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1.
Biomed Mater ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540386

RESUMO

The past decades have witnessed an exponential growth in research of cancer nanomedicine, which has evolved into an interdisciplinary field involving chemistry, physics, biology, and pharmacology, pathophysiology, immunology and clinical science in cancer research and treatment. The application of nanoparticles in drug delivery increases the solubility and decreases the toxicity of free drug molecules. The unique feature of cancer pathophysiology, e.g. leaky blood vessel, presents a unique opportunity for nanocarriers to deliver therapeutics selectively to tumor sites based on size selectivity. However, the clinical translation of nanomedicine is mostly limited to the classical liposomal formulations and PEGylation of therapeutics. Numbers of reasons hinder the clinical translation of the novel nanoparticles developed in the last decades for drug delivery. Comprehensive understanding of the properties of nanocarriers and their interactions with the physiological and pathological interfaces is critical to design effective nanoformulations. In addition, understanding the general principles and concerns in pharmaceutical industries and clinical practice for nanotherapeutic development is essential to develop a translatable nanoformulations via rational nanocarrier designs. In this account, we will review the relationship between the physiochemical properties of nanocarriers and biodistribution, and interactions with biological and immunological systems for effective drug delivery and cancer treatments. Further, we review the strategies for rational design of nanocarriers via structure-based approach and bio-mimicking systems to facilitate the clinical translation in enhancing cancer treatment via both chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 273: 113964, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640439

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qizhen capsule (QZC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation that has been widely used in clinical practice and exerts promising therapeutic effects against breast, lung, and gastric cancers. However, studies have not reported whether QZC inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. Meanwhile, the underlying molecular mechanisms of its anticancer activity have not been studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anticancer effects of QZC on CRC and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms of QZC in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the viability and apoptosis of HCT116 and HT-29 cancer cells. A xenograft nude mouse model was used to study the antitumor effects of QZC in vivo. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of key proteins responsible for the molecular mechanisms elicited by QZC. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene-1 or growth differentiation factor-15 (NAG-1/GDF15). Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to silence NAG-1/GDF15 in cells. RESULTS: In this study, QZC significantly reduced the viability of HCT116 and HT-29 cells and induced apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners, but displayed much less toxicity toward normal cells. QZC-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells was accompanied by the deregulation of the expression of the Bcl-2, Bax, PARP, caspase-3, and caspase-9 proteins. Furthermore, QZC induced NAG-1/GDF15 expression in HCT116 cells, while silencing of NAG-1/GDF15 attenuated QZC-induced apoptosis and cell death. Next, QZC increased the phosphorylation of mTOR, AMPK, p38, and MAPK/ERK in HCT116 cells. We then demonstrated that QZC-induced apoptosis and NAG-1/GDF15 upregulation were mediated by MAPK/ERK activation. Moreover, QZC significantly inhibited HCT116 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, which was accompanied by NAG/GDF15 upregulation and MAPK/ERK activation. QZC also prevented 5-FU-induced weight loss or cachexia in tumor-bearing mice. The expression of Ki67 and PCNA was suppressed, while cleaved caspase-3 level and TUNEL staining were increased in the tumor sections from QZC-treated mice compared to the control. CONCLUSION: QZC is a novel anticancer agent for CRC that targets NAG-1/GDF15 via the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 256: 117594, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483079

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum has been shown to have anti-obesity effects. However, polysaccharide extracted from the sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (BSGLP) against obesity and its underlying mechanisms have never been reported. In the current study, we showed that BSGLP inhibited high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and fat accumulation in C57BL/6 J mice. BSGLP improved HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, maintained intestinal barrier function, increased short-chain fatty acids production and GPR43 expression, ameliorated endotoxemia, manifested by reduced serum lipopolysaccharide level, and increased ileum expression of tight junction proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Fecal microbiota transplantation study confirmed that BSGLP-induced microbiota change is responsible, at least in part, for obesity inhibition. Besides, BSGLP notably alleviated HFD-induced upregulation of TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB signaling pathway in adipose tissue. Collectively, our study showed for the first time that BSGLP might be used as a prebiotic agent to inhibit obesity and hyperlipidemia through modulating inflammation, gut microbiota, and gut barrier function.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475654

