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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3254, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668106

RESUMO

Carriers of germline biallelic pathogenic variants in the MUTYH gene have a high risk of colorectal cancer. We test 5649 colorectal cancers to evaluate the discriminatory potential of a tumor mutational signature specific to MUTYH for identifying biallelic carriers and classifying variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). Using a tumor and matched germline targeted multi-gene panel approach, our classifier identifies all biallelic MUTYH carriers and all known non-carriers in an independent test set of 3019 colorectal cancers (accuracy = 100% (95% confidence interval 99.87-100%)). All monoallelic MUTYH carriers are classified with the non-MUTYH carriers. The classifier provides evidence for a pathogenic classification for two VUS and a benign classification for five VUS. Somatic hotspot mutations KRAS p.G12C and PIK3CA p.Q546K are associated with colorectal cancers from biallelic MUTYH carriers compared with non-carriers (p = 2 × 10-23 and p = 6 × 10-11, respectively). Here, we demonstrate the potential application of mutational signatures to tumor sequencing workflows to improve the identification of biallelic MUTYH carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , DNA Glicosilases , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação
2.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group of risk factors that define metabolic dysfunction in adults, is strongly associated with obesity and is an emerging risk factor for cancer. However, the association of MetS and degree of metabolic dysfunction with obesity-related cancer is unknown. METHODS: Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999 to 2018, we identified 528 obesity-related cancer cases and 18,972 cancer-free participants. MetS was defined as the presence of or treatment for ≥3 of hyperglycemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, and abdominal obesity. A metabolic syndrome score (MSS) was computed as the total number of abnormal MetS parameters to determine the severity of metabolic dysfunction. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: About 45.7% of obesity-related cancer cases were classified as having MetS compared with only 33.0% of cancer-free participants. Overall, MetS and MSS were not associated with obesity-related cancer. However, MSS was associated with higher obesity-related cancer risk among participants under 50 years of age (OR [95% CI] = 1.28 [1.08-1.52]). When evaluating MSS categorically, compared with healthy participants with no abnormal MetS parameters (MSS = 0), participants with one or two abnormal parameters had a statistically significant higher risk of obesity-related cancer (OR [95% CI] = 1.73 [1.06-2.83]). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic dysfunction is associated with a higher risk of obesity-related cancer, particularly in young adults under 50 years of age, and among participants with one or two abnormal metabolic parameters. A more accurate indicator of metabolic dysfunction, beyond metabolic syndrome, is needed to better assist in stratifying individuals for obesity-related cancer risk.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies had limited power to assess the associations of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) with clinically relevant prostate cancer as a primary endpoint, and the association of genetically predicted IGF-I with aggressive prostate cancer is not known. We aimed to investigate the associations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 concentrations with overall, aggressive and early-onset prostate cancer. METHODS: Prospective analysis of biomarkers using the Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset (up to 20 studies, 17 009 prostate cancer cases, including 2332 aggressive cases). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression. For IGF-I, two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was undertaken using instruments identified using UK Biobank (158 444 men) and outcome data from PRACTICAL (up to 85 554 cases, including 15 167 aggressive cases). Additionally, we used colocalization to rule out confounding by linkage disequilibrium. RESULTS: In observational analyses, IGF-I was positively associated with risks of overall (OR per 1 SD = 1.09: 95% CI 1.07, 1.11), aggressive (1.09: 1.03, 1.16) and possibly early-onset disease (1.11: 1.00, 1.24); associations were similar in MR analyses (OR per 1 SD = 1.07: 1.00, 1.15; 1.10: 1.01, 1.20; and 1.13; 0.98, 1.30, respectively). Colocalization also indicated a shared signal for IGF-I and prostate cancer (PP4: 99%). Men with higher IGF-II (1.06: 1.02, 1.11) and IGFBP-3 (1.08: 1.04, 1.11) had higher risks of overall prostate cancer, whereas higher IGFBP-1 was associated with a lower risk (0.95: 0.91, 0.99); these associations were attenuated following adjustment for IGF-I. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the role of IGF-I in the development of prostate cancer, including for aggressive disease.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579976

