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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 54, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389207

RESUMO

Poultry production contributes significantly to the livelihoods of Ethiopian farmers and to the national economy although it is hampered by different factors, including poultry diseases. There is scarcity of published evidences on the occurrence and impacts of poultry diseases although such evidences are important for policy makers in designing appropriate interventions. A total of 595 households were interviewed and 11 FGDs were conducted to collect data on the occurrence of diseases and the number of dead chickens in the last 12 months. Hence, respiratory diseases, sudden death, and eye-face-head diseases were mentioned in all of the FGDs as the most frequently occurring disease in the districts. Of households interviewed, 86.1% reported poultry disease occurrence in the last 12 months, and gastrointestinal, eye-face-head, and neurological diseases were identified to be the top three ranked diseases of chickens in the districts. Flocks with access to diagnostic services (Adj. OR = 4.16; P = 0.004) and/or access to animal health providers (Adj. OR = 10.50; P = 0.001) were more likely to report disease occurrence. In the studied population, the diseases resulted in deaths of 2219 chickens valued at 352,219.5 Birr (11,740.65 USD) and a mean crude mortality of 31.87%. Female-lead households (mean difference = 5.95%; P = 0.018) and multiple age units present on the farm (mean difference = 20.92%; P = < 0.000) had higher chicken mortality. Similarly, higher mortality was reported in flocks without access to diagnosis (mean difference = 9.97%; P = < 0.000) and vaccination (mean difference = 12.34%; P = < 0.000) services. The high occurrence of disease and mortalities might be explained by a lack of an organized poultry health service delivery system in the country. Therefore, a carefully designed health service delivery system addressing needs of poultry producers, supported by relevant policy and corresponding strategies, is recommended to address the indicated challenges. Moreover, private health providers with well-defined roles need to be engaged to successfully and sustainably solve the poultry disease problems.

2.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 553940, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195524

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in Ethiopia with higher prevalence in cattle, particularly in the central parts. Spread of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) to wider regions is inevitable in uncontrolled conditions. This study was conducted to explore the pathology, characterize M. bovis strains, and describe genotypic diversity to demonstrate possible epidemiological links in emerging dairy areas of Ethiopia, namely, Mekelle and Gondar. Twenty-seven bTB positive cattle identified by the Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Tuberculin (SICCT) test were subjected to post-mortem inspection to determine lesion distribution and pathological score. Samples from tissues with visible tuberculous or suspected non-visible lesions were processed and cultured following a standard protocol. Isolates identified as M. bovis by Region of Difference (RD)-based Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were also spoligotyped to determine their spoligotype patterns. Post-mortem inspection of visceral organs indicated bTB suggestive lesions in 41% of the animals, with 25% being in the lungs. Lymph nodes from 77% of the animals had lesions. Fifty-five isolates identified from 24 of the slaughtered animals were confirmed as M. bovis. No other mycobacterial species were isolated. Spoligotyping classified strains from 21 of these animals into seven spoligotype patterns: SB0133, SB0134, SB1176, SB2233, SB2290, SB2467, and SB2520. More than one spoligotype were identified from five of these animals, and none of the last four spoligotypes had been reported in Ethiopia before. SB0134 was the most predominant type (47%) followed by SB0133 (25.5%). SB0133, SB2290, SB2467, and SB1176 are spoligotypes lacking spacers 3-7, characteristics of M. bovis strains of the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex, while SB0134, SB2233, and SB2520 do not belong to any of the established clonal complexes and likely to have a different evolutionary history. Despite a small sample size, the present study showed strain diversity with multiple genotypes identified in a single herd and even within a single animal, and the genotypes showed no sign of geographical localization, which could be a consequence of significant movement of bTB diseased cattle around the country, spreading the disease. Therefore, any future control programme of bTB in Ethiopia needs to address the risks of cattle movement.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the major source of active TB and is an obstacle to the strategy of World Health Organization to end TB by 2035. In Ethiopia, there are hundreds of prisons and they are conducive settings for the transmission of TB and could serve as the sources of infection to the general public. However, there is little data on the epidemiology of TB in prisons in Ethiopia. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI and evaluate associated risk factors in prisons in East Wollega Zone in western Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional design and systematic sampling technique were used to select 352 prisoners from a total of 2620 prisoners during the two months (May and June, 2019). The selected inmates were consented for their willingness to participate in the study. Thereafter, they were interviewed and 2ml of blood sample was collected from each prisoner and screened for LTBI using interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). The data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 and logistic regression was used to model the likelihood of LTBI occurrence and to identify risk factors associated with LTBI. RESULTS: The prevalence of LTBI was 51.2% (95% CI: 46.45-57%) and higher prevalence was recorded in males (53%) than in females (43.5%) although the difference was not significant. Prisoners whose age ≥45 years (AOR = 2.48, 95%CI, 1.04-5.9), who chewed khat (AOR = 2.27; 95% CI, 1.27-4.19), who were prisoned over a year (AOR = 1.81, 95%CI, 1.04-3.18) and who were in overcrowded pens (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI, 1.002-3.65) were at higher risk of LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of LTBI in prisoners in West Wollega Zone of western Ethiopia was high and could serve as sources of infection to the public. Hence optimum handling of prisoners, and regular follow up and treatment of TB cases in prisons were recommended to minimize the burden of TB in the Zone.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Evol Med Public Health ; 2020(1): 49-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211193

