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1.
J Indian Soc Periodontol ; 26(3): 236-244, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602530

RESUMO

Context: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and diabetes. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy was shown to reduce inflammation and improves glycemic status. Recently, adjunctive low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to alter the inflammatory process. Aim: To evaluate and compare the alteration in TNF-α levels before and after treatment in patients with periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Settings and Design: Randomised clinico-biochemical study was carried out for 8 weeks from September 2019 to December 2020. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four participants were divided into Groups A (periodontitis) and B (periodontitis associated with T2DM), based on probing depth ≥5 mm, clinical attachment level ≥2 mm, and history of T2DM. Later were subdivided into A1, A2, B1, B2, based on assigned treatments. Clinical periodontal parameters and salivary TNF-α levels were evaluated and compared at baseline to 8 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Multiple group comparisons were done using analysis of variance, intra group comparisons were made using t-tests. Results: Comparison of periodontal parameters and salivary TNF-α levels from baseline to 8 weeks showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in all groups, indicating a positive effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) and adjunctive LLLT. Conclusion: Both SRP and SRP with adjunctive LLLT effectively altered TNF-α levels, correlating reduced periodontal inflammation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408826

RESUMO

Background. Conventional mechanical debridement alone cannot eliminate bacteria and their products from periodontal pockets. Adjunctive therapies improve tissue healing through detoxification and bactericidal effects. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment procedure that involves the use of a dye as a photosensitizer to attach to the target cell and be activated by a photon of an appropriate wavelength. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of PDT in treating periodontitis as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. Methods. Fifteen subjects with chronic periodontitis were treated randomly with scaling and root planing (SRP), followed by a single PDT (test) or SRP (control) episode alone. Full-mouth plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 1-month and 3-month intervals. Microbiological evaluation of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) in subgingival plaque samples was performed using a commercially available real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. The results revealed a significant difference in PI, SBI, PD, CAL, and microbiological parameters between the groups one and three months after treatment. Conclusion. A combination of PDT and SRP gave rise to a significant improvement in clinical and microbiological parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592307

RESUMO

Background. Elevated temperature has been recognized as an inflammatory sign. It is the only indication that can be both objectively and quantitatively evaluated and is considered as a potential indicator of periodontal disease. Assessing gingival surface temperature (GST) could be a diagnostic parameter to determine periodontal health. This pilot clinical study aimed to validate gingival surface temperature (GST) as a clinical diagnostic tool to measure periodontal disease activity by correlating with the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA). Methods. A cross-sectional mono-center pilot study was conducted with a convenient sample of 50 participants with a mean age of 34.14±13.7 years. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth (PPD) clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured. GST was recorded with a single lead of the bedside patient monitor and correlated with PISA. Results. The results showed a positive correlation between PISA and GST (P=0.46). Conclusion. This study showed a rise in GST of inflamed sites, but the results did not support the hypothesis that increased GST is an indicator of periodontal disease. As this is a pilot study, further studies with more larger sample sizes need to be undertaken to confirm its use as a diagnostic tool in clinical trials.

4.
J Indian Soc Periodontol ; 23(3): 281-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143011

RESUMO

Individuals with hemophilia are at risk for bleeding episodes, which range from mild mucosal/soft-tissue bleeding to life-threatening hemorrhages. This report describes the dental/medical management provided to a 23-year-old patient suffering from uncontrolled bleeding after an electrosurgical procedure (operculectomy) in relation to the mandibular right third molar, in which hemophilia was a true accidental finding. Various safety measures that need to be considered during the dental surgical management of hemophilic patients are discussed.

5.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 18(1): 49-51, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implant-supported prosthesis has high predictability and success and improves quality of life. This study aims at assessing awareness among the patients regarding implant-supported prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 391 study participants. A structured questionnaire was distributed to assess implant-related awareness among the study participants. The questionnaires were analyzed for the responses. RESULTS: Among the 391 respondents, 37.5% of the respondents reported having moderate knowledge regarding the tooth replacement options. Nearly 50% considered implants as a viable treatment option. The majority of them enlisted the dentist as the major source of information regarding implants, and media had a share of about 7.03% only. High cost was a major barrier in selecting implants as a treatment option. CONCLUSION: This survey showed that awareness among people was low regarding the dental implants. Efforts need to be directed to increase the awareness levels by utilizing media as a tool to achieve the target. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A patient who is aware of the advantages of the implant-supported dentures will make an informed decision for better functional stability and retention of the denture, especially in the mandibular arch.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante/psicologia , Conhecimento , Pacientes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 9(7): ZE06-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26393230

RESUMO

AIM: Subgingival applications of various chemotherapeutic agents have been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal treatment and preventive periodontal therapy. Their use in regular clinical practice, however, is less, perhaps due to concerns about clinical success or probably due to a lack of knowledge of their effectiveness or cost. The aim of this systematic review is to obtain overall quantitative estimate of effectiveness of subgingival irrigation (SI) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search of electronic database was performed for articles published through December 31, 2014, followed by manual search of dental journals. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) assessing the effect of SI as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis evaluated by changes in the clinical and microbiological outcomes were included. RESULTS: This literature search yielded only two randomized, placebo-controlled studies that evaluated the efficacy of SI as an adjunct to SRP in patients with chronic periodontitis. The studies were methodologically not perfect (in terms of mediocre quality) with a risk of bias to come to any final conclusions to be reached. These studies didn't clearly mention about randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, dosage and formulation of irrigants, severity of periodontal disease, patient-centered outcomes and results data. CONCLUSION: Due to insufficient evidence supporting the efficacy of SI as an adjunct to SRP in treating chronic periodontitis, more rigorous scientific research is required to assess the efficacy of SI as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of periodontal diseases.

