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1.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688991

RESUMO

MicroRNA-425-5p (miR-425-5p) has been reported to be involved in the tumorigenesis of several tumors, but its function in breast cancer is still unknown. In this study, miR-425-5p was found significantly upregulated in breast cancer cells, and predicted a poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. Overexpression of miR-425-5p could significantly promote breast cancer cell growth. Further studies showed that overexpression of miR-425-5p upregulated the protein levels of Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3, CDK4, and CDK6. However, inhibiting miR-425-5p downregulated their expression and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. In mechanism, overexpression of miR-425-5p increased the phosphorylation of PI3K p85 and AKT, but inhibiting miR-425-5p displayed opposite effects. Moreover, miR-425-5p bound to the 3'UTR of PTEN mRNA, and downregulated the expression levels of PTEN in both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. Collectively, the results above demonstrated that miR-425-5p was involved in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer by inducing PI3K/AKT signaling and indicated that miR-425-5p could be as a potential target for breast cancer therapy in the future.

2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1091: 69-75, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679576

RESUMO

Nanozymes have emerged as promising alternatives to overcome the high cost and low stability issues of natural enzymes. Particularly, those with peroxidase-like activities have been extensively studied to construct versatile biosensors. In this article, we demonstrate that the modification of the graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4 nanosheets) by plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) greatly enhances its catalytic performance as peroxidase mimetic. In the presence of H2O2, the AuNPs@g-C3N4 nanosheets can catalyze the redox reaction of 3,3',5,5'- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to produce a blue color. Based on the observation, a colorimetric sensing method for glucose is further developed with the assistance of glucose oxidase (GOx). The linear range for glucose is from 5 to 100 µmol L-1 (R2 = 0.9967) and the limit of detection (LOD) is 1.2 µmol L-1. The LOD can be further lowered down to 0.75 µmol L-1 by using H2SO4 as termination agent and measuring the absorbance of the yellow product at λ = 451 nm. Moreover, the practical usefulness of AuNPs@g-C3N4 nanosheets as a peroxidase nanozyme for glucose determination in human serum and urine is also demonstrated.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705181

RESUMO

As the key organism for enhanced biological phosphorus removal, Accumulibacter has shown high intragenus diversity based on the phylogeny of polyphosphate kinase1 gene (ppk1) and many clade-specific features related to performance of wastewater treatment. However, the widely used molecular approaches are deficient or cost-inefficient in providing a comprehensive and quantitative population-level profile for Accumulibacter in complex community. In this study, we introduced a pipeline to analyze the population-level diversity and dynamics of Accumulibacter via high throughput sequencing (HTS) of ppk1 and 16S rRNA gene simultaneously. The HTS approach was assessed by testing primer coverage, performing sample replication, and comparing with a traditional clone library. Based on survey on full-scale activated sludge samples, unexpected high microdiversity in Accumulibacter and a tendency of exclusivity between two phylogenetic types were discovered. Moreover, the pipeline facilitated monitoring the population-level dynamics and co-occurrence pattern under various laboratory enriching conditions. The results revealed previously uncharacterized intraclade dynamics during enrichment, little effect of denitrifying process on the Accumulibacter diversity, and the niche adaption of Clade IIC on propionate as sole carbon source. Co-occurrence of Accumulibacter populations further partially supported the exclusivity of two types. A few bacterial taxa, including Cytophagaceae-, Prosthecobacter-, and Compteibacter-related taxa, showed co-occurrence with many Accumulibacter populations, suggesting their niche co-selection or potential metabolic interactions with Accumulibacter. The present pipeline is transplantable for studying microdiversity and niche differentiation of other functional microorganisms in complex microbial systems.

