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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710777

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder defined by a characteristic cerebellar and brainstem malformation recognizable on axial brain magnetic resonance imaging as the "Molar Tooth Sign". Although defined by the neurological features, JS is associated with clinical features affecting many other organ systems, particularly progressive involvement of the retina, kidney, and liver. JS is a rare condition; therefore, many affected individuals may not have easy access to subspecialty providers familiar with JS (e.g., geneticists, neurologists, developmental pediatricians, ophthalmologists, nephrologists, hepatologists, psychiatrists, therapists, and educators). Expert recommendations can enable practitioners of all types to provide quality care to individuals with JS and know when to refer for subspecialty care. This need will only increase as precision treatments targeting specific genetic causes of JS emerge. The goal of these recommendations is to provide a resource for general practitioners, subspecialists, and families to maximize the health of individuals with JS throughout the lifespan.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10828, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346239

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is an incurable multisystem ciliopathy syndrome. The most commonly mutated gene in JBTS patients with a cerebello-retinal-renal phenotype is CEP290 (alias JBTS5). The encoded CEP290 protein localises to the proximal end of the primary cilium, in the transition zone, where it controls ciliary protein composition and signalling. We examined primary cilium structure and composition in fibroblast cells derived from homozygous and compound heterozygous JBTS5 patients with nonsense mutations in CEP290 and show that elongation of cilia, impaired ciliogenesis and ciliary composition defects are typical features in JBTS5 cells. Targeted skipping of the mutated exon c.5668 G > T using antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapy leads to restoration of CEP290 protein expression and functions at the transition zone in homozygous and compound heterozygous JBTS5 cells, allowing a rescue of both cilia morphology and ciliary composition. This study, by demonstrating that targeted exon skipping is able to rescue ciliary protein composition defects, provides functional evidence for the efficacy of this approach in the treatment of JBTS.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1276-1286, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124279

RESUMO

Lysine-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) demethylates trimethylated lysine-27 on histone H3. The methylation and demethylation of histone proteins affects gene expression during development. Pathogenic alterations in histone lysine methylation and demethylation genes have been associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. We have identified a number of de novo alterations in the KDM6B gene via whole exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of 12 unrelated patients with developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and other clinical findings. Our findings will allow for further investigation in to the role of the KDM6B gene in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 410-416, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672094

RESUMO

We report three patients with Feingold 2 syndrome with the novel features of growth hormone deficiency associated with adenohypophyseal compression, aortic dilation, phalangeal joint contractures, memory, and sleep problems in addition to the typical features of microcephaly, brachymesophalangy, toe syndactyly, short stature, and cardiac anomalies. Microdeletions of chromosome 13q that include the MIR17HG gene were found in all three. One of the patients was treated successfully with growth hormone. In addition to expanding the phenotype of Feingold 2 syndrome, we suggest management of patients with Feingold 2 syndrome include echocardiography at the time of diagnosis in all patients and consideration of evaluation for growth hormone deficiency in patients with short stature.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622101

RESUMO

A 55-yr-old male with severe intellectual disability, behavioral problems, kyphoscoliosis, and dysmorphic features was referred for a genetic evaluation. Chromosomal microarray, RASopathy gene panel, mitochondrial sequencing, and fragile X testing were all negative. Subsequent whole-exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous, truncating variant in the AHDC1 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS). Review of his clinical history showed many classic dysmorphic and clinical features of XGS, but no major health issues in adulthood other than intellectual disability. This individual is the oldest published XGS case to date, demonstrates the wide phenotypic spectrum of the disorder, and provides information on the condition's natural history. As more adults undergo genomic studies, we will continue to learn about the adult phenotypes of genetic conditions typically diagnosed in the pediatric setting.

