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1.
Chemosphere ; : 132551, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655645

RESUMO

Biochar has widely been utilized as an agricultural soil amendment owing to its enhanced surface properties and cost-effectiveness. In the present work, the influence of tea waste biochar (TWBC) upon acid modification on Allium cepa L. (red onion) growth has been studied. Its effect as a soil amendment has also been studied by assessing the nutrient retention, microbial population growth and immobilization of potentially toxic metal ions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out by applying different biochar (BC) ratios (2% and 5% w/w) to soil as the growth media for onion plants. A 2.4 times (2.4 × ) reduction of phosphate from leaching was observed upon BC application at a ratio of 2% than that of 5%. Moreover, red onion plants that grew in the BC-fertilizer amended soil at a 2% ratio showed higher growth compared to that of 5%. A ∼1.3 × and ∼1.2 × increment of total dry weight was observed upon amendment of soil fertilizer system with nitric and sulfuric acid-modified TWBC, respectively. An analysis of the potentially toxic metal ion uptake by the respective plant parts showed that lead uptake by the roots of red onion was ∼8.3 × less in BC amended soil compared to that in contaminated soil. Thus, acid-modified TWBC can be considered a potential soil amendment for an enhanced red onion growth. Employing TWBC as a soil amendment in tropical countries, where tea-waste is in abundance, will boost sustainable agriculture.

2.
Environ Res ; 191: 110183, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919969

RESUMO

Remediation of steroidal estrogens from aqueous ecosystems is of prevailing concern due to their potential impact on organisms even at trace concentrations. Biochar (BC) is capable of estrogen removal due to its rich porosity and surface functionality. The presented review emphasizes on the adsorption mechanisms, isotherms, kinetics, ionic strength and the effect of matrix components associated with the removal of steroidal estrogens. The dominant sorption mechanisms reported for estrogen were π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions and hydrogen bonding. Natural organic matter and ionic species were seen to influence the hydrophobicity of the estrogen in multiple ways. Zinc activation and magnetization of the BC increased the surface area and surface functionalities leading to high adsorption capacities. The contribution by persistent free radicals and the arene network of BC have promoted the catalytic degradation of adsorbates via electron transfer mechanisms. The presence of surface functional groups and the redox activity of BC facilitates the bacterial degradation of estrogens. The sorptive removal of estrogens from aqueous systems has been minimally reviewed as a part of a collective evaluation of micropollutants. However, to the best of our knowledge, a critique focusing specifically and comprehensively on BC-based removal of steroidal estrogens does not exist. The presented review is a critical assessment of the existing literature on BC based steroidal estrogen adsorption and attempts to converge the scattered knowledge regarding its mechanistic interpretations. Sorption studies using natural water matrices containing residue level concentrations, and dynamic sorption experiments can be identified as future research directions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Estrogênios , Água
3.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124788, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521935

RESUMO

Digestion of biomass derived carbonaceous materials such as biochar (BC) can be challenging due to their high chemical recalcitrance and vast variations in composition. Reports on the development of specific sample digestion methods for such materials remain inadequate and thus require considerable attention. Nine different carbonaceous materials; slow-pyrolyzed tea-waste and king coconut BC produced at 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C, sludge waste BC produced at 700 °C, wet fast-pyrolyzed Douglas-Fir BC and steam activated coconut shell BC have been tested to evaluate a relatively fast and convenient open-vessel digestion method using seven digestion reagents including nitric acid (NA), fuming nitric acid (FNA), sulfuric acid (SA), NA/SA, FNA/SA, NA/H2O2 and SA/H2O2 mixtures. From the tested digestion reagents, SA/H2O2 mixture dissolved low temperature produced BC (LTBC) within 2 h with occasional shaking and no external heating. Except peroxide mixtures, the other reagents were used to evaluate microwave digestion (MWD) efficiency. Nitric acid mixture was capable of only completely digesting LTBC in the MWD procedure whereas FNA, NA/SA and FNA/SA mixtures resulted in the successful dissolution of all tested carbonaceous materials. Amongst them, FNA provided the least matrix effect in the quantification of the four metals tested using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Tested recoveries for FNA were satisfactory as well. It was concluded that FNA is a preferable reagent for microwave digestion of BC.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Resíduos , Cocos , Indústria de Laticínios , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metais/análise , Micro-Ondas , Ácido Nítrico/química , Pirólise , Esgotos , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química
4.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109429, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491719

RESUMO

Magnetic Fe3O4/Douglas fir biochar composites (MBC) were prepared with a 29.2% wt. Fe3O4 loading and used to treat As(III)-contaminated water. Toxicity of As(III) (inorganic) is significantly greater than As(V) and more difficult to remove from water. Removal efficiency was optimized verses pH, contact time and initial concentration. Column sorption and regeneration were also studied. Adsorption kinetics data best fitted the pseudo second order model (R2 > 0.99). Adsorption was analyzed with three isotherm models at 20, 25 and 40 °C. The Sips isotherm showed the best fit at 25 °C with a 5.49 mg/g adsorption capacity, which is comparable with other adsorbents. MBC gave faster kinetics (~1-1.5 h) at pH 7 and ambient temperature than previous adsorbents. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of this spontaneous As(III) adsorption was -35 kJ/mol and ΔH = 70 kJ/mol was endothermic. Experiments were performed on industrial and laboratory wastewater samples in the presence of other co-existing contaminants (pharmaceutical residues, heavy metals ions and oxi-anions). The composite reduced the arsenic concentrations below the WHO's safe limit of 0.2 mg/L for waste water discharge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies found As(III) and less toxic As(V) on Fe3O4 surfaces indicating adsorbed (or adsorbing) As(III) oxidation occurred upon contact with O2 and possibly dissolved Fe(III) or upon drying under oxic conditions. Under anoxic conditions magnetite to maghemite transformation drives the oxidation. A pH-dependent surface chemisorption mechanism was proposed governing adsorption aided by XPS studies vs pH.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Pseudotsuga , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Compostos Férricos , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Água
5.
J Environ Manage ; 238: 323-330, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870672