RESUMO

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting to produce renewable H2 fuel by storage of solar energy has attracted increasing attention as it could reduce carbon footprint and solve the global consumption growth. Herein, a photostable polymer polydopamine (PDA) was introduced to enhance the PEC performance by forming a uniform inorganic-organic hybrid heterostructure with CdS. The organic semiconductor PDA not only forms a strong coordinate bond to facilitate the transfer of electrons, but also acts as a passivation layer, contributing to improve the stability of the photoelectrode. A photocurrent density of 1.08 mA cm-2 was achieved for CdS/1PDA, which was about 2.4 times that of bare CdS at 0.28 V vs. RHE, and CdS/1PDA featured a reasonable photocurrent stability compared with bare CdS. The Co-Pi co-catalyst, as a hole acceptor, further prohibited charge recombination and promoted the water oxidation kinetics. The photocurrent density of CdS/1PDA/5Co-Pi was up to 2.68 mA cm-2 (0.28 V vs. RHE), which was 5.7 and 2.5 times higher than that of bare CdS and CdS/1PD, respectively. The strategy provides a beneficial insight to design an inorganic-organic uniform heterostructure for the enhancement in PEC performance.

5.
Anal Methods ; 13(3): 419-425, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427266

RESUMO

In this work, a series of novel hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases were prepared by grafting nucleosides or nucleotides on the surface of silica gel. Firstly, the silica was modified with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). And then nucleosides or nucleotides were bonded on the surface of GPTMS-modified silica through the epoxy-amine ring-opening reaction to provide four HILIC materials. These obtained stationary phases were successfully characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis (EA), respectively. Effects of column temperature, water content of the mobile phase, pH and buffer concentration on the retention behavior of these HILIC materials and the corresponding separation mechanism were evaluated using various nucleosides and nucleobases, respectively. In addition, polar and hydrophilic compounds such as amino acids and water-soluble vitamins were successfully separated using the corresponding columns, showing application potential for the separation of bioactive substances.

6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(2): 372-381, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have shown inconsistent results about the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and mortality in hemodialysis patients. We performed this meta-analysis to determine whether higher SUA values comprised a risk factor of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library were searched up to August 31, 2020 for the longitudinal studies that investigated the association between the elevated SUA and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Pooled adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. We included 10 studies with an overall sample of 264,571 patients with hemodialysis in this meta-analysis. Patients with the highest SUA were associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.87) compared with patients with the lowest SUA after adjustment for potential confounders in a random effects model. Moreover, for each increase of 1 mg/dl of SUA, the overall risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality decreased by 6% and 9%, respectively (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.99; HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). CONCLUSION: Elevated SUA levels are strongly and independently associated with lower risk of cardiovascular mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients. More designed studies, especially randomized controlled trials, should be conducted to determine whether high SUA levels is an independent risk factor of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/sangue , Nefropatias/terapia , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/mortalidade , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 547365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263005

RESUMO

Worldwide, the stroke burden remains severe, especially for people in low socioeconomic groups. Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of stroke that is attracting increasingly greater attention. Blood pressure, including pulse pressure (PP) and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, is a traditional risk factor for atherosclerosis; its association with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has also been widely studied. However, published studies have not reported on the relationship between PP and CIMT in low-income adults. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between PP and CIMT in a low-income population, in China. A total of 3,789 people, aged ≥45 years and without histories of stroke or cardiovascular disease, were recruited into this study. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to determine CIMTs. Demographic characteristics, physical examination data, previous medical histories, and laboratory test results were collected for each study participant. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the association between CIMT and PP. The mean CIMT was 567.1 µm (males, 583.5 µm; females, 555.7 µm). The SBP, DBP, PP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) values were all positively correlated with CIMT, in the univariate analysis; PP and MAP showed the strongest correlations. In addition, in three multiple linear regression models, PP was shown to be significantly associated with CIMT; each 1-mm Hg increase in PP resulted in a CIMT increase of ≥0.41 µm (all P < 0.001). Our results demonstrated that, when compared with SBP, DBP, and MAP, PP may be the best predictor of CIMT. Thus, controlling blood pressure, especially PP levels, is vital to decreasing the prevalence of atherosclerosis, especially in this low socioeconomic status population in China.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339258