6.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(8): 919-928, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094403

RESUMO

Noncirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) is a rare disease that may lead to serious clinical consequences. Currently, noninvasive tools for the assessment of NCPH are absent. We investigated the utility of spleen and liver volumetrics as a marker of the presence and severity of portal hypertension in this population. A cohort of NCPH patients evaluated between 2003 and 2015 was retrospectively studied. The association of spleen and liver volumes with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) level was evaluated using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves. A cohort of patients with viral hepatitis-related liver disease was used as controls. Of the 86 patients with NCPH evaluated during the study period, 75 (mean age, 35 ± 17; 73% males) were included in the final analysis. Patients with portal hypertension had significantly higher spleen and liver to body mass index (BMI) ratios compared to patients with HVPG <5 mm Hg (39.5 ± 27.9 versus 22.8 ± 10.6 cm3/kg/m2, P = 0.003; 91.1 ± 40.1 versus 71.4 ± 16.7 cm3/kg/m2, P = 0.014, for spleen/BMI and liver/BMI, respectively). In contrast to the patients with viral hepatitis, a positive linear correlation was observed in the NCPH cohort between spleen/BMI and liver/BMI (above a cutoff of 25 and 80 cm3/kg/m2, respectively) and HVPG level. Additionally, only in the NCPH cohort was an increase in spleen/BMI range quartile predictive of a higher prevalence of portal hypertension and clinically significant portal hypertension (trend, P = 0.014 and 0.031, respectively). Conclusion: Spleen and liver volumetrics may have utility in the assessment of NCPH as a noninvasive biomarker that can be performed using routine radiologic examinations. Further studies are needed to validate these findings. (Hepatology Communications 2018; 00:000-000).

7.
Mol Genet Metab ; 125(1-2): 181-191, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064963

RESUMO

Alström Syndrome is a ciliopathy associated with obesity, insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, retinal degeneration, hearing loss, progressive liver and kidney disease, and normal cognitive function. ALMS1, the protein defective in this disorder, localizes to the cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, as well as the centrosomes and ciliary basal bodies and plays roles in formation and maintenance of cilia, cell cycle regulation, and endosomal trafficking. Kidney disease in this disorder has not been well characterized. We performed comprehensive multisystem evaluations on 38 patients. Kidney function decreased progressively; eGFR varied inversely with age (p = 0.002). Eighteen percent met the definition for chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and proteinuria); all were adults with median age of 32.8 (20.6-37.9) years. After adjusting for age, there were no significant associations of kidney dysfunction with type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiomyopathy or portal hypertension suggesting that kidney disease in AS is a primary manifestation of the syndrome due to lack of ALMS1 protein. Approximately one-third of patients had hyperechogenicity of the renal parenchyma on imaging. While strict control of type 2 diabetes mellitus may decrease kidney-related morbidity and mortality in Alström syndrome, identification of novel targeted therapies is needed.

8.
Ophthalmology ; 125(12): 1937-1952, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Joubert syndrome (JS) is caused by mutations in >34 genes that encode proteins involved with primary (nonmotile) cilia and the cilium basal body. This study describes the varying ocular phenotypes in JS patients, with correlation to systemic findings and genotype. DESIGN: Patients were systematically and prospectively examined at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center in the setting of a dedicated natural history clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-nine patients with JS examined at a single center. METHODS: All patients underwent genotyping for JS, followed by complete age-appropriate ophthalmic examinations at the NIH Clinical Center, including visual acuity (VA), fixation behavior, lid position, motility assessment, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundus examination with an indirect ophthalmoscope, and retinoscopy. Color and fundus autofluorescence imaging, Optos wide-field photography (Dunfermline, Scotland, UK), and electroretinography (ERG) were performed when possible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The VA (with longitudinal follow-up where possible), ptosis, extraocular muscle function, retinal and optic nerve status, and retinal function as measured by ERG. RESULTS: Among patients with JS with quantifiable VA (68/99), values ranged from 0 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (Snellen 20/20) to 1.5 logMAR (Snellen 20/632). Strabismus (71/98), nystagmus (66/99), oculomotor apraxia (60/77), ptosis (30/98), coloboma (28/99), retinal degeneration (20/83), and optic nerve atrophy (8/86) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend regular monitoring for ophthalmological manifestations of JS beginning soon after birth or diagnosis. We demonstrate delayed visual development and note that the amblyogenic time frame may last significantly longer in JS than is typical. In general, patients with coloboma were less likely to display retinal degeneration, and those with retinal degeneration did not have coloboma. Severe retinal degeneration that is early and aggressive is seen in disease caused by specific genes, such as CEP290- and AHI1-associated JS. Retinal degeneration in INPP5E-, MKS1-, and NPHP1-associated JS was generally milder. Finally, ptosis surgery can be helpful in a subset of patients with JS; decisions as to timing and benefit/risk ratio need to be made on an individual basis according to expert consultation.

