may uncover additional COPD genetic risk factors. We studied current and former smokers from COPD case-control cohorts (COPDGene non-Hispanic whites and African Americans, Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-Points, and Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease). COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity less than 0.70 and forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted less than 80. Testing was performed across all cohorts and combined in a meta-analysis adjusted for age, pack-years, and genetic ancestry. We first performed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-sex interaction testing on the outcome of COPD affection status. We performed sex-stratified association testing for SNPs with interaction P less than 10-6. We examined over 8 million SNPs in four populations, including 6,260 subjects with COPD (40.6% female) and 5,269 smoking control subjects (47.3% female). The SNP rs9615358 in the cadherin gene CELSR1 approached genome-wide significance for an interaction with sex (P = 1.24 × 10-7). In the sex-stratified meta-analysis, this SNP was associated with COPD among females (odds ratio, 1.37 [95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.49]; P = 3.32 × 10-7) but not males (odds ratio, 0.90 [95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.01]; P = 0.06). CELSR1 is involved in fetal lung development. In a human fetal lung tissue dataset, we observed greater CELSR1 expression in female compared with male samples. This SNP-by-sex genome-wide association analysis identified the fetal lung development gene, CELSR1, as a potential sex-specific risk factor for COPD. Identifying sex-specific genetic risk factors may reveal new insights into sexually dimorphic features of COPD.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Demografia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 11: 2099-108, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to estimate the impact of recruitment source and outcome definition on the incidence of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and explore possible predictors of AECOPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During a 1-year follow-up, we performed a baseline visit and four telephone interviews of 81 COPD patients and 132 controls recruited from a population-based survey and 205 hospital-recruited COPD patients. Both a definition based on health care utilization and a symptom-based definition of AECOPD were applied. For multivariate analyses, we chose a negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: COPD patients from the population- and hospital-based samples experienced on average 0.4 utilization-defined and 2.9 symptom-defined versus 1.0 and 5.9 annual exacerbations, respectively. The incidence rate ratios for utilization-defined AECOPD were 2.45 (95% CI 1.22-4.95), 3.43 (95% CI 1.59-7.38), and 5.67 (95% CI 2.58-12.48) with Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease spirometric stages II, III, and IV, respectively. The corresponding incidence rate ratios for the symptom-based definition were 3.08 (95% CI 1.96-4.84), 3.45 (95% CI 1.92-6.18), and 4.00 (95% CI 2.09-7.66). Maintenance therapy (regular long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting beta-2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, or theophylline) also increased the risk of AECOPD with both exacerbation definitions (incidence rate ratios 1.65 and 1.73, respectively). The risk of AECOPD was 59%-78% higher in the hospital sample than in the population sample. CONCLUSION: If externally valid conclusions are to be made regarding incidence and predictors of AECOPD, studies should be based on general population samples or adjustments should be made on account of a likely higher incidence in other samples. Likewise, the effect of different AECOPD definitions should be taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários , Seleção de Pacientes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/classificação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Eur Clin Respir J ; 3: 31265, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27600696

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Data on the change in diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) over time are limited. We aimed to examine change in DLCO (ΔDLCO) over a 9-year period and its predictors. METHODS: A Norwegian community sample comprising 1,152 subjects aged 18-73 years was examined in 1987 and 1988. Of the 1,109 subjects still alive, 830 (75%) were re-examined in 1996/97. DLCO was measured with the single breath-holding technique. Covariables recorded at baseline included sex, age, height, weight, smoking status, pack years, occupational exposure, educational level, and spirometry. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to examine relations between ΔDLCO and the covariables. RESULTS: At baseline, mean [standard deviation (SD)] DLCO was 10.8 (2.4) and 7.8 (1.6) mmol·min(-1)·kPa(-1) in men and women, respectively. Mean (SD) ΔDLCO was -0.24 (1.31) mmol·min(-1)·kPa(-1). ΔDLCO was negatively related to baseline age, DLCO, current smoking, and pack years, and positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and weight. Sex, occupational exposure, and educational level were not related to ΔDLCO. CONCLUSIONS: In a community sample, more rapid decline in DLCO during 9 years of observation time was related to higher age, baseline current smoking, more pack years, larger weight, and lower FEV1.

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