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae are two of the most important agents of tuberculosis in livestock and the most important causes of zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. However, little is known about the global population structure, phylogeography and evolutionary history of these pathogens. Methodology: We compiled a global collection of 3364 whole-genome sequences from M.bovis and M.caprae originating from 35 countries and inferred their phylogenetic relationships, geographic origins and age. Results: Our results resolved the phylogenetic relationship among the four previously defined clonal complexes of M.bovis, and another eight newly described here. Our phylogeographic analysis showed that M.bovis likely originated in East Africa. While some groups remained restricted to East and West Africa, others have subsequently dispersed to different parts of the world. Conclusions and implications: Our results allow a better understanding of the global population structure of M.bovis and its evolutionary history. This knowledge can be used to define better molecular markers for epidemiological investigations of M.bovis in settings where whole-genome sequencing cannot easily be implemented. Lay summary: During the last few years, analyses of large globally representative collections of whole-genome sequences (WGS) from the human-adapted Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) lineages have enhanced our understanding of the global population structure, phylogeography and evolutionary history of these pathogens. In contrast, little corresponding data exists for M. bovis, the most important agent of tuberculosis in livestock. Using whole-genome sequences of globally distributed M. bovis isolates, we inferred the genetic relationships among different M. bovis genotypes distributed around the world. The most likely origin of M. bovis is East Africa according to our inferences. While some M. bovis groups remained restricted to East and West Africa, others have subsequently dispersed to different parts of the world driven by cattle movements.

5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(5): 1041-1049, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476407

RESUMO

A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of ovine and bovine brucellosis in the livestock-wildlife interface area of Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia. Furthermore, producer's knowledge about brucellosis and its zoonotic potential was assessed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 268 cattle and 246 goat sera were collected from 50 herds and 46 flocks and subjected to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel to detect anti-Brucella species antibodies. Positive reactions were further confirmed with compliment fixation test (CFT). Flock and herd level seroprevalence rate was 12.8% (95% CI 4.8-25.7) and 32.0% (95% CI 19.5-46.7) in goats and cattle, respectively. An overall animal-level seroprevalence of 4.5% (95% CI 2.25-7.86) and 9.7% (95% CI 6.44-13.89) was recorded for goats and cattle, respectively. Seroprevalence showed an increasing trend with age, where adult cattle > 2 years. Goats (> 1 year) recorded relatively higher seroprevalence, but the differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, female cattle and goats recorded a relatively higher seroprevalence, 11 and 5.6%, respectively, compared to males but the difference was not significant. However, a significant (P < 0.01) variation of seroprevalence was noted for parity (bovine), higher in animals in second parity, and abortion history, in both species, higher in animals that experienced abortion. Interviews revealed lack of awareness about brucellosis and food safety related to the zoonotic potential from consuming raw animal products (milk and meat). Ninety-eight percent of respondents did not consider handling abortion material is risky, and only a very low proportion (8%, n = 50) was able to mention limited zoonotic diseases (anthrax and Taenia cysticercosis) could be transmissible to people. The study indicated that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the interface area and calls for further broad epidemiological investigation of the disease in livestock, human and wildlife following 'one health' unified research approaches beside enhancing public awareness.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/imunologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucella/imunologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Gado , Masculino , Leite , Parques Recreativos , Fatores de Risco , Rosa Bengala , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
6.
Curr Biol ; 25(24): 3260-6, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26687624