9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(7): 2707-2719, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718281

RESUMO

Background: Alström syndrome (AS), a monogenic form of obesity, is caused by recessive mutations in the centrosome- and basal body-associated gene ALMS1. AS is characterized by retinal dystrophy, sensory hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, childhood obesity, and metabolic derangements. Objective: We sought to characterize the endocrine and metabolic features of AS while accounting for obesity as a confounder by comparing patients with AS to body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. Methods: We evaluated 38 patients with AS (age 2 to 38 years) who were matched with 76 controls (age 2 to 48 years) by age, sex, race, and BMI. Fasting biochemistries, mixed meal test (MMT), indirect calorimetry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI/magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed. Results: Frequent abnormalities in AS included 76% obesity, 37% type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 29% hypothyroidism (one-third central, two-thirds primary), 3% central adrenal insufficiency, 57% adult hypogonadism (one-third central, two-thirds primary), and 25% female hyperandrogenism. Patients with AS and controls had similar BMI z scores, body fat, waist circumference, abdominal visceral fat, muscle fat, resting energy expenditure (adjusted for lean mass), free fatty acids, glucagon, prolactin, ACTH, and cortisol. Compared with controls, patients with AS were shorter and had lower IGF-1 concentrations (Ps ≤ 0.001). Patients with AS had significantly greater fasting and MMT insulin resistance indices, higher MMT glucose, insulin, and C-peptide values, higher HbA1c, and higher prevalence of T2DM (Ps < 0.001). Patients with AS had significantly higher triglycerides, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a 10-fold greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Ps < 0.001). Patients with AS demonstrated significantly greater liver triglyceride accumulation and higher transaminases (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Severe insulin resistance and T2DM are the hallmarks of AS. However, patients with AS may present with multiple other endocrinopathies affecting growth and development.

10.
Cell Rep ; 22(1): 189-205, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298421

RESUMO

Primary cilia are sensory organelles that protrude from the cell membrane. Defects in the primary cilium cause ciliopathy disorders, with retinal degeneration as a prominent phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), essential for photoreceptor development and function, requires a functional primary cilium for complete maturation and that RPE maturation defects in ciliopathies precede photoreceptor degeneration. Pharmacologically enhanced ciliogenesis in wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-RPE leads to fully mature and functional cells. In contrast, ciliopathy patient-derived iPSC-RPE and iPSC-RPE with a knockdown of ciliary-trafficking protein remain immature, with defective apical processes, reduced functionality, and reduced adult-specific gene expression. Proteins of the primary cilium regulate RPE maturation by simultaneously suppressing canonical WNT and activating PKCδ pathways. A similar cilium-dependent maturation pathway exists in lung epithelium. Our results provide insights into ciliopathy-induced retinal degeneration, demonstrate a developmental role for primary cilia in epithelial maturation, and provide a method to mature iPSC epithelial cells for clinical applications.

11.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 66(3): 428-435, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Joubert Syndrome (JS) is a rare, inherited, ciliopathy defined by cerebellar and brainstem malformations and is variably associated with liver, kidney, and ocular dysfunction. This study characterizes the hepatic findings in JS and identifies factors associated with probable portal hypertension. METHODS: Hundred individuals with JS were prospectively evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Laboratory tests, imaging, and DNA sequencing were performed. Patients were stratified based on the spleen length/patient height ratio as a marker of splenomegaly, used as a surrogate for probable portal hypertension. RESULTS: Forty-three patients (43%) had liver involvement based on elevated liver enzymes and/or liver hyperechogenicity and/or splenomegaly. None of the patients had macroscopic liver cysts or bile duct dilatation. Based on the spleen length/patient height ratio, 13 patients were stratified into a probable portal hypertension group. We observed significant elevations in alkaline phosphatase (269 vs 169 U/L, P ≤ 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (92 vs 42 U/L, P = 0.004), aspartate aminotransferase (77 vs 40 U/L, P = 0.002), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (226 vs 51 U/L, P ≤ 0.001) in the probable portal hypertension group. Platelets were lower in the probable portal hypertension cohort (229 vs 299 × 10 cells/µL, P = 0.008), whereas synthetic function was intact in both groups. Probable portal hypertension was also more prevalent in patients with kidney disease (P = 0.001) and colobomas (P = 0.02), as well as mutations in the TMEM67 gene (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In JS, probable portal hypertension is associated with abnormal hepatic enzymes, as well as presence of kidney disease, coloboma, and/or mutation in TMEM67. These findings may allow early identification of JS patients who have or are more likely to develop liver disease.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): i, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136352