RESUMO

Previous studies had limited power to assess the associations of testosterone with aggressive disease as a primary endpoint. Further, the association of genetically predicted testosterone with aggressive disease is not known. We investigated the associations of calculated free and measured total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with aggressive, overall and early-onset prostate cancer. In blood-based analyses, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression from prospective analysis of biomarker concentrations in the Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group (up to 25 studies, 14 944 cases and 36 752 controls, including 1870 aggressive prostate cancers). In Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses, using instruments identified using UK Biobank (up to 194 453 men) and outcome data from PRACTICAL (up to 79 148 cases and 61 106 controls, including 15 167 aggressive cancers), ORs were estimated using the inverse-variance weighted method. Free testosterone was associated with aggressive disease in MR analyses (OR per 1 SD = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08-1.40). In blood-based analyses there was no association with aggressive disease overall, but there was heterogeneity by age at blood collection (OR for men aged <60 years 1.14, CI = 1.02-1.28; Phet  = .0003: inverse association for older ages). Associations for free testosterone were positive for overall prostate cancer (MR: 1.20, 1.08-1.34; blood-based: 1.03, 1.01-1.05) and early-onset prostate cancer (MR: 1.37, 1.09-1.73; blood-based: 1.08, 0.98-1.19). SHBG and total testosterone were inversely associated with overall prostate cancer in blood-based analyses, with null associations in MR analysis. Our results support free testosterone, rather than total testosterone, in the development of prostate cancer, including aggressive subgroups.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 546, 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and cardiometabolic comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes have been studied as negative prognostic factors in cancer survival, but possible dependencies in the mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unexplored. We analysed these associations in colorectal and breast cancer patients. METHODS: Based on repeated BMI assessments of cancer-free participants from four European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study, individual BMI-trajectories reflecting predicted mean BMI between ages 20 to 50 years were estimated using a growth curve model. Participants with incident colorectal or breast cancer after the age of 50 years were included in the survival analysis to study the prognostic effect of mean BMI and cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) prior to cancer. CMD were defined as one or more chronic conditions among stroke, myocardial infarction, and type 2 diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of mean BMI and CMD were derived using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression for mean BMI and CMD separately and both exposures combined, in subgroups of localised and advanced disease. RESULTS: In the total cohort of 159,045 participants, there were 1,045 and 1,620 eligible patients of colorectal and breast cancer. In colorectal cancer patients, a higher BMI (by 1 kg/m2) was associated with a 6% increase in risk of death (95% CI of HR: 1.02-1.10). The HR for CMD was 1.25 (95% CI: 0.97-1.61). The associations for both exposures were stronger in patients with localised colorectal cancer. In breast cancer patients, a higher BMI was associated with a 4% increase in risk of death (95% CI: 1.00-1.08). CMDs were associated with a 46% increase in risk of death (95% CI: 1.01-2.09). The estimates and CIs for BMI remained similar after adjustment for CMD and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cumulative exposure to higher BMI during early to mid-adulthood was associated with poorer survival in patients with breast and colorectal cancer, independent of CMD prior to cancer diagnosis. The association between a CMD diagnosis prior to cancer and survival in patients with breast and colorectal cancer was independent of BMI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Cancer ; 151(3): 348-360, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383926