7.
Med Hypotheses ; 82(1): 60-3, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24268739

RESUMO

Hygiene hypothesis has been proposed more than two decades back to explain an increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy. It states that, a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents increases susceptibility to allergic diseases and atopy later in life. The evidence in relation to hygiene hypothesis is controversial and inconclusive. Moreover, its underlying mechanisms are elusive and remain to be elucidated. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease initiated by microorganisms present in the plaque biofilm. Association between periodontitis and various systemic diseases has already been established and is currently an area of interest particularly in periodontal research. Consistent with hygiene hypothesis, some researchers believed that pathogens associated with periodontal diseases might have a protective role in the development of asthma and other allergic diseases. Very few studies attempted to explore the concept of association between periodontitis, asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases which could neither support such a protective role for periodontal diseases nor reject such an association. This suggests a need for additional research to examine the relevance of hygiene hypothesis in periodontics. The purpose of the present article is to review the plausible scientific explanations available for hygiene hypothesis, to review some studies relating periodontitis, asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases and to stress the need for further research.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Hipótese da Higiene , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Modelos Biológicos , Periodontite/etiologia , Asma/imunologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Periodontite/imunologia
8.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 7(6): 1232-5, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23905148

RESUMO

AOC - a relatively uncommon lesion of odontogenic origin, that is non-invasive, slow growing and composed of odontogenic epithelium, shows varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. It has been regarded as a benign odontogenic tumour for more than a century, sharing its clinical and radiographic features with that of dentigerous cysts. Few cases which have shown the association of this lesion with dentigerous cysts have also been reported. Some authors have reported a distinct hybrid variety of this lesion which was derived from dentigerous cysts. An attempt has been made in this article, in describing this lesion as a "hamartomatous odontogenic cyst" rather than a tumour. Although this lesion has been known to the oral pathologists for a long time, its histogenesis still remains obscure. The present case highlights a new school of thought regarding the origin of this lesion.

9.
Case Rep Dent ; 2013: 387453, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23819068

RESUMO

Gingival overgrowth/hyperplasia can be attributed to several causes, but drug-induced gingival overgrowth/hyperplasia arises secondarily to prolonged use of antihypertensive drugs, anticonvulsants and immunosuppressants. The management is complex in nature considering the multitude of factors involved such as substitution of drug strict plaque control along with excision of the tissue to be performed under local anesthesia as outpatient. In the recent times, the patient's psychological fear of the treatment with the use of surgical blade and multiple visits has developed the concept of single visit treatment under general anesthesia incorporating a laser as viable option. The present case highlights the new method of management of gingival overgrowth.

10.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 7(5): 954-8, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23814754

RESUMO

Benign fibro-osseous lesions (BFOLS) of the jaws are a wide array of lesions that actually represent distinct phases of a single benign morphological process. These lesions share certain histopathological features which are in common with giant cell containing lesions, which include central giant cell granulomas (CGCGs). The association of BFOLS and CGCG has to be critically evaluated, pertaining to their clinical, radiologic and histologic features. Many pathologists diagnose these types of lesions, considering only one of the prominent features. Eventually, surgeons end up treating these lesions inadequately. This ambiguity may be because of very small number of cases have been reported in the literature, with uncertain clinical, radiologic and histologic features. We are reporting a case of fibrous dysplasia (FD) which was associated with a central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and discussing the hypothetical pathogenesis of giant cells.

11.
J Periodontol ; 82(12): 1657-64, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21486181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum anti-cardiolipin (aCL) antibodies are prevalent in patients with periodontal diseases. These increased aCL concentrations were identified to play a modulating role in cardiovascular diseases. The present study aims to explore the effect of phase I periodontal therapy on immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG aCL antibodies in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with chronic periodontitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional randomized clinical study was conducted within two groups comprising a sample size of 72 patients (n = 36 each). Group 1 had clinical features of AMI, and group 2 had clinical features of AMI associated with chronic periodontitis. After a thorough clinical and oral examination, the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (AL) were recorded. Serum sample collection by venipuncture was done for estimation of serum IgM and IgG aCL concentration by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. In group 2, phase I periodontal therapy was performed, and clinical and biochemical parameters were reanalyzed after 1 month. RESULTS: In group 2, the mean PI, GI, PD, clinical AL, and serum IgM and IgG aCL antibody levels were significantly higher than in group 1 patients. In addition, study results showed significant alterations in concentrations of serum IgM (P = 0.008) and IgG (P <0.001) aCL along with periodontal parameters after phase I periodontal therapy. CONCLUSION: The phase I periodontal therapy altered levels of serum IgG and IgM aCL antibodies in patients with AMI associated with chronic periodontitis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anticardiolipina/sangue , Periodontite Crônica/complicações , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Profilaxia Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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