RESUMO

The cover image, by Isabel Hardee et al., is based on the Clinical Report Defective ciliogenesis in INPP5E-related Joubert syndrome, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38376. Design Credit: Darryl Leja.

13.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 12(12): 1962-1973, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Joubert syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy associated with >30 genes. The characteristics of kidney disease and genotype-phenotype correlations have not been evaluated in a large cohort at a single center. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We evaluated 97 individuals with Joubert syndrome at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center using abdominal ultrasonography, blood and urine chemistries, and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Patients were ages 0.6-36 years old (mean of 9.0±7.6 years old); 41 were female. Mutations were identified in 19 genes in 92 patients; two thirds of the mutations resided in six genes: TMEM67, C5orf42, CC2D2A, CEP290, AHI1, and KIAA0586. Kidney disease was detected in 30%, most commonly in association with the following genes: CEP290 (six of six), TMEM67 (11 of 22), and AHI1 (three of six). No kidney disease was identified in patients with mutations in C5orf42 (zero of 15) or KIAA0586 (zero of six). Prenatal ultrasonography of kidneys was normal in 72% of patients with kidney disease. Specific types of kidney disease included nephronophthisis (31%), an overlap phenotype of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease/nephronophthisis (35%), unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (10%), and indeterminate-type cystic kidney disease (24%). Early-onset hypertension occurred in 24% of patients with kidney disease. Age at ESRD (n=13) ranged from 6 to 24 years old (mean of 11.3±4.8 years old). CONCLUSIONS: Kidney disease occurs in up to one third of patients with Joubert syndrome, most commonly in those with mutations in CEP290, TMEM67, and AHI1. Patients with mutations in C5orf42 or KIAA0586 are less likely to develop kidney disease. Prenatal ultrasonography is a poor predictor of kidney involvement in Joubert syndrome. Unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease-like enlarged kidneys with early-onset hypertension can be part of the Joubert syndrome kidney phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/metabolismo , Doenças Renais Císticas/congênito , Falência Renal Crônica/genética , Retina/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades do Olho/complicações , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças Renais Císticas/complicações , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/metabolismo , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Rim Displásico Multicístico/complicações , Rim Displásico Multicístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim Displásico Multicístico/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/complicações , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/genética , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): 3231-3237, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052317

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by malformation of the mid and hindbrain leading to the pathognomonic molar tooth appearance of the brainstem and cerebellum on axial MRI. Core clinical manifestations include hypotonia, tachypnea/apnea, ataxia, ocular motor apraxia, and developmental delay of varying degrees. In addition, a subset of patients has retinal dystrophy, chorioretinal colobomas, hepatorenal fibrocystic disease, and polydactyly. Joubert syndrome exhibits genetic heterogeneity, with mutations identified in more than 30 genes, including INPP5E, a gene encoding inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E, which is important in the development and stability of the primary cilium. Here, we report the detailed clinical phenotypes of two sisters with a novel homozygous variant in INPP5E (NM_019892.4: c.1565G>C, NP_063945.2: p.Gly552Ala), expanding the phenotype associated with Joubert syndrome type 1. Expression studies using patient-derived fibroblasts showed changes in mRNA and protein levels. Analysis of fibroblasts from patients revealed that a significant number of cells had shorter or no cilia, indicating defects in ciliogenesis, and cilia maintenance.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Ciliopatias/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Retina/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Cílios/patologia , Ciliopatias/diagnóstico , Ciliopatias/patologia , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades do Olho/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Renais Císticas/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cell Rep ; 20(2): 384-396, 2017 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700940