RESUMO

Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease and it is not well understood whether diabetes is more strongly associated with some tumor molecular subtypes than others. A better understanding of the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes could provide important insights into the biology of this association. We used data on lifestyle and clinical characteristics from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), including 9756 colorectal cancer cases (with tumor marker data) and 9985 controls, to evaluate associations between reported diabetes and risk of colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes. Tumor markers included BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype. In the multinomial logistic regression model, comparing colorectal cancer cases to cancer-free controls, diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer regardless of subtype. The highest OR estimate was found for BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer, n = 1086 (ORfully adj : 1.67, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.36-2.05), with an attenuated association observed between diabetes and colorectal cancer without BRAF-mutations, n = 7959 (ORfully adj : 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48). In the case only analysis, BRAF-mutation was differentially associated with diabetes (Pdifference  = .03). For the other markers, associations with diabetes were similar across tumor subtypes. In conclusion, our study confirms the established association between diabetes and colorectal cancer risk, and suggests that it particularly increases the risk of BRAF-mutated tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1077-1089, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently known associations between common genetic variants and colorectal cancer explain less than half of its heritability of 25%. As alcohol consumption has a J-shape association with colorectal cancer risk, nondrinking and heavy drinking are both risk factors for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Individual-level data was pooled from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium to compare nondrinkers (≤1 g/day) and heavy drinkers (>28 g/day) with light-to-moderate drinkers (1-28 g/day) in GxE analyses. To improve power, we implemented joint 2df and 3df tests and a novel two-step method that modifies the weighted hypothesis testing framework. We prioritized putative causal variants by predicting allelic effects using support vector machine models. RESULTS: For nondrinking as compared with light-to-moderate drinking, the hybrid two-step approach identified 13 significant SNPs with pairwise r2 > 0.9 in the 10q24.2/COX15 region. When stratified by alcohol intake, the A allele of lead SNP rs2300985 has a dose-response increase in risk of colorectal cancer as compared with the G allele in light-to-moderate drinkers [OR for GA genotype = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.17; OR for AA genotype = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31], but not in nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Among the correlated candidate SNPs in the 10q24.2/COX15 region, rs1318920 was predicted to disrupt an HNF4 transcription factor binding motif. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the association with colorectal cancer in 10q24.2/COX15 observed in genome-wide association study is strongest in nondrinkers. We also identified rs1318920 as the putative causal regulatory variant for the region. IMPACT: The study identifies multifaceted evidence of a possible functional effect for rs1318920.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 118, 2022 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been hypothesized to play a role in the development and progression of breast cancer and might differently impact breast cancer risk among pre and postmenopausal women. We performed a nested case-control study to examine whether pre-diagnostic circulating concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, c-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and 6 interleukins were associated with breast cancer risk, overall and by menopausal status. METHODS: Pre-diagnostic levels of inflammatory biomarkers were measured in plasma from 1558 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer at blood collection, per one standard deviation increase in biomarker concentration. RESULTS: Cases were diagnosed at a mean age of 61.4 years on average 8.6 years after blood collection. No statistically significant association was observed between inflammatory markers and breast cancer risk overall. In premenopausal women, borderline significant inverse associations were observed for leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and CRP [OR= 0.89 (0.77-1.03), OR= 0.88 (0.76-1.01) and OR= 0.87 (0.75-1.01), respectively] while positive associations were observed among postmenopausal women [OR= 1.16 (1.05-1.29), OR= 1.11 (1.01-1.23), OR= 1.10 (0.99-1.22), respectively]. Adjustment for BMI strengthened the estimates in premenopausal women [leptin: OR = 0.83 (0.68-1.00), leptin-to-adiponectin ratio: OR = 0.80 (0.66-0.97), CRP: OR = 0.85 (0.72-1.00)] but attenuated the estimates in postmenopausal women [leptin: OR = 1.09 (0.96-1.24), leptin-to-adiponectin ratio: OR = 1.02 (0.89-1.16), CRP: OR = 1.04 (0.92-1.16)]. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between CRP, leptin and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio with breast cancer risk may represent the dual effect of obesity by menopausal status although this deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Leptina , Adipocinas , Adiponectina , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 125, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in high-income countries. Elevated body mass index (BMI) is an established modifiable risk factor for this condition and is estimated to confer a larger effect on endometrial cancer risk than any other cancer site. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning this association remain unclear. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the causal role of 14 molecular risk factors (hormonal, metabolic and inflammatory markers) in endometrial cancer risk. We then evaluated and quantified the potential mediating role of these molecular traits in the relationship between BMI and endometrial cancer using multivariable MR. METHODS: Genetic instruments to proxy 14 molecular risk factors and BMI were constructed by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reliably associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with each respective risk factor in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Summary statistics for the association of these SNPs with overall and subtype-specific endometrial cancer risk (12,906 cases and 108,979 controls) were obtained from a GWAS meta-analysis of the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (ECAC), Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) and UK Biobank. SNPs were combined into multi-allelic models and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were generated using inverse-variance weighted random-effects models. The mediating roles of the molecular risk factors in the relationship between BMI and endometrial cancer were then estimated using multivariable MR. RESULTS: In MR analyses, there was strong evidence that BMI (OR per standard deviation (SD) increase 1.88, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.09, P = 3.87 × 10-31), total testosterone (OR per inverse-normal transformed nmol/L increase 1.64, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.88, P = 1.71 × 10-12), bioavailable testosterone (OR per natural log transformed nmol/L increase: 1.46, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.65, P = 3.48 × 10-9), fasting insulin (OR per natural log transformed pmol/L increase: 3.93, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.74, P = 7.18 × 10-7) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, OR per inverse-normal transformed nmol/L increase 0.71, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.85, P = 2.07 × 10-4) had a causal effect on endometrial cancer risk. Additionally, there was suggestive evidence that total serum cholesterol (OR per mg/dL increase 0.90, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.00, P = 4.01 × 10-2) had an effect on endometrial cancer risk. In mediation analysis, we found evidence for a mediating role of fasting insulin (19% total effect mediated, 95% CI 5 to 34%, P = 9.17 × 10-3), bioavailable testosterone (15% mediated, 95% CI 10 to 20%, P = 1.43 × 10-8) and SHBG (7% mediated, 95% CI 1 to 12%, P = 1.81 × 10-2) in the relationship between BMI and endometrial cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive MR analysis provides insight into potential causal mechanisms linking BMI with endometrial cancer risk and suggests targeting of insulinemic and hormonal traits as a potential strategy for the prevention of endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona
10.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate the association between protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. METHODS: 413 593 participants from eight European countries were included. Dietary data were collected at baseline from validated food frequency questionnaires. Dietary data were calibrated to correct errors of measures related to each country-specific questionnaire. Associations between proteins (total, animal, and vegetable) or food sources of animal proteins, and IBD risk were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 16 years, 177 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 418 with ulcerative colitis (UC), were identified. There was no association between total protein, animal, or vegetable protein intakes and CD or UC risks. Total meat and red meat intakes were associated with UC risk (HR for the 4 thvs. 1 st quartile = 1.40; 95% CI = 0.99-1.98; P-trend = 0.01; and 1.61; 95% CI = 1.10-2.36, P-trend = 0.007, respectively). There was no association between other food sources of animal protein (processed meat, fish, shellfish, eggs, poultry) and UC. We found no association between food sources of animal proteins and CD risk. CONCLUSION: Meat and red meat consumptions are associated with higher risks of UC. These results support dietary counseling of low meat intake in people at high-risk of IBD.