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the impact of social participation (SP) on physical functioning and depression among empty-nest elderly taking part in the fourth wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2018). The instrumental variable (IV) method and propensity score matching (PSM) method were used to analyse the impact of SP. The two-stage regression results of the IV method showed that SP has a significant negative impact on the physical functioning scores of empty-nest elderly (ß = -3.539, p < 0.001) and non-empty-nest elderly (ß = -4.703, p < 0.001), and SP has a significant negative impact on the depression scores of empty-nest elderly (ß = -2.404, p < 0.001) and non-empty-nest elderly (ß = -1.957, p < 0.001). The results of the PSM method were basically consistent with the IV method. Compared with non-empty-nest elderly, SP had more positive effects on the depression of empty-nest elderly (Wald χ2 = 6.62, p = 0.010). Providing a friendly and supportive environment for the SP of empty-nest elderly was an important measure to promote healthy ageing. Targeted SP may be one of the greatest opportunities to improve the mental health of empty-nest elderly.


Assuntos
Depressão , Aposentadoria , Participação Social , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155062

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We identified genomic regions associated with six quality-related traits in wheat under two sowing conditions and analyzed the effects of multienvironment-significant SNPs on the stability of these traits. Grain quality affects the nutritional and commercial value of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and is a critical factor influencing consumer preferences for specific wheat varieties. Climate change is predicted to increase environmental stress and thereby reduce wheat quality. Here, we performed a genotyping assay involving the use of the wheat 90 K array in a genome-wide association study of six quality-related traits in 486 wheat accessions under two sowing conditions (normal and late sowing) over 4 years. We identified 64 stable quantitative trait loci (QTL), including 10 for grain protein content, 9 for wet gluten content, 4 for grain starch content, 14 for water absorption, 15 for dough stability time and 12 for grain hardness in wheat under two sowing conditions. These QTL harbored 175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), explaining approximately 3-13% of the phenotypic variation in multiple environments. Some QTL on chromosomes 6A and 5D were associated with multiple traits simultaneously, and two (QNGPC.cau-6A, QNGH.cau-5D) harbored known genes, such as NAM-A1 for grain protein content and Pinb for grain hardness, whereas other QTL could facilitate gene discovery. Forty-three SNPs that were detected under late or both normal and late sowing conditions appear to be related to phenotypic stability. The effects of these SNP alleles were confirmed in the association population. The results of this study will be useful for further dissecting the genetic basis of quality-related traits in wheat and developing new wheat cultivars with desirable alleles to improve the stability of grain quality.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 59(20): 15514-15525, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030016

RESUMO

The most critical aspect in the assembly of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) is how to stabilize the device in a practical environment. The high applied currents can generate enormous heat up to more than 100 °C, and such a continuous illumination process will lead to serious effects concerning the stability of the device. Therefore, the new search for examples to fully suppress thermal quenching effect is a real challenge. In this study, a novel Eu3+-activated CaMgGeO4 (CMGO) phosphor of olivine type is developed via a conventional solid-state reaction. The results reveal that Eu3+ occupies the low symmetric Ca2+ site of this host. Upon visible-light sensitization at 464 nm, a dominant red emission band with maximum at 612 nm is witnessed. Its full width at half-maximum (fwhm) is merely ∼4.37 nm, and a high color purity of around 94% is achieved. Their corresponding Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates are very close to standard red color coordinates (0.666, 0.333). The influence of concentration and temperature on the optical property has been explored. It has been discovered that the optimized sample (CMGO:0.01Eu3+) is not influenced by the thermal quenching effect and its fluorescent intensity is improved even up to 473 K, which is mainly attributed to the incorporation of abundant trap sites generated by the nonequivalent substitution Eu3+ for Ca2+. After it is integrated into commercially available YAG:Ce3+ phosphor-based pc-WLEDs, the excellent optical parameters of the fabricated WLEDs are evaluated. The correlated color temperature (CCT) varies from cool white (6458 K) to warm (4370 K), and the color rendering index (CRI) increases from 78 to 86 under a high flux operating current of 200 mA. Furthermore, the chromaticity coordinates remain almost stable with the increasing drive current from 200 mA to 1000 mA. It is highly expected that CaMgGeO4:0.01Eu3+ will become a suitable red phosphor for the preparation of white LEDs with high efficiency.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750790