RESUMO

Mutations in CEP290, a transition zone protein in primary cilia, cause diverse ciliopathies, including Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and Joubert-syndrome and related disorders (JSRD). We examined cilia biogenesis and function in cells derived from CEP290-LCA and CEP290-JSRD patients. CEP290 protein was reduced in LCA fibroblasts with no detectable impact on cilia; however, optic cups derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of CEP290-LCA patients displayed less developed photoreceptor cilia. Lack of CEP290 in JSRD fibroblasts resulted in abnormal cilia and decreased ciliogenesis. We observed selectively reduced localization of ADCY3 and ARL13B. Notably, Hedgehog signaling was augmented in CEP290-JSRD because of enhanced ciliary transport of Smoothened and GPR161. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between the extent of ciliogenesis defects in fibroblasts and photoreceptors with phenotypic severity in JSRD and LCA, respectively, and strengthen the role of CEP290 as a selective ciliary gatekeeper for transport of signaling molecules in and out of the cilium.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Cílios , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Receptor Smoothened/genética , Receptor Smoothened/metabolismo
16.
Mol Genet Metab ; 121(4): 336-343, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare monogenetic disorder with multi-organ involvement. Complex metabolic disturbances are common and cardiomyopathy is a well-recognized feature in infants as well as in older children and adults. Although the mechanism of cardiomyopathy is not known, previous reports suggest that individuals with infantile-onset cardiac disease recover completely. METHODS: In this single center prospective series of 38 children and adults (age range 1.7 to 37.9years; 20 females) with AS, we evaluated cardiac manifestations in detail, in the context of specific ALMS1 mutations and multisystem involvement. All patients underwent ALMS1 sequencing, biochemical testing, electrocardiogram, and echocardiographic imaging with speckle tracking to evaluate systolic strain; 21 patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with T1 mapping. RESULTS: Approximately half of patients (17/38) had a previous diagnosis of cardiomyopathy. Global longitudinal strain, a measure of systolic contractile function, was abnormal in 94% of patients and correlated with body mass index (r=0.602, p=0.002) and C-reactive protein level (r=0.56, p=0.004), but only in children. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were seen in two-thirds of patients, and left ventricular dilatation and/or dysfunction was present in 4 adults and 4 children. CONCLUSION: AS patients with a history of resolved infantile cardiomyopathy continue to have residual impairment in cardiac function. For patients with a normal ejection fraction and no prior cardiac history, strain can be abnormal, suggesting subclinical cardiac involvement. Close cardiac screening and aggressive modification of other manifestations of AS that are risk factors for cardiac disease, including obesity, inflammation, diabetes and dyslipidemia, are essential in caring for patients with AS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(8): 2210-2218, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573831

RESUMO

Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathy caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene. Hallmark characteristics include childhood onset of severe retinal degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, insulin-resistant diabetes, and cardiomyopathy. Here we comprehensively characterize the auditory and otologic manifestations in a prospective case series of 38 individuals, aged 1.7-37.9 years, with genetically confirmed AS. Hearing loss was preceded by retinal dystrophy in all cases, and had an average age of detection of 7.45 years (range 1.5-15). Audiometric assessments showed mean pure tone averages (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) of 48.6 and 47.5 dB HL in the right and left ears, respectively. Hearing was within normal limits for only 8/74 ears (11%). For the 66 ears with hearing loss, the degree was mild (12%), moderate (54%), or severe (8%). Type of hearing loss was predominantly sensorineural (77%), while three ears had mixed loss, no ears had conductive loss, and type of hearing loss was indeterminate for the remaining 12 ears. Serial audiograms available for 33 patients showed hearing loss progression of approximately 10-15 dB/decade. Our data show that hearing loss associated with AS begins in childhood and is a predominantly symmetric, sensory hearing loss that may progress to a severe degree. Absent otoacoustic emissions, intact speech discrimination, and disproportionately normal auditory brainstem responses suggest an outer hair cell site of lesion. These findings indicate that individuals with AS would benefit from sound amplification and if necessary, cochlear implantation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom/fisiopatologia , Cóclea/fisiopatologia , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Testes de Impedância Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de Alstrom/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Alstrom/genética , Audiometria de Tons Puros/métodos , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Otológico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2017 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28497568

