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1.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent large-cohort sequencing studies have investigated the genomic landscape of meningiomas, identifying somatic coding alterations in NF2, SMARCB1, SMARCE1, TRAF7, KLF4, POLR2A, BAP1, and members of the PI3K and Hedgehog signaling pathways. Initial associations between clinical features and genomic subgroups have been described, including location, grade, and histology. However, further investigation using an expanded collection of samples is needed to confirm previous findings, as well as elucidate relationships not evident in smaller discovery cohorts. METHODS: Targeted sequencing of established meningioma driver genes was performed on a multiinstitution cohort of 3016 meningiomas for classification into mutually exclusive subgroups. Relevant clinical information was collected for all available cases and correlated with genomic subgroup. Nominal variables were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests, while ordinal and continuous variables were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and 1-way ANOVA tests, respectively. Machine-learning approaches were used to predict genomic subgroup based on noninvasive clinical features. RESULTS: Genomic subgroups were strongly associated with tumor locations, including correlation of HH tumors with midline location, and non-NF2 tumors in anterior skull base regions. NF2 meningiomas were significantly enriched in male patients, while KLF4 and POLR2A mutations were associated with female sex. Among histologies, the results confirmed previously identified relationships, and observed enrichment of microcystic features among "mutation unknown" samples. Additionally, KLF4-mutant meningiomas were associated with larger peritumoral brain edema, while SMARCB1 cases exhibited elevated Ki-67 index. Machine-learning methods revealed that observable, noninvasive patient features were largely predictive of each tumor's underlying driver mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Using a rigorous and comprehensive approach, this study expands previously described correlations between genomic drivers and clinical features, enhancing our understanding of meningioma pathogenesis, and laying further groundwork for the use of targeted therapies. Importantly, the authors found that noninvasive patient variables exhibited a moderate predictive value of underlying genomic subgroup, which could improve with additional training data. With continued development, this framework may enable selection of appropriate precision medications without the need for invasive sampling procedures.

2.
Genet Med ; 21(4): 798-812, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655598

RESUMO

Identifying genes and variants contributing to rare disease phenotypes and Mendelian conditions informs biology and medicine, yet potential phenotypic consequences for variation of >75% of the ~20,000 annotated genes in the human genome are lacking. Technical advances to assess rare variation genome-wide, particularly exome sequencing (ES), enabled establishment in the United States of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) and have facilitated collaborative studies resulting in novel "disease gene" discoveries. Pedigree-based genomic studies and rare variant analyses in families with suspected Mendelian conditions have led to the elucidation of hundreds of novel disease genes and highlighted the impact of de novo mutational events, somatic variation underlying nononcologic traits, incompletely penetrant alleles, phenotypes with high locus heterogeneity, and multilocus pathogenic variation. Herein, we highlight CMG collaborative discoveries that have contributed to understanding both rare and common diseases and discuss opportunities for future discovery in single-locus Mendelian disorder genomics. Phenotypic annotation of all human genes; development of bioinformatic tools and analytic methods; exploration of non-Mendelian modes of inheritance including reduced penetrance, multilocus variation, and oligogenic inheritance; construction of allelic series at a locus; enhanced data sharing worldwide; and integration with clinical genomics are explored. Realizing the full contribution of rare disease research to functional annotation of the human genome, and further illuminating human biology and health, will lay the foundation for the Precision Medicine Initiative.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/tendências , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Linhagem , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
3.
Neuron ; 101(3): 429-443.e4, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578106