11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 54, 2022 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mildly elevated bilirubin, a by-product of hemoglobin breakdown, might mitigate cardiometabolic risk factors including adiposity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure (BP). We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between (total) bilirubin and baseline cardiometabolic risk factors in 467,519 UK Biobank study participants. METHODS: We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to estimate associations between bilirubin levels and risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences (WC, HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fat mass (FM), and trunk FM, and the blood lipids: apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), apoB/apoA-I, lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, triglycerides (TG). Log-transformed bilirubin was modelled with restricted cubic splines and predicted mean values with 99% confidence intervals (CI) for each risk marker were estimated, separately. Second, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction to in turn six anthropometric traits (height, weight, BMI, WC, HC, and WHR) and all above lipids. Last, we estimated associations (99%CI) between bilirubin and three components of the metabolic syndrome, i.e. WC, TG, and BP using logistic regression. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustments, higher levels of bilirubin were inversely associated with indicators of general adiposity (BMI and FM) and of body fat distribution (WC, HC, WHR, and trunk FM) in both men and women. For example, women with mildly elevated bilirubin (95th percentile equal to 15.0 µmol/L), compared to women with low bilirubin (5th percentile equal to 4.5 µmol/L), had on average a 2.0 kg/m2 (99% CI 1.9-2.1) lower BMI. Inverse associations were also observed with dyslipidemia among men and women. For example, mildly elevated bilirubin among men (95th percentile equal to 19.4 µmol/L) compared to low levels of bilirubin (5th percentile equal to 5.5 µmol/L) were associated with approx. 0.55 mmol/L (99% CI 0.53-0.56) lower TG levels, with similar inverse associations among women. Multiple-trait analyses using PCA confirmed single-trait analyses. Men and women with mildly elevated bilirubin levels ≥ 17.1 µmol/L, compared to low-normal bilirubin < 10 µmol/L had 13% (99% CI 8%-18%) and 11% (99% CI 4%-17%) lower odds of exceeding systolic BP levels of ≥ 130 mm Hg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of bilirubin were inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Hipertensão , Apolipoproteína A-I , Apolipoproteínas B , Bilirrubina , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer but whether metabolic dysfunction is associated with endometrial cancer independent of body size is not known. METHODS: The association of metabolically-defined body size phenotypes with endometrial cancer risk was investigated in a nested case-control study (817 cases/ 817 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Concentrations of C-peptide were used to define metabolically healthy (MH; <1st tertile) and metabolically unhealthy (MU; >=1st tertile) status among the control participants. These metabolic health definitions were combined with normal weight (NW; Body Mass Index (BMI)<25kg/m2 or Waist Circumference (WC)<80cm or Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR)<0.8) and overweight (OW; BMI>=25kg/m2 or WC>=80cm or WHR>=0.8) status, generating four phenotype groups for each anthropometric measure: (1)MH/NW, (2)MH/OW (3)MU/NW and (4)MU/OW. RESULTS: In a multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression model, compared with MH/NW individuals, endometrial cancer risk was higher among those classified as MU/NW (OR/WC=1.48; 95%CI 1.05-2.10 and OR/WHR=1.68; 95%CI 1.21-2.35) and MU/OW (OR/BMI=2.38, 95%CI 1.73-3.27; OR/WC=2.69, 95%CI 1.92-3.77 and OR/WHR=1.83, 95%CI 1.32-2.54). MH/OW individuals were also at increased endometrial cancer risk compared to MH/NW individuals (OR/WC=1.94, 95%CI 1.24-3.04). CONCLUSIONS: Women with metabolic dysfunction appear to have higher risk of endometrial cancer regardless of their body size. However, overweight status raises endometrial cancer risk even among women with lower insulin levels, suggesting that obesity-related pathways are relevant for the development of this cancer beyond insulin. IMPACT: Classifying women by metabolic health may be of greater utility in identifying those at higher risk for endometrial cancer than anthropometry per se.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438160