4.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670859

RESUMO

The decay rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected cells during therapy has been used to determine the duration of treatment needed to attain a sustained virologic response, but with direct acting antivirals (DAA) this rate has been difficult to estimate. Here we show that it is possible to estimate it, by simultaneously analyzing the viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) kinetics during combination DAA therapy.We modeled the HCV RNA and ALT serum kinetics in 26 patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection, under four different sofosbuvir based combination treatments. In all patients, ALT decayed exponentially to a set-point in the normal range by 1-3 weeks after initiation of therapy. The model indicates that the ALT decay rate during the first few weeks after initiation of therapy reflects the death rate of infected cells, with an estimated median half-life of 2.5 days in this patient population. This information allows independent estimation of the rate of loss of intracellular replication complexes during therapy. Our model also predicts that the final ALT set-point is not related to the release of ALT by dying HCV infected cells. Using ALT data, one can separately obtain information about the rate of "cure" of HCV infected cells versus their rate of death, something not possible when analyzing only HCV RNA data. This information can be used to compare the effects of different DAA combinations, and to rationally evaluate their antiviral effects.

5.
Oral Oncol ; 99: 104446, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to introduce submandibular-facial artery island flaps (S-FAIF), including the perforator flap, and to evaluate their application for intraoral reconstruction in comparison with submental artery perforator flaps (SMAPF). METHODS: Ninety-six patients who underwent intraoral reconstruction using an S-FAIF (n = 34) or SMAPF (n = 62) after cancer resection were recruited in this study. The flap characteristics (viz., pedicle length, flap size, venous drainage pattern, and harvest time), short-term outcomes (viz., flap partial loss, intraoral wound dehiscence, fistula, and wound infection), and long-term morbidity (viz., facial nerve palsy, neck motion restriction, and hair growth) were compared. RESULTS: Nine S-FAIFs were authentic perforator flaps pedicled by level Ⅰ facial artery perforators, while the rest were island flaps based on level Ⅱ facial artery perforators. The survival rates of S-FAIF and SMAPF were both 100 percent. Flap partial loss occurred in two patients in each group. The pedicle length of S-FAIF was shorter than that of SMAPF (p < 0.001). Statistics analysis revealed no significant difference regarding flap size, venous drainage pattern, short-term outcomes, neck motion restriction, or facial nerve palsy between the groups. S-FAIF required less harvest time (p < 0.001) and experienced less hair growth when compared to SMAPF (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The S-FAIF is a robust and reliable novel flap and on par with SMAPF for reconstruction of small and medium-sized intraoral defects. It is preferred to SMAPF when technical requirements for flap harvest and hair problems are considered. It should be supplemented to the armamentarium for intraoral reconstruction.

6.
BMC Urol ; 19(1): 106, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH) is a rare but potentially catastrophic condition. Its clinical manifestation is often non-specific and sometimes difficult to be diagnosed in time. A 57-year-old woman, who presented with severe fatigue, nausea and vomiting after left hip arthroplasty due to her femoral neck fracture in a local hospital, was transferred to our medical center. Laboratory results revealed significant hyponatremia, low serum cortisol and elevated serum ACTH. Computed tomography (CT) showed a bilateral adrenal mass, measured 3.6 × 2.7 cm on the left and 3.4 × 2.3 cm on the right. Further magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the diagnosis of BAH. The patient was prescribed with oral prednisolone acetate, 5 mg, tid, and her condition improved gradually. Nine months after, the patient was in good condition with 5 mg prednisolone acetate per day. CT revealed a clearly shrunken adrenal mass compared with 9 months ago. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the difficulty in making the diagnosis of BAH with atypical presentation. Such cases necessitate greater alertness on the part of the clinician and require rapid diagnosis and prompt glucocorticoid replacement for better clinical outcomes.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16281, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700111

RESUMO

Peanut yield is severely affected by exchangeable calcium ion (Ca2+) deficiency in the soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis increases the absorption of Ca2+ for host plants. Here, we analyzed the physiological and transcriptional changes in the roots of Arachis hypogaea L. colonized by Funneliformis mosseae under Ca2+-deficient and -sufficient conditions. The results showed that exogenous Ca2+ application increased arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization, plant dry weight, and Ca content of AM plants. Simultaneously, transcriptome analysis showed that Ca2+ application further induced 74.5% of differentially expressed gene transcripts in roots of AM peanut seedlings. These genes are involved in AM symbiosis development, hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction, and carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. The transcripts of AM-specific marker genes in AM plants with Ca2+ deprivation were further up-regulated by Ca2+ application. Gibberellic acid (GA3) and flavonoid contents were higher in roots of AM- and Ca2+-treated plants, but salicylic acid (SA) and carotenoid contents specifically increased in roots of the AM plants. Thus, these results suggest that the synergy of AM symbiosis and Ca2+ improves plant growth due to the shared GA- and flavonoid-mediated pathway, whereas SA and carotenoid biosynthesis in peanut roots are specific to AM symbiosis.