RESUMO

The remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solution using Municipal solid waste biochar (MSW-BC) has been evaluated. Municipal solid waste was pyrolyzed in an onsite pyrolyzer around 450 °C with a holding time of 30 min for the production of biochar (BC). Physiochemical properties of BC were assessed based on X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis. Adsorption capacities for the VOCs (m-xylene and toluene) were examined by batch sorption experiments. Analysis indicated high loading of m-xylene and toluene in landfill leachates from different dump sites. The FTIR analysis corroborates with the Boehm titration data whereas XRF data demonstrated negligible amounts of trace metals in MSW-BC to be a potential sorbent. Adsorption isotherm exhibited properties of both Langmuir and Freundlich which is indicative of a non-ideal monolayer adsorption process taking place. Langmuir adsorption capacities were high as 850 and 550 µg/g for toluene and m-xylene respectively. The conversion of MSW to a value added product provided a feasible means of solid waste management. The produced MSW-BC was an economical adsorbent which demonstrated a strong ability for removing VOCs. Hence, MSW-BC can be used as a landfill cover or a permeable reactive barrier material to treat MSW leachate. Thus, the conversion of MSW to BC becomes an environmentally friendly and economical means of solid waste remediation.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Carvão Vegetal , Resíduos Sólidos , Tolueno , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Xilenos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 246: 150-159, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789905

RESUMO

Utilization of biochar (BC) as a low cost adsorbent for water remediation has gained an immense research interest due to their surface functionality and porosity. Although many reports on the BC based sorptive removal of Sulfonamides (SA) and Tetracyclines (TC) are available in literature, a deep insight into sorption mechanisms is yet to be reviewed. Objective of this review is to fill the research gap of a methodological understanding of sorption mechanisms and characteristics which is essential to develop efficient methods for contaminant removal. The most common adsorption mechanism can be considered as electron donor-acceptor interactions of electron withdrawing moieties with surface arene rings. The strongest adsorption of both antibiotics occurs at mildly acidic pH where the dominant species are zwitterionic or cationic. Smaller SAs exhibit micro pore-filling effects while bulky TCs experience size exclusions. Furthermore, the effect of matrix components and modifications are also been taken into account.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Sulfonamidas , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Tetraciclinas
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 35: 38-42, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354690

RESUMO

An improved method for trace level quantification of dicyandiamide in stream water has been developed. This method includes sample pretreatment using solid phase extraction. The extraction procedure (including loading, washing, and eluting) used a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and dicyandiamide was eluted with 20mL of a methanol/acetonitrile mixture (V/V=2:3), followed by pre-concentration using nitrogen evaporation and analysis with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV). Sample extraction was carried out using a Waters Sep-Pak AC-2 Cartridge (with activated carbon). Separation was achieved on a ZIC(®)-Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5µm) chromatography column and quantification was accomplished based on UV absorbance. A reliable linear relationship was obtained for the calibration curve using standard solutions (R(2)>0.999). Recoveries for dicyandiamide ranged from 84.6% to 96.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were below 6.1% with a detection limit of 5.0ng/mL for stream water samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Guanidinas/análise , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Limite de Detecção
8.
J AOAC Int ; 96(6): 1440-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24645527

RESUMO

We present an improved method for trace level quantification of five estrogens including estriol, estrone, 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol in wastewaters. Our method includes sample preparation using SPE followed by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) cleanup step, a derivatization, and LC/MS/MS determination. Sample extraction was carried out using Oasis HLB cartridges and a dispersive solid-phase cleanup pack containing MgSO4 and primary-secondary amine and C18 sorbents. The resulting extract was derivatized with dansyl chloride. Separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18, Narrow Bore RR 2.1 x 100 mm, 3.5 pm column; quantification was accomplished in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring. The cleanup method is quick, efficient, inexpensive, and requires only 200 mL of water. Reliable linearities were obtained for all calibration curves (r2 > 0.995). Matrix effects calculated were less than 12% for all analytes, and, hence, matrix matched calibration curves were not needed. The recoveries for the estrogens ranged from 81-103%, with a high repeatability (n = 3, RSD < or = 9%) and low LOQs (0.6-0.9 ng/L). The method was used to analyze effluent and influent wastewaters in Mississippi wastewater treatment plants, but it is broadly applicable for the determination of trace estrogens in any municipal wastewater samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Estrogênios/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Calibragem , Compostos de Dansil/química , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Estradiol/química , Estriol/química , Estrona/química , Metanol/química , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Águas Residuárias
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