RESUMO

It is unclear if body weight in early life affects cancer risk independently of adult body weight. To investigate this question for six obesity-related cancers, we performed univariable and multivariable analyses using i) Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis and ii) longitudinal analyses in prospective cohorts. Both the MR and longitudinal analyses indicated that larger body size at age 10 was associated with higher risk of endometrial (ORMR=1.61, 95%CI = 1.23-2.11) and kidney cancer (ORMR=1.40, 95%CI = 1.09-1.80). These associations were attenuated after accounting for adult body size in both the MR and cohort analyses. Early life BMI was not consistently associated with the other investigated cancers. The lack of clear independent risk associations suggests that early life BMI influences endometrial and kidney cancer risk mainly through pathways that are common with adult BMI.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) exhibit significantly increased chronic diseases and premature death. Abnormalities in DNA methylation are associated with development of chronic diseases and reduced life expectancy. We investigated the hypothesis that anti-cancer treatments are associated with long-term DNA methylation changes that could be key drivers of adverse late health effects. METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation was assessed using MethylationEPIC arrays in paired samples (before/after therapy) from 32 childhood cancer patients. Separately, methylation was determined in 32 samples from different adult CCS (mean 22-years post-diagnosis) and compared with cancer-free controls (n = 284). RESULTS: Widespread DNA methylation changes were identified post-treatment in childhood cancer patients, including 146 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), which were consistently altered in the 32 post-treatment samples. Analysis of adult CCS identified matching methylation changes at 107/146 of the DMRs, suggesting potential long-term retention of post-therapy changes. Adult survivors also exhibited epigenetic age acceleration, independent of DMR methylation. Furthermore, altered methylation at the DUSP6 DMR was significantly associated with early mortality, suggesting altered methylation may be prognostic for some late adverse health effects in CCS. CONCLUSIONS: These novel methylation changes could serve as biomarkers for assessing normal cell toxicity in ongoing treatments and predicting long-term health outcomes in CCS.