8.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109600, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581044

RESUMO

Information disclosure in environmental governance, or informational governance conceptualized by Arthur Mol, has been increasingly utilized as a policy instrument to incentivize environmental policy enforcement in not only democratic societies but also authoritarian regimes like China. This study uses an explicit regulation, the air pollution ranking in Chinese cities as an example to illustrate how such informational governance policy instrument has an impact on local air pollution governance. Empirical evidence is based on monthly comprehensive air quality index ranking data of 74 key monitoring cities in China from 2013 to 2018. And a regression discontinuity design is applied to explore the relationship between air pollution ranking and air quality improvement in localities. The results show that (1) air quality of the bottom ten cities in the ranking will improve in the coming month compared with their counterparts; (2) such improvement happens upon the releasing of the ranking, but would not last for more than a month; (3) while top ten cities in the ranking do not experience such change in air quality. Therefore, we argue that the air pollution ranking system in China can be a useful informational governance instrument in providing negative incentives for environmental administrations in bottom cities to strengthen air pollution control. However, as a top-down environmental information disclosure program, such ranking institution could only mobilize local air quality governance temporarily. And new institutions ought to be established to further internalized local governments' environmental externalities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17089, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574808

RESUMO

To determine if there are advantages to transitioning to Da Vinci robotics by a surgeon compared to the video-assisted thoracic surgical lobectomy.A systematic electronic search of online electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library updated on December 2017. Publications on comparison Da Vinci-robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for non-small cell lung cancer were collected. Meta-analysis RevMan 5.3 software (The Cochrane collaboration, Oxford, UK) was used to analyze the combined pooled HRs using fixed or random-effects models according to the heterogeneity.Fourteen retrospective cohort studies were included. No statistical difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to conversion to open, dissected lymph nodes number, hospitalization time after surgery, duration of surgery, drainage volume after surgery, prolonged air leak, and morbidity (P > .05).Da Vinci-RATS lobectomy is a feasible and safe technique and can achieve an equivalent surgical efficacy when compared with VATS. There does not seem to be a significant advantage for an established VATS lobectomy surgeon to transition to robotics based on clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Excisão de Linfonodo , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1172: 79-96, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628652

RESUMO

The Interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine family includes IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26, which are considered as Class 2α-helical cytokines. IL-10 is the most important cytokine in suppressing pro-inflammatory responses in all kinds of autoimmune diseases and limiting excessive immune responses. Due to protein structure homology and shared usage of receptor complexes as well as downstream signaling pathway, other IL-10 family cytokines also show indispensable functions in immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and host defense. In this review, we focus on immune functions and structures of different cytokines in this family and try to better understand how their molecular mechanisms connect to their biological functions. The molecular details regarding their actions also provide useful information in developing candidate immune therapy reagents for a variety of diseases.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10 , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Interleucina-10/química , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 154: 108905, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581057