RESUMO

Colonial medical reports claimed that tuberculosis (TB) was largely unknown in Africa prior to European contact, providing a "virgin soil" for spread of TB in highly susceptible populations previously unexposed to the disease [1, 2]. This is in direct contrast to recent phylogenetic models which support an African origin for TB [3-6]. To address this apparent contradiction, we performed a broad genomic sampling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia. All members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) arose from clonal expansion of a single common ancestor [7] with a proposed origin in East Africa [3, 4, 8]. Consistent with this proposal, MTBC lineage 7 is almost exclusively found in that region [9-11]. Although a detailed medical history of Ethiopia supports the view that TB was rare until the 20(th) century [12], over the last century Ethiopia has become a high-burden TB country [13]. Our results provide further support for an African origin for TB, with some genotypes already present on the continent well before European contact. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a pattern of serial introductions of multiple genotypes into Ethiopia in association with human migration and trade. In place of a "virgin soil" fostering the spread of TB in a previously naive population, we propose that increased TB mortality in Africa was driven by the introduction of European strains of M. tuberculosis alongside expansion of selected indigenous strains having biological characteristics that carry a fitness benefit in the urbanized settings of post-colonial Africa.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 112, 2015 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25886866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country, reports one of the highest incidence rates of extra-pulmonary TB dominated by cervical lymphadenitis (TBLN). Infection with Mycobacterium bovis has previously been excluded as the main reason for the high rate of extrapulmonary TB in Ethiopia. METHODS: Here we examined demographic and clinical characteristics of 953 pulmonary (PTB) and 1198 TBLN patients visiting 11 health facilities in distinct geographic areas of Ethiopia. Clinical characteristics were also correlated with genotypes of the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. RESULTS: No major patient or bacterial strain factor could be identified as being responsible for the high rate of TBLN, and there was no association with HIV infection. However, analysis of the demographic data of involved patients showed that having regular and direct contact with live animals was more associated with TBLN than with PTB, although no M. bovis was isolated from patients with TBLN. Among PTB patients, those infected with Lineage 4 reported "contact with other TB patient" more often than patients infected with Lineage 3 did (OR = 1.6, CI 95% 1.0-2.7; p = 0.064). High fever, in contrast to low and moderate fever, was significantly associated with Lineage 4 (OR = 2.3; p = 0.024). On the other hand, TBLN cases infected with Lineage 4 tended to get milder symptoms overall for the constitutional symptoms than those infected with Lineage 3. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests a complex role for multiple interacting factors in the epidemiology of extrapulmonary TB in Ethiopia, including factors that can only be derived from population-based studies, which may prove to be significant for TB control in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/transmissão , Tuberculose/veterinária , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/transmissão
8.
J Vet Sci Med Diagn ; 2(1)2013 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24350302

RESUMO

To assess seroprevalences of Brucella and C. burnetii in pastoral livestock in southeast Ethiopia, a cross-sectional study was carried out in three livestock species (cattle, camels and goats). The study was conducted from July 2008 to August 2010, and eight pastoral associations (PAs) from the selected districts were included in the study. Sera from a total of 1830 animals, comprising 862 cattle, 458 camels and 510 goats were screened initially with Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) for Brucella. All RBPT positive and 25% of randomly selected negative sera were further tested by ELISA. These comprise a total of 460 animals (211 cattle, 102 camels and 147 goats). Out of sera from total of 1830 animals, 20% were randomly selected (180 cattle, 90 camels and 98 goats) and tested for C. burnetii using ELISA. The seroprevalences of Brucella was 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-2.6), 0.9% (95% CI, 0.3-2.7)b and 9.6% (95% CI, 5.2-17.1) in cattle, camels and goats, respectively. Goats and older animals were at higher risk of infection (OR=7.3, 95% CI, 2.8-19.1) and (OR=1.7 95% CI, 0.9-2.9), respectively. Out of 98 RBPT negative camel sera, 12.0% were positive for ELISA. The seroprevalences of C. burnetii were 31.6% (95% CI, 24.7-39.5), 90.0% (95% CI, 81.8-94.7) and 54.2% (95% CI, 46.1-62.1) in cattle, camels and goats, respectively. We found positive animals for C. burnetii test in all tested PAs for all animal species. Being camel and older animal was a risk factor for infection (OR=19.0, 95% CI, 8.9-41.2) and (OR=3.6, 95% CI, 2.0-6.6), respectively. High seropositivity of C. burnetii in all livestock species tested and higher seropositive in goats for Brucella, implies risks of human infection by both diseases. Thus, merit necessity of further study of both diseases in animals and humans in the area.