RESUMO

Normal vascular development includes the formation and specification of arteries, veins, and intervening capillaries. Vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are among the most common and severe neonatal brain arterio-venous malformations, shunting arterial blood into the brain's deep venous system through aberrant direct connections. Exome sequencing of 55 VOGM probands, including 52 parent-offspring trios, revealed enrichment of rare damaging de novo mutations in chromatin modifier genes that play essential roles in brain and vascular development. Other VOGM probands harbored rare inherited damaging mutations in Ephrin signaling genes, including a genome-wide significant mutation burden in EPHB4. Inherited mutations showed incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, with mutation carriers often exhibiting cutaneous vascular abnormalities, suggesting a two-hit mechanism. The identified mutations collectively account for ∼30% of studied VOGM cases. These findings provide insight into disease biology and may have clinical implications for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Mutação , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/genética , Efrinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Linhagem , Penetrância , Receptor EphB4/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/patologia
4.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Putative nucleotidyltransferase MAB21L1 is a member of an evolutionarily well-conserved family of the male abnormal 21 (MAB21)-like proteins. Little is known about the biochemical function of the protein; however, prior studies have shown essential roles for several aspects of embryonic development including the eye, midbrain, neural tube and reproductive organs. OBJECTIVE: A homozygous truncating variant in MAB21L1 has recently been described in a male affected by intellectual disability, scrotal agenesis, ophthalmological anomalies, cerebellar hypoplasia and facial dysmorphism. We employed a combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping to identify the underlying genetic cause in subjects with similar phenotypic features descending from five unrelated consanguineous families. RESULTS: We identified four homozygous MAB21L1 loss of function variants (p.Glu281fs*20, p.Arg287Glufs*14 p.Tyr280* and p.Ser93Serfs*48) and one missense variant (p.Gln233Pro) in 10 affected individuals from 5 consanguineous families with a distinctive autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome. Cardinal features of this syndrome include a characteristic facial gestalt, corneal dystrophy, hairy nipples, underdeveloped labioscrotal folds and scrotum/scrotal agenesis as well as cerebellar hypoplasia with ataxia and variable microcephaly. CONCLUSION: This report defines an ultrarare but clinically recognisable Cerebello-Oculo-Facio-Genital syndrome associated with recessive MAB21L1 variants. Additionally, our findings further support the critical role of MAB21L1 in cerebellum, lens, genitalia and as craniofacial morphogenesis.

5.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 638-647, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify causes of the autosomal-recessive malformation, diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia (DMJD) syndrome. METHODS: Eight families with DMJD were studied by whole-exome or targeted sequencing, with detailed clinical and radiological characterization. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were derived into neural precursor and endothelial cells to study gene expression. RESULTS: All patients showed biallelic mutations in the nonclustered protocadherin-12 (PCDH12) gene. The characteristic clinical presentation included progressive microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, psychomotor disability, epilepsy, and axial hypotonia with variable appendicular spasticity. Brain imaging showed brainstem malformations and with frequent thinned corpus callosum with punctate brain calcifications, reflecting expression of PCDH12 in neural and endothelial cells. These cells showed lack of PCDH12 expression and impaired neurite outgrowth. INTERPRETATION: DMJD patients have biallelic mutations in PCDH12 and lack of protein expression. These patients present with characteristic microcephaly and abnormalities of white matter tracts. Such pathogenic variants predict a poor outcome as a result of brainstem malformation and evidence of white matter tract defects, and should be added to the phenotypic spectrum associated with PCDH12-related conditions. Ann Neurol 2018;84:646-655.

7.
Neuron ; 99(2): 302-314.e4, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983323

RESUMO

Congenital hydrocephalus (CH), featuring markedly enlarged brain ventricles, is thought to arise from failed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis and is treated with lifelong surgical CSF shunting with substantial morbidity. CH pathogenesis is poorly understood. Exome sequencing of 125 CH trios and 52 additional probands identified three genes with significant burden of rare damaging de novo or transmitted mutations: TRIM71 (p = 2.15 × 10-7), SMARCC1 (p = 8.15 × 10-10), and PTCH1 (p = 1.06 × 10-6). Additionally, two de novo duplications were identified at the SHH locus, encoding the PTCH1 ligand (p = 1.2 × 10-4). Together, these probands account for ∼10% of studied cases. Strikingly, all four genes are required for neural tube development and regulate ventricular zone neural stem cell fate. These results implicate impaired neurogenesis (rather than active CSF accumulation) in the pathogenesis of a subset of CH patients, with potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic ramifications.