RESUMO

Maize plants were exposed to atmospheric tritiated water (HTO) in the field for 1 h during the day and night under different growth periods. The uptake of HTO vapor by leaves and tissue free water tritium (TFWT) loss in maize plants were investigated. Rate constants of uptake of HTO from the atmosphere by maize leaves were 0.10 ±â€¯0.02-0.21 ±â€¯0.01 h-1 during the daytime exposure and 0.035 ±â€¯0.001-0.13 ±â€¯0.01 h-1 in the nighttime exposure. The uptake rate tended to decrease as the exposure increased and harvest neared. At the end of exposure, the TFWT concentration was highest in the leaf and lowest in the ear, the TFWT concentration in different parts of maize varied by a factor of 3-28 for daytime release and 2-30 for nighttime release. After the end of every exposure, TFWT was lost rapidly from different maize tissues for one day and then at a much slower rate until to harvest. At harvest, the TFWT concentrations varied with different maize tissues by factors of 1-4. The decrease was by factors of 4-351 for daytime exposure and 6-605 for nighttime exposure. The reduction of TFWT varied with the exposure time by the factors of 1-10 depending on plant parts. The reduction factor was lowest in kernel. This result suggests that the HTO vapor uptake rates in maize leaves and TFWT loss rates in the ear may be lower than those in C3 plants.

12.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 491-504, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) plays an important role in the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is involved in the regulation of metabolism and cell apoptosis, but its function in renal TIF induced by DKD is less well understood. METHODS: Human kidney biopsies with DKD and normal controls were used to detect apoptosis and TIF induced by diabetes. A mouse model with kidney-specific overexpression of Pax2-3aFoxO1 was established to further investigate the functions of FoxO1 in vivo. The in vitro roles of FoxO1 were analyzed in HK-2 cells with 3aFoxO1-knockin (3aFoxO1-KI) or FoxO1-knockdown (FoxO1-KD) via CRISPR/Cas9. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to explore the underlying mechanisms. FINDINGS: In this study, DKD patients had increased renal TIF and apoptosis. In vivo study showed that kidney-specific overexpression of Pax2-3aFoxO1 significantly reduced the expression of p-STAT1 with resultant renal functional impairment, retarding renal TIF and apoptosis in diabetic mice. Meanwhile, We observed that FoxO1-KD in HK-2 cells aggravated the expression of p-STAT1, leading to activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, EMT and apoptosis were significantly attenuated in HK-2 cells with 3aFoxO1-KI under hyperglycemic conditions. INTERPRETATION: Taken together, these data suggest that the protection role of FoxO1 against renal TIF and apoptosis in DKD is likely in part to target STAT1 signaling, which may be a promising strategy for long-term treatment of DKD. FUND: This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers: 81570746 and 81770812).

13.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 58, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the association between daily seaweed intake and depressive symptoms. METHODS: In a prospective study conducted between 2008 and 2011, 500 Japanese adult employees aged 20-74 years participated and were included in the final analysis. Consumption of seaweed was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and changes in seaweed consumption were divided into three categories (decreased, unchanged, and increased). Depressive symptoms were assessed using a Japanese version of the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Depressive symptoms were defined as an SDS score of ≥50 in the present study. RESULTS: At the 3-year follow-up, 46 participants (9.2%) showed depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline seaweed intakes were not significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.501). Conversely, odds ratios (95% CI) for depressive symptoms were lower in the participants who had higher seaweed intake than in those who had lower seaweed intake (decreased, 1.00; unchanged, 0.32 [0.13-0.81]; increased, 0.34 [0.13-0.88]; p for trend = 0.032) after adjusting for confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a relationship between higher seaweed intake and a lower incidence of depressive symptoms in Japanese adults.

14.
J Org Chem ; 84(19): 12562-12572, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539475

RESUMO

Chiral imidodiphosphoric acids were employed as efficient catalysts in the enantioselective addition reaction of pyrrole and indoles to 3-vinylindoles. A series of optically active 1,1,1-triarylethmanes bearing quaternary stereocenters were synthesized in excellent yields (up to 99% yield) and enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). Gram-scale reactions of 1i and 2a as well as 1o and 5a demonstrated the synthetic utility of this methodology. Control experiments showed that the formation of a double H-bond between the catalyst and substrates is necessary for an excellent outcome.