15.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236935

RESUMO

Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) have become increasingly dominant globally, contributing to as much as 60% of total daily energy intake in some settings. Epidemiological evidence suggests this worldwide shift in food processing may partly be responsible for the global obesity epidemic and chronic disease burden. However, prospective studies examining the association between UPF consumption and cancer outcomes are limited. Available evidence suggests that UPFs may increase cancer risk via their obesogenic properties as well as through exposure to potentially carcinogenic compounds such as certain food additives and neoformed processing contaminants. We identify priority areas for future research and policy implications, including improved understanding of the potential dual harms of UPFs on the environment and cancer risk. The prevention of cancers related to the consumption of UPFs could be tackled using different strategies, including behaviour change interventions among consumers as well as bolder public health policies needed to improve food environments.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1068-1076, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has a strong epigenetic component that is accompanied by frequent DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations in addition to heritable genetic risk. It is of interest to understand the interrelationship of germline genetics, DNAm, and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide methylation quantitative trait locus (meQTL) analysis in 1,355 people, assessing the pairwise associations between genetic variants and lymphocytes methylation data. In addition, we used penalized regression with cis-genetic variants ± 1 Mb of methylation to identify genome-wide heritable DNAm. We evaluated the association of genetically predicted methylation with colorectal cancer risk based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of over 125,000 cases and controls using the multivariate sMiST as well as univariately via examination of marginal association with colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Of the 142 known colorectal cancer GWAS loci, 47 were identified as meQTLs. We identified four novel colorectal cancer-associated loci (NID2, ATXN10, KLHDC10, and CEP41) that reside over 1 Mb outside of known colorectal cancer loci and 10 secondary signals within 1 Mb of known loci. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging information of DNAm regulation into genetic association of colorectal cancer risk reveals novel pathways in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. Our summary statistics-based framework sMiST provides a powerful approach by combining information from the effect through methylation and residual direct effects of the meQTLs on disease risk. Further validation and functional follow-up of these novel pathways are needed. IMPACT: Using genotype, DNAm, and GWAS, we identified four new colorectal cancer risk loci. We studied the landscape of genetic regulation of DNAm via single-SNP and multi-SNP meQTL analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas , Locos de Características Quantitativas
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(5): 631-652, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274198