8.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1093-1101, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013181

RESUMO

Neuronal migration defects, including pachygyria, are among the most severe developmental brain defects in humans. Here, we identify biallelic truncating mutations in CTNNA2, encoding αN-catenin, in patients with a distinct recessive form of pachygyria. CTNNA2 was expressed in human cerebral cortex, and its loss in neurons led to defects in neurite stability and migration. The αN-catenin paralog, αE-catenin, acts as a switch regulating the balance between ß-catenin and Arp2/3 actin filament activities1. Loss of αN-catenin did not affect ß-catenin signaling, but recombinant αN-catenin interacted with purified actin and repressed ARP2/3 actin-branching activity. The actin-binding domain of αN-catenin or ARP2/3 inhibitors rescued the neuronal phenotype associated with CTNNA2 loss, suggesting ARP2/3 de-repression as a potential disease mechanism. Our findings identify CTNNA2 as the first catenin family member with biallelic mutations in humans, causing a new pachygyria syndrome linked to actin regulation, and uncover a key factor involved in ARP2/3 repression in neurons.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895553

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus, a disorder of impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis, often results from an imbalance between CSF production and reabsorption. Rarely, hydrocephalus is the consequence of CSF hypersecretion in the context of diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus (DVHCP). The limited genetic information in previously reported cases suggests a high prevalence of gains of Chromosome 9p in this disease, although the critical genes involved in DVHCP pathogenesis have not been identified. Here, we report a patient with syndromic hydrocephalus with DVHCP associated with a novel 9p24.3-11.2 triplication and 15q13.2-q13.3 microdeletion. We review the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of DVHCP, as well as its surgical management. A better understanding of the genetic basis of DVHCP could spur the development of rational, targeted nonsurgical hydrocephalus treatments.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903892

RESUMO

Congenital hemangiomas are tumor-like vascular malformations with poorly understood pathogenesis. We report the case of a neonate with a massive congenital scalp hemangioma that required urgent neurosurgical removal on the second day of life because of concern for high-flow arteriovenous shunting. Exome sequencing identified a rare damaging de novo germline mutation in MYH9 (c.5308C>T, p.[Arg1770Cys]), encoding the MYH9 nonmuscle myosin IIA. MYH9 has a probability of loss-of-function intolerance (pLI) score of >0.99 and is highly intolerant to missense variation (z score = 5.59). The p.(Arg1770Cys) mutation substitutes an evolutionarily conserved amino acid in the protein's critical myosin tail domain and is predicted to be highly deleterious by SIFT, PolyPhen-2, MetaSVM, and CADD. MYH9 is a known regulator of cytokinesis, VEGF-regulated angiogenesis, and p53-dependent tumorigenesis. These findings reveal a novel association of germline de novo MYH9 mutation with congenital hemangioma.

12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(2): 230-248, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by camptodactyly, noninflammatory arthropathy, coxa vara, and pericarditis. CACP is caused by mutations in the proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) gene, which encodes a lubricating glycoprotein present in the synovial fluid and at the surface of articular cartilage. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the clinical and molecular findings of CACP syndrome in 35 patients from 11 unrelated families. In 28 patients, whole exome sequencing was used to investigate genomic variations. RESULTS: We found that camptodactyly of hands was the first symptom presented by most patients. Swelling of wrists, knees, and elbows began before 4 years of age, while the age of joint involvement was variable. Patients reported an increased pain level after the age of 10, and severe hip involvement developed after 20 years old. All patients presented developmental coxa vara and seven patients (~22%) had pleural effusion, pericarditis, and/or ascites. We identified nine novel genomic alterations, including the first case of homozygous complete deletion of exon 1 in the PRG4 gene. CONCLUSION: With this study, we contribute to the catalog of CACP causing variants. We confirm that the skeletal component of this disease worsens with age, and presents the potential mechanisms for interfamily variability, by discussing the influence of a modifier gene and escape from nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. We believe that this report will increase awareness of this familial arthropathic condition and the characteristic clinical and radiological findings will facilitate the differentiation from the common childhood rheumatic diseases such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis.