RESUMO

To build a flexible and interpretable model for document analysis, we develop deep autoencoding topic model(DATM) that uses a hierarchy of gamma distributions to construct its multi-stochastic-layer generative network. In order to provide scalable posterior inference for the parameters of the generative network, we develop topic-layer-adaptive stochastic gradient Riemannian MCMC that jointly learns simplex constrained global parameters across all layers and topics, with topic and layer specific learning rates. Given a posterior sample of the global parameters, in order to efficiently infer the local latent representations of a document under DATM across all stochastic layers, we propose a Weibull upward-downward variational encoder that deterministically propagates information upward via a deep neural network, followed by a Weibull distribution based stochastic downward generative model. To jointly model documents and their associated labels, we further propose supervised DATM that enhances the discriminative power of its latent representations. The efficacy and scalability of our models are demonstrated on both unsupervised and supervised learning tasks on big corpora.

12.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(8): 903-908, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800040

RESUMO

A boy, aged 66 days, was admitted to the hospital due to subcutaneous nodules for 46 days and abdominal distension for 10 days. The main clinical manifestations were loss of adipose tissue, subcutaneous nodules, insulin-resistant diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis. The boy was diagnosed with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1 (CGL1). His condition was improved after administration of middle-chain fatty acid formula milk and insulin injection or oral metformin. Gene testing revealed a homozygous mutation, c.646A>T, in the AGPAT2 gene, and both his parents were carriers of this mutation. This case of CGL1 has the youngest age of onset ever reported in China and multiple subcutaneous nodules as the initial symptom.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Resistência à Insulina , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita , Lipodistrofia , Tecido Adiposo , China , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
13.
J Sep Sci ; 43(20): 3921-3930, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844548

RESUMO

This study aims to introduce a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for the simultaneous determination of acetamiprid and its main metabolite 6-chloronicotinic acid in environmental samples by using a nonsuppressed ion chromatography hyphenated with an online postcolumn photoinduced fluorescence detection system. The fluorescence detector wavelengths λex /λem  = 257/382 nm was set for up to 6.0 min for acetamiprid, while λex /λem  = 231/370 nm programmed for 6-chloronicotinic acid for the rest of the analysis time. Both samples were treated by applying miniaturized quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method before the separation of analytes on an IonPac® AS11-HC column by pumping 40 mM NaOH having minuscule content of acetonitrile (5%, v/v) as an eluent. Both intrinsically nonfluorescent analytes were turned-on by online postcolumn photoinduced derivatization, avoiding the need for complex chemical derivatization or addition of a postcolumn extra pump. The developed method was appraised for the analysis of environmental samples, exhibiting excellent linearity (0.050-10 µg/mL) with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9993 for both analytes. Whereas, obtained limit of detection (0.025-0.0072 µg/mL), recoveries (98.02-116.00%), and inter- and intraday precision (≤3.02 %) were satisfactory for both compounds in environmental samples.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3384, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636379