RESUMO

Dietary factors are assumed to play an important role in cancer risk, apparent in consensus recommendations for cancer prevention that promote nutritional changes. However, the evidence in this field has been generated predominantly through observational studies, which may result in biased effect estimates because of confounding, exposure misclassification, and reverse causality. With major geographical differences and rapid changes in cancer incidence over time, it is crucial to establish which of the observational associations reflect causality and to identify novel risk factors as these may be modified to prevent the onset of cancer and reduce its progression. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses the special properties of germline genetic variation to strengthen causal inference regarding potentially modifiable exposures and disease risk. MR can be implemented through instrumental variable (IV) analysis and, when robustly performed, is generally less prone to confounding, reverse causation and measurement error than conventional observational methods and has different sources of bias (discussed in detail below). It is increasingly used to facilitate causal inference in epidemiology and provides an opportunity to explore the effects of nutritional exposures on cancer incidence and progression in a cost-effective and timely manner. Here, we introduce the concept of MR and discuss its current application in understanding the impact of nutritional factors (e.g., any measure of diet and nutritional intake, circulating biomarkers, patterns, preference or behaviour) on cancer aetiology and, thus, opportunities for MR to contribute to the development of nutritional recommendations and policies for cancer prevention. We provide applied examples of MR studies examining the role of nutritional factors in cancer to illustrate how this method can be used to help prioritise or deprioritise the evaluation of specific nutritional factors as intervention targets in randomised controlled trials. We describe possible biases when using MR, and methodological developments aimed at investigating and potentially overcoming these biases when present. Lastly, we consider the use of MR in identifying causally relevant nutritional risk factors for various cancers in different regions across the world, given notable geographical differences in some cancers. We also discuss how MR results could be translated into further research and policy. We conclude that findings from MR studies, which corroborate those from other well-conducted studies with different and orthogonal biases, are poised to substantially improve our understanding of nutritional influences on cancer. For such corroboration, there is a requirement for an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach to investigate risk factors for cancer incidence and progression.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias , Causalidade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 34, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater maternal adiposity before or during pregnancy is associated with greater offspring adiposity throughout childhood, but the extent to which this is due to causal intrauterine or periconceptional mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we use Mendelian randomisation (MR) with polygenic risk scores (PRS) to investigate whether associations between maternal pre-/early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and offspring adiposity from birth to adolescence are causal. METHODS: We undertook confounder adjusted multivariable (MV) regression and MR using mother-offspring pairs from two UK cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and Born in Bradford (BiB). In ALSPAC and BiB, the outcomes were birthweight (BW; N = 9339) and BMI at age 1 and 4 years (N = 8659 to 7575). In ALSPAC only we investigated BMI at 10 and 15 years (N = 4476 to 4112) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) determined fat mass index (FMI) from age 10-18 years (N = 2659 to 3855). We compared MR results from several PRS, calculated from maternal non-transmitted alleles at between 29 and 80,939 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RESULTS: MV and MR consistently showed a positive association between maternal BMI and BW, supporting a moderate causal effect. For adiposity at most older ages, although MV estimates indicated a strong positive association, MR estimates did not support a causal effect. For the PRS with few SNPs, MR estimates were statistically consistent with the null, but had wide confidence intervals so were often also statistically consistent with the MV estimates. In contrast, the largest PRS yielded MR estimates with narrower confidence intervals, providing strong evidence that the true causal effect on adolescent adiposity is smaller than the MV estimates (Pdifference = 0.001 for 15-year BMI). This suggests that the MV estimates are affected by residual confounding, therefore do not provide an accurate indication of the causal effect size. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher maternal pre-/early-pregnancy BMI is not a key driver of higher adiposity in the next generation. Thus, they support interventions that target the whole population for reducing overweight and obesity, rather than a specific focus on women of reproductive age.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade , Adiposidade/genética , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade/etiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
20.
Int J Cancer ; 151(1): 44-55, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182086

RESUMO

The effects of fat intake from different dietary sources on bladder cancer (BC) risk remains unidentified. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between fat intakes and BC risk by merging world data on this topic. Data from 11 cohort studies in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study, provided sufficient information on fat intake for a total of 2731 BC cases and 544 452 noncases, which yielded 5 400 168 person-years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated using Cox-regression models stratified on cohort. Analyses were adjusted for total energy intake in kilocalories, gender, smoking status (model-1) and additionally for sugar and sugar products, beers, wine, dressing and plant-based and fruits intakes (model-2). Among women, an inverse association was observed between mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and BC risk (HR comparing the highest with the lowest tertile: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.93, P-trend = .01). Overall, this preventative effect of MUFAs on BC risk was only observed for the nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) subtype (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.53-0.91, P-trend = .004). Among men, a higher intake of total cholesterol was associated with an increased BC risk (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16-1.61, P-trend = .01). No other significant associations were observed. This large prospective study adds new insights into the role of fat and oils in BC carcinogenesis, showing an inverse association between consumption of MUFAs and the development of BC among women and a direct association between higher intakes of dietary cholesterol and BC risk among men.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Açúcares , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia
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