15.
Exp Cell Res ; 384(1): 111596, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487506

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by protein-rich pulmonary edema, critical hypoxemia, and influx of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cells. There are currently no effective pharmacon therapies in clinical practice. Syndecan-1 in endothelial cells has potential to protect barrier function of endothelium and suppress inflammation response. Thus, the present study was to identify whether exosomes with encapsulation of syndecan-1 could achieve ideal therapeutic effects in ALI. Exosomes were isolated from the conditional medium of lentivirus-transfected mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVECs) and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and western blotting. ALI mouse models were induced via intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with exosomes. Lung edema, inflammation, and glycocalyx thickness were examined. The possible mechanism was verified by immunoblotting in MPMVECs. The purified exosomes included SDC1-high-Exos and SDC1-low-Exos which loaded with up-regulated syndecan-1 and down-regulated syndecan-1 respectively. Compared with SDC1-low-Exos, administration of SDC1-high-Exos could ameliorate lung edema and inflammation, attenuate number of cells and protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and preserve glycocalyx. Furthermore, SDC1-high-Exos also mitigated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 following LPS challenge. In MPMVECs, SDC1-high-Exos decreased stress fiber formation and ameliorated monolayer hyper-permeability after LPS stimulation. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that FAK/p190RhoGAP/RhoA/ROCK/NF-κB signaling pathway may be involved in LPS-induced ALI. In conclusion, SDC1-high-Exos play a pivotal role in ameliorating LPS-stimulated ALI models and may be served as a potential therapeutic agent for clinical application in the future.

16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(18): 2192-2198, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the use of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been rapidly increasing, the benefit of ECMO in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the effect of venovenous ECMO (VV-ECMO) on adult patients with severe ARDS. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center, retrospective, cohort study in the intensive care units (ICUs) of six teaching hospitals between January 2013 and December 2018. Patients with severe ARDS who received VV-ECMO support were included. The detailed demographic data and physiologic data were used to match ARDS patients without ECMO. The primary endpoint was the 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients with severe ARDS supported by VV-ECMO and 72 patients without ECMO were included in this study. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 23.1 ±â€Š6.3 in the ECMO group and 24.8 ±â€Š8.5 in the control group (P = 0.1195). The sequential organ failure assessment score was 12.8 ±â€Š3.4 in the ECMO group and 13.7 ±â€Š3.5 in the control group (P = 0.0848). The 28-day mortality of patients with ECMO support was 39.4%, and that of the control group was 55.6%. The survival analysis curve showed that the 28-day mortality in the ECMO group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P = 0.0097). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the independent predictors of the 28-day mortality were the requirement of vasopressors before ECMO (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.006; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.001-1.013; P = 0.030) and duration of mechanical ventilation before ECMO (HR: 3.299; 95% CI: 1.264-8.609; P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that ECMO improved the survival of patients with severe ARDS. The duration of mechanical ventilation and the requirement of vasopressors before ECMO might be associated with an increased risk of death.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(39): 15567-15576, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478647

RESUMO

In this study, we report on a redox-controllable and reversible complete "ON"/"OFF"-switchable aptamer binding to ATP. A series of methylene blue-modified ATP-aptamers was synthesized, revealing improved binding affinities toward ATP as compared to the nonmodified aptamer. These binding affinities were dependent on the conjugation site of the redox label on the aptamer scaffold. Importantly, we find that the oxidized methylene blue-modified aptamers bind to ATP with micromolar affinity, while the reduced form lacks binding affinity toward ATP, resulting in an unprecedented complete "ON"/"OFF" redox-controllable aptamer switch. We demonstrate the cyclic "ON"/"OFF" binding of ATP to the methylene blue-functionalized aptamer through cyclic oxidation and reduction of the redox label using both chemical and electrochemical means. Molecular dynamics and docking simulations were performed to account for the redox-switchable properties of the conjugated aptamers and to rationalize the enhanced binding affinities of the different aptamer designs.