RESUMO

Targeting single mediators has failed to reduce the mortality of sepsis. We developed a telodendrimer (TD) nanotrap (NT) to capture various biomolecules via multivalent, hybrid and synergistic interactions. Here, we report that the immobilization of TD-NTs in size-exclusive hydrogel resins simultaneously adsorbs septic molecules, e.g. lipopolysaccharides (LPS), cytokines and damage- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs/PAMPs) from blood with high efficiency (92-99%). Distinct surface charges displayed on the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines (negative) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (positive) allow for the selective capture via TD NTs with different charge moieties. The efficacy of NT therapies in murine sepsis is both time-dependent and charge-dependent. The combination of the optimized NT therapy with a moderate antibiotic treatment results in a 100% survival in severe septic mice by controlling both infection and hyperinflammation, whereas survival are only 50-60% with the individual therapies. Cytokine analysis, inflammatory gene activation and tissue histopathology strongly support the survival benefits of treatments.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Inflamação/terapia , Nanopartículas/química , Sepse/terapia , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanomedicina , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos , Células RAW 264.7
15.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(12): 2473-2483, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a serious progressive neurodegenerative disease. Early diagnosis of MSA is very difficult, and diagnostic biomarkers are limited. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is involved in the differentiation and progression of the central nervous system, and is widely distributed in peripheral blood, which may be a novel biomarker for MSA. AIM: To determine serum GDF15 levels, related factors and their potential diagnostic value in MSA patients, compared with Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted, including 49 MSA patients, 50 PD patients and 50 healthy controls. Serum GDF15 levels were measured by human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the differences between the MSA, PD and control groups were analyzed. Further investigations were performed in different MSA subgroups according to age of onset, sex, clinical subtypes, diagnostic criteria, and disease duration. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of GDF15, especially for the differential diagnosis between MSA and PD. RESULTS: Serum GDF15 levels were significantly higher in MSA patients than in PD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.000). Males and those with a disease duration of more than three years showed higher serum GDF15 levels (P = 0.043 and 0.000; respectively). Serum GDF15 levels may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for MSA patients compared with healthy controls and PD patients (cutoff: 470.42 pg/mL, sensitivity: 85.7%, specificity: 88.0%; cutoff: 1075.91 pg/mL, sensitivity: 51.0%, specificity: 96.0%; respectively). CONCLUSION: Serum GDF15 levels are significantly higher in MSA patients and provide suggestions on the etiology of MSA.

16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461331, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709357

RESUMO

In this work, a novel imidazolium bonding method was proposed for the synthesis of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases. One obtained stationary phase (SilprAprImCl) was derived from direct reaction between N-(3-aminopropyl)-imidazole and 3-chloropropylated silica gel. Other two materials (SilprAprImBF4 and SilprAprImTf2N) were obtained from SilprAprImCl by ion exchange reaction, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis afforded the proofs of successful imidazolium immobilization and satisfied bonding efficiency. Various polar compounds such as saccharides, nucleosides, and nucleobases were utilized to evaluate the retention behaviours of these materials in HILIC mode. Different effects from mobile composition, column temperature, imidazolium unite and paired anions (Cl-, BF4-, and Tf2N-) in imidazolium were proved and discussed. Separation mechanism and the role of the imidazolium ions were also investigated in mobile phases with different pH. Moreover, chromatographic stability was evaluated by consecutive injections. Finally, the reliability of these stationary phases was demonstrated by the separation of oligosaccharides in real fructooligosaccharides samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imidazóis/química , Propanóis/química , Ânions , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imidazóis/síntese química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Nucleosídeos/química , Nucleosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/química , Propanóis/síntese química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura
17.
Biosci Rep ; 40(6)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537633

RESUMO

The present study aimed to identify the gene expression changes conferred by capsaicin in the cell model of 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease, to disclose the molecular mechanism of action of capsaicin. We used capsaicin-treated and paraffin-embedded wax blocks containing substantia nigra tissue from 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease rats to analyze transcriptional changes using Affymetrix GeneChip Whole Transcript Expression Arrays. A total of 108 genes were differentially expressed in response to capsaicin treatment, and seven of these genes were selected for further analysis: Olr724, COX1, Gsta2, Rab5a, Potef, Actg1, and Acadsb, of which Actg1 (actin gamma 1) was down-regulated and Gsta2 (Glutathione S-transferase alpha 2) was up-regulated. We successfully overexpressed Actg1 and Gsta2 in vitro. CCK-8 detection and flow cytometry demonstrated that overexpression of Actg1 and Gsta2 increased apoptosis in the 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease cell model. The imbalance between Actg1 and Gsta2 may be one of the mechanisms of cell damage in Parkinson's disease (PD). Capsaicin can protect the cells and reduce the apoptosis rate by regulating Actg1 and Gsta2.