Assuntos
Artropatia Neurogênica/diagnóstico , Artropatia Neurogênica/genética , Coxa Vara/diagnóstico , Coxa Vara/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Proteoglicanas/genética , Sinovite/diagnóstico , Sinovite/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Deleção de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
13.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 21(4): 367-374, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350590

RESUMO

Vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are rare developmental cerebrovascular lesions characterized by fistulas between the choroidal circulation and the median prosencephalic vein. Although the treatment of VOGMs has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical innovation in interventional neuroradiology, many patients are recalcitrant to procedural intervention or lack accessibility to specialized care centers, highlighting the need for improved screening, diagnostics, and therapeutics. A fundamental obstacle to identifying novel targets is the limited understanding of VOGM molecular pathophysiology, including its human genetics, and the lack of an adequate VOGM animal model. Herein, the known human mutations associated with VOGMs are reviewed to provide a framework for future gene discovery. Gene mutations have been identified in 2 Mendelian syndromes of which VOGM is an infrequent but associated phenotype: capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome ( RASA1) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia ( ENG and ACVRL1). However, these mutations probably represent only a small fraction of all VOGM cases. Traditional genetic approaches have been limited in their ability to identify additional causative genes for VOGM because kindreds are rare, limited in patient number, and/or seem to have sporadic inheritance patterns, attributable in part to incomplete penetrance and phenotypic variability. The authors hypothesize that the apparent sporadic occurrence of VOGM may frequently be attributable to de novo mutation or incomplete penetrance of rare transmitted variants. Collaboration among treating physicians, patients' families, and investigators using next-generation sequencing could lead to the discovery of novel genes for VOGM. This could improve the understanding of normal vascular biology, elucidate the pathogenesis of VOGM and possibly other more common arteriovenous malformation subtypes, and pave the way for advances in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with VOGM.

14.
J Neurosurg ; 128(4): 1102-1114, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Recent studies have established that hemispheric diffuse gliomas may be grouped into subsets on the basis of molecular markers; these subsets are loosely correlated with the histopathological diagnosis but are strong predictors of clinical tumor behavior. Based on an analysis of molecular and clinical parameters, the authors hypothesized that mutations of the telomerase promoter (TERTp-mut) mark separate oncogenic programs among isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and/or 2 (IDH) mutant (IDH-mut) and IDH wild-type (IDH-wt) diffuse gliomas independent of histopathology or WHO grade. METHODS Four molecular subsets of the combined statuses of IDH and TERT-promoter mutations (double mutant, IDH only, TERT only, and double negative) were defined. Differences in age, anatomical location, molecular genetics, and survival rates in a surgical cohort of 299 patients with a total of 356 hemispheric diffuse gliomas (WHO Grade II, III, or IV) were analyzed. RESULTS TERTp-mut were present in 38.8% of IDH-mut and 70.2% of IDH-wt gliomas. The mutational status was stable in each patient at 57 recurrence events over a 2645-month cumulative follow-up period. Among patients with IDH-mut gliomas, those in the double-mutant subset had better survival and a lower incidence of malignant degeneration than those in the IDH-only subset. Of patients in the double-mutant subset, 96.3% were also positive for 1p/19q codeletions. All patients with 1p/19q codeletions had TERTp-mut. In patients with IDH-mut glioma, epidermal growth factor receptor or phosphatase and tensin homolog mutations were not observed, and copy-number variations were uncommon. Among IDH-wt gliomas, the TERT-only subset was associated with significantly higher age, higher Ki-67 labeling index, primary glioblastoma-specific oncogenic changes, and poor survival. The double-negative subset was genetically and biologically heterogeneous. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier, multivariate, and regression-tree analyses) confirmed that patients in the 4 molecular subsets had distinct prognoses. CONCLUSIONS Molecular subsets result in different tumor biology and clinical behaviors in hemispheric diffuse gliomas.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(2): 421-425, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226631