9.
10.
Ecohealth ; 9(2): 139-49, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22526748

RESUMO

Despite huge global efforts in tuberculosis (TB) control, pastoral areas remain under-investigated. During two years sputum and fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens were collected from 260 Ethiopian pastoralists of Oromia and Somali Regional States with suspected pulmonary TB and from 32 cases with suspected TB lymphadenitis. In parallel, 207 suspected tuberculous lesions were collected from cattle, camels and goats at abattoirs. All specimens were processed and cultured for mycobacteria; samples with acid-fast stained bacilli (AFB) were further characterized by molecular methods including genus and deletion typing as well as spoligotyping. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were sequenced at the 16S rDNA locus. Culturing of AFB from human sputum and FNA samples gave a yield of 174 (67%) and 9 (28%) isolates, respectively. Molecular typing was performed on 173 of these isolates and 160 were confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, three as M. bovis, and the remaining 10 were typed as NTMs. Similarly, 48 AFB isolates (23%) yielded from tuberculous lesions of livestock, of which 39 were molecular typed, including 24 M. bovis and 4 NTMs from cattle, 1 M. tuberculosis and 1 NTM from camels and 9 NTMs from goats. Isolation of M. bovis from humans and M. tuberculosis from livestock suggests transmission between livestock and humans in the pastoral areas of South-East Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão , Animais , Camelus/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado , Tipagem Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , População Rural , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 44(7): 1445-50, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22286399

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) detected by the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) was conducted in livestock of the Somali region in southeast Ethiopia--in four pastoral associations from January to August 2009. In 94 herds, each of 15 cattle, camels, and goats was tested per herd leading to a total of 1,418 CIDT tested animals, with 421 cattle, 479 camels, and 518 goats. A herd was considered positive if it had at least one reactor. Prevalence per animal species was calculated using a xtgee model for each species. The individual animal prevalence was 2.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-8.4], 0.4% (95% CI, 0.1-3%), and 0.2% (95% CI, 0.03-1.3) in cattle, camels, and goats, respectively. Prevalence of avian mycobacterium purified protein derivative (PPD) reactors in cattle, camels, and goats was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2-2.0%), 10.0% (95% CI, 7.0-14.0%), and 1.9 (95% CI, 0.9-4.0%), respectively, whereby camels had an odds ratio of 16.5 (95% CI, 5.0-55.0) when compared to cattle. There was no significant difference between livestock species in BTB positivity. In the present study, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was low in Somali pastoral livestock in general and in camels and goats in particular. The high proportion of camel reactors to avian PPD needs further investigation of its impact on camel production.


Assuntos
Camelus , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cabras , Testes Intradérmicos/veterinária , Gado , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 43(6): 1081-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21499975

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was conducted in pastoral cattle herds in southern Ethiopia, from February to August 2008 using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The prevalence of BTB and the risk factors for having positive reactor herds were assessed in four pastoral associations in two districts of southern Ethiopia, namely Goro-Dola with 242 cattle in 16 herds and Liben with 231 cattle in 15 herds. A herd was considered positive if there was at least one reactor animal in a herd. The test results were interpreted based on the Office Internationale des Epizooties recommended 4-mm and a recently suggested 2-mm cut-off. The apparent individual animal prevalence of tuberculin reactors was 5.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.0-8.0%) and 7.0% (95% CI, 5.0-10.0%), whereas the true prevalence estimate was 4.4% (95% CI, 0.8-8.0%) and 6.1% (95% CI, 2.6-9.5%), when using the 4-mm and the 2-mm cut-offs, respectively. The overall herd apparent prevalence of tuberculin reactor animals was 41.9% (95% CI, 24.9-60.9%) and 48.4% (95% CI, 30.2-66.9%) with the 4-mm and 2-mm cut-offs, respectively. A positive tuberculin test was associated with the age of animals and the main drinking water sources during dry seasons. In order to investigate the public health risks and the epidemiological importance of BTB in the area, we recommend to include other livestock species (camels and goats) as well as humans in future studies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Camelus/microbiologia , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cabras/microbiologia , Testes Intradérmicos/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária
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