18.
Postgrad Med ; 132(7): 650-656, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. However, the contemporary prevalence and risk factors of CAS in asymptomatic rural Chinese individuals, especially low-income populations, remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the present prevalence and risk factors of CAS in a low-income Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 3126 people aged ≥ 45 years without history of stroke or cardiovascular disease were recruited for this study. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the presence of CAS. We used multivariate analysis to determine potential risk factors for CAS. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CAS in this population was 6.7%, with a prevalence of 8.8% for men and 5.0% for women. The risk of CAS increased with older age and a higher level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (all P < 0.05). Each 1-mmHg increase in SBP increased the risk of CAS by 0.011 times, each 1-mmol/L increase in LDL-C increased the risk of CAS by 0.192 times, and each 1-mmol/L increase in FBG increased the risk of CAS by 0.067 times. In addition, the risk of CAS increased 52.9% in men compared to that in women, increased 100.2% in current drinkers compared to that in never drinkers, and increased 38.9% in patients with diabetes compared to those without diabetes (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the prevalence of CAS remains high in low-income individuals. Male sex, older age, current drinking, diabetes, and high levels of LDL-C, SBP, and FBG increase the risk of CAS. Thus, to prevent cerebrovascular disease and reduce the severe disease-associated burden for low-income individuals, there is a definitive need to control the risk factors of CAS.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380646

RESUMO

Starch and prolamin composition and content are important indexes for determining the processing and nutritional quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains. Several transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression during starch and protein biosynthesis in wheat. Storage protein activator (TaSPA), a member of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family, has been reported to activate glutenin genes and is correlated to starch synthesis related genes. In this study, we generated TaSPA-B overexpressing (OE) transgenic wheat lines. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, the starch content was slightly reduced and starch granules exhibited a more polarized distribution in the TaSPA-B OE lines. Moreover, glutenin and ω- gliadin contents were significantly reduced, with lower expression levels of related genes (e.g., By15, Dx2, and ω-1,2 gliadin gene). RNA-seq analysis identified 2023 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The low expression of some DEGs (e.g., SUSase, ADPase, Pho1, Waxy, SBE, SSI, and SS II a) might explain the reduction of starch contents. Some TFs involved in glutenin and starch synthesis might be regulated by TaSPA-B, for example, TaPBF was reduced in TaSPA-B OE-3 lines. In addition, dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that both TaSPA-B and TaPBF could transactivate the promoter of ω-1,2 gliadin gene. These results suggest that TaSPA-B regulates a complex gene network and plays an important role in starch and protein biosynthesis in wheat.

20.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(3): 211-227, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise is considered as an important intervention for treatment and prevention of several diseases, such as osteoarthritis, obesity, hypertension, and Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes decadal exercise intervention studies with various rat models across 6 major systems to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the effects that exercise brought. METHODS: PubMed was utilized as the data source. To collect research articles, we used the following terms to create the search: (exercise [Title] OR physical activity [Title] OR training [Title]) AND (rats [Title/Abstract] OR rat [Title/Abstract] OR rattus [Title/Abstract]). To best cover targeted studies, publication dates were limited to "within 11 years." The exercise intervention methods used for different diseases were sorted according to the mode, frequency, and intensity of exercise. RESULTS: The collected articles were categorized into studies related to 6 systems or disease types: motor system (17 articles), metabolic system (110 articles), cardiocerebral vascular system (171 articles), nervous system (71 articles), urinary system (2 articles), and cancer (21 articles). Our review found that, for different diseases, exercise intervention mostly had a positive effect. However, the most powerful effect was achieved by using a specific mode of exercise that addressed the characteristics of the disease. CONCLUSION: As a model animal, rats not only provide a convenient resource for studying human diseases but also provide the possibility for exploring the molecular mechanisms of exercise intervention on diseases. This review also aims to provide exercise intervention frameworks and optimal exercise dose recommendations for further human exercise intervention research.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia por Exercício , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Doenças Urológicas/prevenção & controle
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