18.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, hyperlipidemia is the second major reason of acute pancreatitis. AIMS: Comparison of Scoring Systems in identification patients at risk for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), pancreatic necrosis (PNec), and infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) early in the course of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP). METHODS: Predictive accuracy of scoring systems was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in a retrospective study. Pairwise AUC comparisons were performed to calculate the difference between scoring systems. RESULTS: A total of 238 patients diagnosed with HTG-AP were included. Sixty patients (25.2%) were classified as SAP. Twenty-nine patients (12.2%) had evidence of PNec. Nine patients (3.8%) were diagnosed with IPN. One patient (0.4%) died during hospitalization. In predicting SAP in HTG-AP, the AUCs of APACHE-II, SOFA, SIRS, Ranson's, BISAP, and MMS were 0.77, 0.83, 0.73, 0.88, 0.83, and 0.85, respectively; in predicting PNec, were 0.75, 0.77, 0.75, 0.86, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively; and in predicting IPN, were 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.85, 0.84, and 0.87, respectively. Pairwise AUC comparisons revealed that Ranson's, MMS, BISAP, and SOFA had higher accuracy than SIRS, Ranson's and MMS had higher accuracy than APACHE-II in predicting SAP; Ranson's had the same accuracy with BISAP, but higher than other four criteria in predicting PNec; APACHE-II had higher accuracy than SIRS in predicting IPN. CONCLUSIONS: APACHE-II had high performance in predicting IPN, and all other score systems had medium performance in predicting SAP, PNec, and IPN in HTG-AP. Each score has its merit and weakness; BISAP may be the best criterion in predicting severity and prognosis of HTG-AP.

19.
Int J Surg ; 70: 93-101, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, there is no ideal treatment for postoperative ileus (POI) after abdominal surgery. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) in improving postoperative POI. METHODS: We systematically screened randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from multiple databases and included 15 high quality RCTs. Two investigators independently conducted data extraction, risk of bias assessment and statistical analysis. Meta-analysis was performed by a random- (REM) or fixed-effect (FIXED) model. RESULTS: A total of 15 trials involving 965 participates were included. Meta-analysis results favored EA/TEA treatment for POI by analysis of time to first flatus [mean difference (MD) -11.60 h, I2 = 94%, REM)], time to first defecation (MD -12.94 h, I2 = 90%, REM), time to bowel sound recovery (MD -7.25 h, I2 = 85%, REM), time to first oral feeding (MD -15.76 h, I2 = 47%, REM) and length of hospital stay (MD -1.19 d, I2 = 44%, REM). Subgroup analysis of laparoscopic surgery patients also favored EA/TEA by analysis of time to first flatus (MD -2.46 h, I2 = 0%, FIXED), time to first oral feeding (MD -10.73 h, I2 = 0%, FIXED) and length of hospital stay (MD -1.30 d, I2 = 32%, REM). ST36 (Zusanli), ST37 (Shangjuxu) and ST39 (Xiajuxu) are preferred EA/TEA acupoints for treating POI. There was no significant difference in postoperative analgesic consumption between EA and control groups (P = 0.39). No severe adverse events associated with EA/TEA were reported. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that EA/TEA is a safe, effective treatment for POI after abdominal surgeries including laparoscopic surgery, and that EA/TEA does not relieve postoperative pain after abdominal surgery. There is significant heterogeneity of research on this subject, thus, a professional consensus is needed to establish a standard protocol for use of this technique.

20.
Lab Chip ; 19(20): 3397-3404, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508644

RESUMO

Contact-free manipulation of small objects (e.g., cells, tissues, and droplets) using acoustic waves eliminates physical contact with structures and undesired surface adsorption. Pioneering acoustic-based, contact-free manipulation techniques (e.g., acoustic levitation) enable programmable manipulation but are limited by evaporation, bulky transducers, and inefficient acoustic coupling in air. Herein, we report an acoustofluidic mechanism for the contactless manipulation of small objects on water. A hollow-square-shaped interdigital transducer (IDT) is fabricated on lithium niobate (LiNbO3), immersed in water and used as a sound source to generate acoustic waves and as a micropump to pump fluid in the ±x and ±y orthogonal directions. As a result, objects which float adjacent to the excited IDT can be pushed unidirectionally (horizontally) in ±x and ±y following the directed acoustic wave propagation. A fluidic processor was developed by patterning IDT units in a 6-by-6 array. We demonstrate contactless, programmable manipulation on water of oil droplets and zebrafish larvae. This acoustofluidic-based manipulation opens avenues for the contactless, programmable processing of materials and small biosamples.

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