RESUMO

We here describe novel compound heterozygous missense variants, NM_133443:c.[400C>T] and NM_133443:[1435G>A], in the glutamic-pyruvic transaminase 2 (GPT2) gene in a large consanguineous family with two affected siblings diagnosed with microcephaly intellectual disability and developmental delay (IDD). In addition to these clinical phenotypes, the male sibling has spastic paraplegia, and the female sibling has epilepsy. Their four extended family members have IDD and microcephaly. Both of these variants, c.400C>T (p.R134C) and c.1435G>A (p.V479M), reside in the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aminotransferase domain. The missense variants affect highly conserved amino acids and are classified to be disease-causing by meta-SVM. The candidate variants were not found in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) dataset or in dbSNP. Both GPT2 variants have an allele frequency of 0% (0/ ∼ 600) in the whole-exome sequenced Turkish cohort. Upon Sanger sequencing, we confirmed these mutations in all affected family members and showed that the index patient and his affected sister inherited one mutant allele from each unaffected parent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first family in which a novel compound heterozygous variant in the GPT2 gene was identified.

16.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0181538, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880903

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have been highly successful in the treatment of cancer. While PD-1 expression has been widely investigated, its role in CD4+ effector T cells in the setting of health and cancer remains unclear, particularly in the setting of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and common form of brain cancer. We examined the functional and molecular features of PD-1+CD4+CD25-CD127+Foxp3-effector cells in healthy subjects and in patients with GBM. In healthy subjects, we found that PD-1+CD4+ effector cells are dysfunctional: they do not proliferate but can secrete large quantities of IFNγ. Strikingly, blocking antibodies against PD-1 did not rescue proliferation. RNA-sequencing revealed features of exhaustion in PD-1+ CD4 effectors. In the context of GBM, tumors were enriched in PD-1+ CD4+ effectors that were similarly dysfunctional and unable to proliferate. Furthermore, we found enrichment of PD-1+TIM-3+ CD4+ effectors in tumors, suggesting that co-blockade of PD-1 and TIM-3 in GBM may be therapeutically beneficial. RNA-sequencing of blood and tumors from GBM patients revealed distinct differences between CD4+ effectors from both compartments with enrichment in multiple gene sets from tumor infiltrating PD-1-CD4+ effectors cells. Enrichment of these gene sets in tumor suggests a more metabolically active cell state with signaling through other co-receptors. PD-1 expression on CD4 cells identifies a dysfunctional subset refractory to rescue with PD-1 blocking antibodies, suggesting that the influence of immune checkpoint inhibitors may involve recovery of function in the PD-1-CD4+ T cell compartment. Additionally, co-blockade of PD-1 and TIM-3 in GBM may be therapeutically beneficial.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Telômero/metabolismo
17.
Nat Neurosci ; 20(10): 1329-1341, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805815

RESUMO

A causative understanding of genetic factors that regulate glioblastoma pathogenesis is of central importance. Here we developed an adeno-associated virus-mediated, autochthonous genetic CRISPR screen in glioblastoma. Stereotaxic delivery of a virus library targeting genes commonly mutated in human cancers into the brains of conditional-Cas9 mice resulted in tumors that recapitulate human glioblastoma. Capture sequencing revealed diverse mutational profiles across tumors. The mutation frequencies in mice correlated with those in two independent patient cohorts. Co-mutation analysis identified co-occurring driver combinations such as B2m-Nf1, Mll3-Nf1 and Zc3h13-Rb1, which were subsequently validated using AAV minipools. Distinct from Nf1-mutant tumors, Rb1-mutant tumors are undifferentiated and aberrantly express homeobox gene clusters. The addition of Zc3h13 or Pten mutations altered the gene expression profiles of Rb1 mutants, rendering them more resistant to temozolomide. Our study provides a functional landscape of gliomagenesis suppressors in vivo.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Glioblastoma/genética , Supressão Genética/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Células Cultivadas , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Dependovirus/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Temozolomida
18.
Nat Med ; 23(8): 997-1003, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692063

