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1.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(1): e9684, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417276

RESUMO

To elucidate the contributions of specific lipid species to metabolic traits, we integrated global hepatic lipid data with other omics measures and genetic data from a cohort of about 100 diverse inbred strains of mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Association mapping, correlation, structure analyses, and network modeling revealed pathways and genes underlying these interactions. In particular, our studies lead to the identification of Ifi203 and Map2k6 as regulators of hepatic phosphatidylcholine homeostasis and triacylglycerol accumulation, respectively. Our analyses highlight mechanisms for how genetic variation in hepatic lipidome can be linked to physiological and molecular phenotypes, such as microbiota composition.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

3.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003394, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.

4.
BMJ ; 370: m2194, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Populations from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Verduras , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Br J Nutr ; 123(12): 1396-1405, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234083

RESUMO

Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for 'sticking to healthful foods' and who 'felt weird if [they] didn't eat healthily'. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.

6.
Acta Paediatr ; 109(1): 115-121, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299108

RESUMO

AIM: Elevated total cholesterol (TC) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about their determinants in infants. We aimed to describe TC and HbA1c concentrations in infants aged 8-14 months and explore the relation between infant TC, HbA1c, breastfeeding, infant diet, and maternal TC and HbA1c. METHODS: In this cross-sectional pilot study, mothers of infants aged 6 and 12 months were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire and to take home-based dried blood spot samples from themselves and their infants. RESULTS: Among the 143 included infants, the mean (SD, range) concentration was 4.1 (0.8, 2.3-6.6) mmol/L for TC and 4.9 (0.4, 3.7-6.0)% for HbA1c. There was no significant difference between age groups and sexes. There was a positive relation between TC concentrations of all infants and mothers (B = 0.30 unadjusted, B = 0.32 adjusted, P < .001 for both) and a negative relation between infant TC and intake of unsaturated fatty acids in the oldest age group (B = -0.09, P = .03 unadjusted, B = -0.08, P = .06 adjusted). Infant HbA1c was not significantly related to diet or maternal HbA1c. CONCLUSION: TC and HbA1c concentrations varied widely among infants aged 8-14 months. Infant TC was associated with macronutrient intake and maternal TC.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(4): 1293-1303, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence for the prospective association of vitamin D status with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is focused almost exclusively on circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] without distinction between its subtypes: nonepimeric and epimeric 25(OH)D3 stereoisomers, and 25(OH)D2, the minor component of 25(OH)D. We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of circulating levels of the sum and each of these three metabolites with incident T2D. METHODS: This analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study for T2D included 9671 incident T2D cases and 13,562 subcohort members. Plasma vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a multivariable Prentice-weighted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of T2D for each metabolite. Analyses were performed separately within country, and estimates were combined across countries using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The mean concentrations (SD) of total 25(OH)D, nonepimeric 25(OH)D3, epimeric 25(OH)D3, and 25(OH)D2 were 41.1 (17.2), 40.7 (17.3), 2.13 (1.31), and 8.16 (6.52) nmol/L, respectively. Plasma total 25(OH)D and nonepimeric 25(OH)D3 were inversely associated with incident T2D [multivariable-adjusted HR per 1 SD = 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77, 0.86) for both variables], whereas epimeric 25(OH)D3 was positively associated [per 1 SD HR = 1.16 (1.09, 1.25)]. There was no statistically significant association with T2D for 25(OH)D2 [per 1 SD HR = 0.94 (0.76, 1.18)]. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma nonepimeric 25(OH)D3 was inversely associated with incident T2D, consistent with it being the major metabolite contributing to total 25(OH)D. The positive association of the epimeric form of 25(OH)D3 with incident T2D provides novel information to assess the biological relevance of vitamin D epimerization and vitamin D subtypes in diabetes etiology.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estereoisomerismo , Vitamina D/química
8.
J Lipid Res ; 59(7): 1164-1174, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739864