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome (JS) is a genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by hypo-dysplasia of the cerebellar vermis, a distinct hindbrain/midbrain malformation (molar tooth sign), and intellectual disability. We evaluated the neuropsychological profiles of 76 participants with JS in the context of molecular genetics and clinical covariates. Evaluations included neuropsychological testing, structured parental interviews, DNA sequencing, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), ophthalmologic examination, and assessment for renal and hepatic disease. On average, participants manifested Full Scale Intelligence Quotients (FSIQ) in the moderately to profoundly low range (M = 64.3 ± 15.3). Of the Wechsler index scores, verbal comprehension was least affected and processing speed was most affected. Receptive language was rated as better than expressive language on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition. Those with abnormal EEG had a significantly lower FSIQ (n = 15; M = 50.7 ± 12.9) compared to participants with normal EEG (n = 39; M = 64.7 ± 16.3; p = .004). Participants taking psychiatric medications manifested a lower FSIQ (n = 20; M = 54.8 ± 13.2) than those not taking them (n = 42; M = 65.0 ± 17.2; p = .022). These correlations were also present in the TMEM67-related JS sub-cohort (n = 14). Based on parental assessment, psychiatric and behavioral problems were significantly more common than in the general population for all measures (p < .004 for all). The majority (65%) of individuals with JS have some degree of intellectual disability. Abnormal EEG is associated with lower neuropsychological function. Processing speed is a weakness, while verbal comprehension and receptive language are relative strengths. These findings may guide parents, teachers, therapists, and doctors to determine appropriate therapies, accommodations, and academic goals for individuals with JS.

19.
Cilia ; 6: 2, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of disease pathogenesis requires systematic agnostic screening of multiple homeostatic processes that may become deregulated. We illustrate this principle in the evaluation and diagnosis of a 5-year-old boy with Joubert syndrome type 10 (JBTS10). He carried the OFD1 mutation p.Gln886Lysfs*2 (NM_003611.2: c.2656del) and manifested features of Joubert syndrome. METHODS: We integrated exome sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses of plasma and cultured dermal fibroblasts glycomes, and full clinical evaluation of the proband. Analyses of cilia formation and lectin staining were performed by immunofluorescence. Measurement of cellular nucleotide sugar levels was performed with high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Statistical analyses utilized the Student's and Fisher's exact t tests. RESULTS: Glycome analyses of plasma and cultured dermal fibroblasts identified abnormal N- and O-linked glycosylation profiles. These findings replicated in two unrelated males with OFD1 mutations. Cultured fibroblasts from affected individuals had a defect in ciliogenesis. The proband's fibroblasts also had an abnormally elevated nuclear sialylation signature and increased total cellular levels of CMP-sialic acid. Ciliogenesis and each glycosylation anomaly were rescued by expression of wild-type OFD1. CONCLUSIONS: The rescue of ciliogenesis and glycosylation upon reintroduction of WT OFD1 suggests that both contribute to the pathogenesis of JBTS10.

20.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 399-408, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220259

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) are a heterogeneous group of ciliopathies defined based on the mid-hindbrain abnormalities that result in the characteristic "molar tooth sign" on brain imaging. The core clinical findings of JSRD are hypotonia, developmental delay, abnormal eye movements and breathing abnormalities. To date, more than 30 JSRD genes that encode proteins important for structure and/or function of cilia have been identified. Here, we present 2 siblings with Joubert syndrome associated with growth hormone deficiency. Whole exome sequencing of the family identified compound heterozygous mutations in KIAA0753, i.e., a missense mutation (p.Arg257Gly) and an intronic mutation (c.2359-1G>C). The intronic mutation alters normal splicing by activating a cryptic acceptor splice site in exon 16. The novel acceptor site skips nine nucleotides, deleting three amino acids from the protein coding frame. KIAA0753 (OFIP) is a centrosome and pericentriolar satellite protein, previously not known to cause Joubert syndrome. We present comprehensive clinical descriptions of the Joubert syndrome patients as well as the cellular phenotype of defective ciliogenesis in the patients' fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Mutação , Retina/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
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