RESUMO

The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) secretes higher volumes of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, CSF) than any other epithelium and simultaneously functions as the blood-CSF barrier to gate immune cell entry into the central nervous system. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), an expansion of the cerebral ventricles due to CSF accumulation following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), is a common disease usually treated by suboptimal CSF shunting techniques. PHH is classically attributed to primary impairments in CSF reabsorption, but little experimental evidence supports this concept. In contrast, the potential contribution of CSF secretion to PHH has received little attention. In a rat model of PHH, we demonstrate that IVH causes a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response in the CPE that is associated with a ∼3-fold increase in bumetanide-sensitive CSF secretion. IVH-induced hypersecretion of CSF is mediated by TLR4-dependent activation of the Ste20-type stress kinase SPAK, which binds, phosphorylates, and stimulates the NKCC1 co-transporter at the CPE apical membrane. Genetic depletion of TLR4 or SPAK normalizes hyperactive CSF secretion rates and reduces PHH symptoms, as does treatment with drugs that antagonize TLR4-NF-κB signaling or the SPAK-NKCC1 co-transporter complex. These data uncover a previously unrecognized contribution of CSF hypersecretion to the pathogenesis of PHH, demonstrate a new role for TLRs in regulation of the internal brain milieu, and identify a kinase-regulated mechanism of CSF secretion that could be targeted by repurposed US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs to treat hydrocephalus.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/imunologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Plexo Corióideo/metabolismo , Hidrocefalia/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Acetazolamida/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Bumetanida/farmacologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Ventrículos Cerebrais , Plexo Corióideo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plexo Corióideo/imunologia , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/metabolismo , Immunoblotting , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunoprecipitação , Inflamação , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Salicilanilidas/farmacologia , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tiocarbamatos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630369

RESUMO

Primary cardiomyopathy is one of the most common inherited cardiac diseases and harbors significant phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Because of this, genetic testing has become standard in treatment of this disease group. Indeed, in recent years, next-generation DNA sequencing has found broad applications in medicine, both as a routine diagnostic tool for genetic disorders and as a high-throughput discovery tool for identifying novel disease-causing genes. We describe a male infant with primary dilated cardiomyopathy who was diagnosed using intrauterine echocardiography and found to progress to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after birth. This proband was born to a nonconsanguineous family with a past history of a male fetus that died because of cardiac abnormalities at 30 wk of gestation. Using whole-exome sequencing, a novel homozygous frameshift mutation (c.2018delC; p.Gln675SerfsX30) in ALPK3 was identified and confirmed with Sanger sequencing. Heterozygous family members were normal with echocardiographic examination. To date, only two studies have reported homozygous pathogenic variants of ALPK3, with a total of seven affected individuals with cardiomyopathy from four unrelated consanguineous families. We include a discussion of the patient's phenotypic features and a review of relevant literature findings.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Pré-Escolar , Ecocardiografia , Exoma , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Mutação , Linhagem , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(21): 5503-5508, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500274

RESUMO

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular anomalies that develop in the central nervous system and, more rarely, the retina. The lesions can cause headache, seizures, focal neurological deficits, and hemorrhagic stroke. Symptomatic lesions are treated according to their presentation; however, targeted pharmacological therapies that improve the outcome of CCM disease are currently lacking. We performed a high-throughput screen to identify Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs or other bioactive compounds that could effectively suppress hyperproliferation of mouse brain primary astrocytes deficient for CCM3. We demonstrate that fluvastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase and the N-bisphosphonate zoledronic acid monohydrate, an inhibitor of protein prenylation, act synergistically to reverse outcomes of CCM3 loss in cultured mouse primary astrocytes and in Drosophila glial cells in vivo. Further, the two drugs effectively attenuate neural and vascular deficits in chronic and acute mouse models of CCM3 loss in vivo, significantly reducing lesion burden and extending longevity. Sustained inhibition of the mevalonate pathway represents a potential pharmacological treatment option and suggests advantages of combination therapy for CCM disease.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/uso terapêutico , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Drosophila , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluvastatina , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Prenilação de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Zoledrônico
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