RESUMO

Elevated hepatic ceramide levels have been implicated in both insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis. To understand the factors contributing to hepatic ceramide levels in mice of both sexes, we have quantitated ceramides in a reference population of mice, the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel that has been previously characterized for a variety of metabolic syndrome traits. We observed significant positive correlations between Cer(d18:1/16:0) and IR/hepatic steatosis, consistent with previous findings, although the relationship broke down between sexes, as females were less insulin resistant, but had higher Cer(d18:1/16:0) levels than males. The sex difference was due in part to testosterone-mediated repression of ceramide synthase 6. One ceramide species, Cer(d18:1/20:0), was present at higher levels in males and was associated with IR only in males. Clear evidence of gene-by-sex and gene-by-diet interactions was observed, including sex-specific genome-wide association study results. Thus, our studies show clear differences in how hepatic ceramides are regulated between the sexes, which again suggests that the physiological roles of certain hepatic ceramides differ between the sexes.


Assuntos
Ceramidas/metabolismo , Dieta , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Ceramidas/biossíntese , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testosterona/farmacologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7885, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760520

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6531, 2018 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695812

RESUMO

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) composition in skeletal muscle have been linked to insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the relationships between skeletal muscle PC:PE, physical exercise and insulin sensitivity. We performed lipidomics and measured PC and PE in m. vastus lateralis biopsies obtained from 13 normoglycemic normal weight men and 13 dysglycemic overweight men at rest, immediately after 45 min of cycling at 70% maximum oxygen uptake, and 2 h post-exercise, before as well as after 12 weeks of combined endurance- and strength-exercise intervention. Insulin sensitivity was monitored by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. RNA-sequencing was performed on biopsies, and mitochondria and lipid droplets were quantified on electron microscopic images. Exercise intervention for 12 w enhanced insulin sensitivity by 33%, skeletal muscle levels of PC by 21%, PE by 42%, and reduced PC:PE by 16%. One bicycle session reduced PC:PE by 5%. PC:PE correlated negatively with insulin sensitivity (ß = -1.6, P < 0.001), percent area of mitochondria (ρ = -0.52, P = 0.035), and lipid droplet area (ρ = 0.55, P = 0.017) on EM pictures, and negatively with oxidative phosphorylation and mTOR based on RNA-sequencing. In conclusion, PC and PE contents of skeletal muscle respond to exercise, and PC:PE is inversely related to insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Técnica Clamp de Glucose/métodos , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 10(1)2018 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316612

RESUMO

Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 14(1): 168, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet. METHODS: Data from all participants who were screened and then enrolled into the Food4Me proof-of-principle study (n = 2369) were used to determine the optimal items for inclusion in a novel screening tool, the Nutritional Perception Screening Questionnaire-9 (NPSQ9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on anthropometric and biochemical data and on dietary indices acquired from participants who had completed the Food4Me dietary intervention (n = 1153). Baseline and intervention data were analysed using linear regression and linear mixed regression, respectively. RESULTS: A final model with 9 NPSQ items was validated against the dietary intervention data. NPSQ9 scores were inversely associated with BMI (ß = -0.181, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (Β = -0.155, p < 0.001), and positively associated with total carotenoids (ß = 0.198, p < 0.001), omega-3 fatty acid index (ß = 0.155, p < 0.001), Healthy Eating Index (HEI) (ß = 0.299, p < 0.001) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) (ß = 0. 279, p < 0.001). Findings from the longitudinal intervention study showed a greater reduction in BMI and improved dietary indices among participants with lower NPSQ9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy eating perceptions and dietary habits captured by the NPSQ9 score, based on nine questionnaire items, were associated with reduced body weight and improved diet quality. Likewise, participants with a lower score achieved greater health improvements than those with higher scores, in response to personalised advice, suggesting that NPSQ9 may be used for early evaluation of nutritional status and to tailor nutritional advice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01530139 .


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Antropometria , Peso Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 76(4): 619-627, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29137687

RESUMO

FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently validated. This review provides an overview of food intake biomarker research and highlights present research efforts of the Joint Programming Initiative 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life' (JPI-HDHL) Food Biomarkers Alliance (FoodBAll). In order to identify novel food intake biomarkers, the focus is on new food metabolomics techniques that allow the quantification of up to thousands of metabolites simultaneously, which may be applied in intervention and observational studies. As biomarkers are often influenced by various other factors than the food under investigation, FoodBAll developed a food intake biomarker quality and validity score aiming to assist the systematic evaluation of novel biomarkers. Moreover, to evaluate the applicability of nutritional biomarkers, studies are presently also focusing on associations between food intake biomarkers and diet-related disease risk. In order to be successful in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation in nutritional intervention studies, and increase the significance of observational studies by investigating associations between nutrition and health.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
14.
Nutrients ; 9(10)2017 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019927

RESUMO

Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic background throughout the Food4Me web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Several genetic variants related to metabolic risk features were also analysed. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was derived from risk alleles and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), based on validated food intake data, was estimated. At baseline, there were no interactions between GRS and MDS categories for metabolic traits. Linear mixed model repeated measures analyses showed a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol in participants with a low GRS after a 6-month period, compared to those with a high GRS. Meanwhile, a high baseline MDS was associated with greater decreases in Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference and glucose. There also was a significant interaction between GRS and the MedDiet after the follow-up period. Among subjects with a high GRS, those with a high MDS evidenced a highly significant reduction in total carotenoids, while among those with a low GRS, there was no difference associated with MDS levels. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic outcomes, which can be affected by the genetic background in some specific markers.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Colesterol/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrigenômica , Avaliação Nutricional , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
Public Health Nutr ; 20(16): 2887-2892, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sufficient vitamin D status during infancy is important for child health and development. Several initiatives for improving vitamin D status among immigrant children have been implemented in Norway. The present study aimed to evaluate the vitamin D status and its determinants in children of immigrant background in Oslo. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Child health clinics in Oslo. SUBJECTS: Healthy children with immigrant background (n 102) aged 9-16 months were recruited at the routine one-year check-up from two child health clinics with high proportions of immigrant clients. Blood samples were collected using the dried blood spot technique and analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentration using LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Mean s-25(OH)D was 52·3 (sd 16·7) nmol/l, with only three children below 25 nmol/l and none below 12·5 nmol/l. There was no significant gender, ethnic or seasonal variation in s-25(OH)D. However, compared with breast-fed children, s-25(OH)D concentration was significantly higher among children who were about 1 year of age and not breast-fed. About 38 % of the children were anaemic, but there was no significant correlation between s-25(OH)D and Hb (Pearson correlation, r=0·1, P=0·33). CONCLUSIONS: Few children in the study had vitamin D deficiency, but about 47 % of the children in the study population were under the recommended s-25(OH)D sufficiency level of ≥50 nmol/l.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Estado Nutricional , Saúde da População Urbana , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Calcifediol/sangue , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Noruega , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia
16.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 61(10)2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544702

RESUMO

SCOPE: Previous work highlighted the potential of odd-chain length saturated fatty acids as potential markers of dairy intake. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these biomarkers and their sensitivity to changes in dairy intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fatty acid profiles and dietary intakes from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were measured three times over six months in the Food4Me Study. Reproducibility was explored through intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and within-subject coefficients of variation (WCV). Sensitivity to changes in diet was examined using regression analysis. C15:0 blood levels showed high correlation over time (ICC: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.68), however, the ICC for C17:0 was much lower (ICC: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.46). The WCV for C15:0 was 16.6% and that for C17:0 was 14.6%. There were significant associations between changes in intakes of total dairy, high-fat dairy, cheese and butter and C15:0; and change in intakes of high-fat dairy and cream and C17:0. CONCLUSION: Results provide evidence of reproducibility of C15:0 levels over time and sensitivity to change in intake of high-fat dairy products with results comparable to the well-established biomarker of fish intake (EPA+DHA).


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Laticínios , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 60(4): 834-45, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26678873

RESUMO

SCOPE: The use of biomarkers in the objective assessment of dietary intake is a high priority in nutrition research. The aim of this study was to examine pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as biomarkers of dairy foods intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: The data used in the present study were obtained as part of the Food4me Study. Estimates of C15:0 and C17:0 from dried blood spots and intakes of dairy from a Food Frequency Questionnaire were obtained from participants (n = 1180) across seven countries. Regression analyses were used to explore associations of biomarkers with dairy intake levels and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to evaluate the fatty acids. Significant positive associations were found between C15:0 and total intakes of high-fat dairy products. C15:0 showed good ability to distinguish between low and high consumers of high-fat dairy products. CONCLUSION: C15:0 can be used as a biomarker of high-fat dairy intake and of specific high-fat dairy products. Both C15:0 and C17:0 performed poorly for total dairy intake highlighting the need for caution when using these in epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Laticínios , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Public Health Nutr ; 19(3): 470-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25827017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D plays a major role in Ca and bone metabolism, and its extraskeletal functions are being appraised. Although inadequate vitamin D concentrations have been reported in populations worldwide, too little is known about vitamin D status and its determinants among children in developing countries. We aimed to determine vitamin D status and its determinants in Nepalese children of pre-school age. DESIGN: A community-based, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Rural Nepal at latitude 27.39° N. SUBJECTS: Healthy children (n 280) aged 12-60 months, selected randomly from the records of a vitamin A supplementation programme. Blood samples were collected using the dried blood spot technique and analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentration using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ca intake and background variables were assessed with a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D, defined as s-25(OH)D concentration less than 50 nmol/l, was found in 91.1% of the children. S-25(OH)D concentration was not related to gender, socio-economic indicators, sun exposure or nutritional status. Currently breast-fed children had higher s-25(OH)D concentrations (36.4 (sd 13.2) nmol/l) than those who were not (28.6 (sd 9.8) nmol/l, P<0.001). Adjustment for sociodemographic factors did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: There is widespread vitamin D deficiency among pre-school children in a rural area of Nepal. In our sample, sociodemographic factors did not affect the vitamin D status of children, but prolonged breast-feeding was associated with higher s-25(OH)D concentrations. Further research is required to investigate the health consequences of poor vitamin D status for this population.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Aleitamento Materno , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Prevalência , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
19.
Nutr Cancer ; 67(7): 1120-30, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26317248

RESUMO

There are no previous studies of the association between prediagnostic serum vitamin D concentration and glioma. Vitamin D has immunosuppressive properties; as does glioma. It was, therefore, our hypothesis that elevated vitamin D concentration would increase glioma risk. We conducted a nested case-control study using specimens from the Janus Serum Bank cohort in Norway. Blood donors who were subsequently diagnosed with glioma (n = 592), between 1974 and 2007, were matched to donors without glioma (n = 1112) on date and age at blood collection and sex. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], an indicator of vitamin D availability, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Seasonally adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for each control quintile of 25(OH)D using conditional logistic regression. Among men diagnosed with high grade glioma >56, we found a negative trend (P = .04). Men diagnosed ≤ 56 showed a borderline positive trend (P = .08). High levels (>66 nmol/L) of 25(OH)D in men >56 were inversely related to high grade glioma from ≥2 yr before diagnosis (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.38, 0.91) to ≥15 yr before diagnosis (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.38,0.96). Our findings are consistent long before glioma diagnosis and are therefore unlikely to reflect preclinical disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Glioma/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Feminino , Glioma/sangue , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genes Nutr ; 10(1): 450, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25491748

RESUMO

Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries; the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0-control group-receiving conventional, non-PN advice; Level 1-receiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone; Level 2-receiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data; and Level 3-receiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8 years (ranging from 18 to 79 years). Of these participants, 60.9 % were women and 96.7 % were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5 kg m(-2), and 44.8 % of the participants had a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg m(-2). Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015.

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