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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6389, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737279

RESUMO

Focusing electromagnetic field to enhance the interaction with matter has been promoting researches and applications of nano electronics and photonics. Usually, the evanescent-wave coupling is adopted in various nano structures and materials to confine the electromagnetic field into a subwavelength space. Here, based on the direct coupling with confined electron oscillations in a nanowire, we demonstrate a tight localization of microwave field down to 10-6λ. A hybrid nanowire-bowtie antenna is further designed to focus the free-space microwave to this deep-subwavelength space. Detected by the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond, the field intensity and microwave-spin interaction strength are enhanced by 2.0 × 108 and 1.4 × 104 times, respectively. Such a high concentration of microwave field will further promote integrated quantum information processing, sensing and microwave photonics in a nanoscale system.

2.
Opt Lett ; 46(21): 5352-5355, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724473

RESUMO

The task of wavefront sensing is to measure the phase of the optical field. Here, we demonstrate that the widely used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor detects the weak value of transverse momentum, usually achieved by the method of quantum weak measurement. We extend its input states to partially coherent states and compare it with the weak measurement wavefront sensor, which has a higher spatial resolution but a smaller dynamic range. Since weak values are commonly used in investigating fundamental quantum physics and quantum metrology, our work would find essential applications in these fields.

3.
Opt Express ; 29(23): 38488-38496, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808901

RESUMO

In research on hybrid quantum networks, visible or near-infrared frequency conversion has been realized. However, technical limitations mean that there have been few studies involving the ultraviolet band, and unfortunately the wavelengths of the rare-earth or alkaline-earth metal atoms or ions that are used widely in research on quantum information are often in the UV band. Therefore, frequency conversion of the ultraviolet band is very important. In this paper, we demonstrate a quantum frequency conversion between ultraviolet and visible wavelengths by fabricating waveguides in a period-poled MgO:LiTaO3 crystal with a laser writing system, which will be used to connect the wavelength of the dipole transition of 171Yb+ at 369.5 nm and the absorption wavelength of Eu3+ at 580 nm in a solid-state quantum memory system. An external conversion efficiency of 0.85% and a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 500 are realized with a pumping power of 3.28 W at 1018 nm. Furthermore, we complete frequency conversion of the classical polarization state by means of a symmetric optical setup based on the fabricated waveguide, and the process fidelity of the conversion is (96.13 ± 0.021)%. This converter paves the way for constructing a hybrid quantum network and realizing a quantum router in the ultraviolet band in the future.

4.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 24674-24683, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614818

RESUMO

We demonstrate a laser frequency stabilization method with large tuning range to stabilize a UV laser by installing piezoelectric ceramic actuators into a Fabry-Pérot cavity with an ultra-low expansion spacer. To suppress piezoelectric drift, a two-layer symmetrical structure is adopted for the piezoelectric actuator, and a 14.7 GHz tuning range is achieved. The short-term drift of the piezoelectric ceramics caused by temperature and creep is eliminated, and the long-term drift is 0.268 MHz/h when the Fabry-Pérot cavity is sealed in a chamber without a vacuum environment. The long-term frequency drift is mainly caused by stress release and is eliminated by compensating the cavity voltage with an open loop. Without the need for an external reference or a vacuum environment, the laser frequency stabilization system is greatly simplified, and it can be extended to wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to infrared. Owing to its simplicity, stability, and large tuning range, it is applicable in cold atom and trapped ion experiments.

5.
Opt Express ; 29(20): 32006-32019, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615280

RESUMO

Quantum nonlinear interferometers (QNIs) can measure the infrared physical quantities of a sample by detecting visible photons. A QNI with Michelson geometry based on the spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a second-order nonlinear crystal is studied systematically. A simplified theoretical model of the QNI is presented. The interference visibility, coherence length, equal-inclination interference, and equal-thickness interference for the QNI are demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. As an application example of the QNI, the refractive index and the angle between two surfaces of a BBO crystal are measured using equal-inclination interference and equal-thickness interference.

6.
Light Sci Appl ; 10(1): 217, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702833

RESUMO

Optical interference is not only a fundamental phenomenon that has enabled new theories of light to be derived but it has also been used in interferometry for the measurement of small displacements, refractive index changes, and surface irregularities. In a two-beam interferometer, variations in the interference fringes are used as a diagnostic for anything that causes the optical path difference (OPD) to change; therefore, for a specified OPD, greater variation in the fringes indicates better measurement sensitivity. Here, we introduce and experimentally validate an interesting optical interference phenomenon that uses photons with a structured frequency-angular spectrum, which are generated from a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process in a nonlinear crystal. This interference phenomenon is manifested as interference fringes that vary much more rapidly with increasing OPD than the corresponding fringes for equal-inclination interference; the phenomenon is parameterised using an equivalent wavelength, which under our experimental conditions is 29.38 nm or about 1/27 of the real wavelength. This phenomenon not only enriches the knowledge with regard to optical interference but also offers promise for applications in interferometry.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(11): 110505, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558943

RESUMO

Entanglement-based quantum communication offers an increased level of security in practical secret shared key distribution. One of the fundamental principles enabling this security-the fact that interfering with one photon will destroy entanglement and thus be detectable-is also the greatest obstacle. Random encounters of traveling photons, losses, and technical imperfections make noise an inevitable part of any quantum communication scheme, severely limiting distance, key rate, and environmental conditions in which quantum key distribution can be employed. Using photons entangled in their spatial degree of freedom, we show that the increased noise resistance of high-dimensional entanglement can indeed be harnessed for practical key distribution schemes. We perform quantum key distribution in eight entangled paths at various levels of environmental noise and show key rates that, even after error correction and privacy amplification, still exceed 1 bit per photon pair and furthermore certify a secure key at noise levels that would prohibit comparable qubit based schemes from working.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(7): 073201, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340438

RESUMO

Optical controls provided by lasers are the most important and essential techniques in trapped ion and cold atom systems. It is crucial to increase the optical accessibility of the setup to enhance these optical capabilities. Here, we present the design and construction of a new segmented-blade ion trap integrated with a compact glass vacuum cell, in place of the conventional bulky metal vacuum chamber. The distance between the ion and four outside surfaces of the glass cell is 15 mm, which enables us to install four high-numerical-aperture (NA) lenses (with two NA ⩽ 0.32 lenses and two NA ⩽ 0.66 lenses) in two orthogonal transverse directions, while leaving enough space for laser beams in the oblique and longitudinal directions. The high optical accessibility in multiple directions allows the application of small laser spots for addressable Raman operations, programmable optical tweezer arrays, and efficient fluorescence collection simultaneously. We have successfully loaded and cooled a string of 174Yb+ and 171Yb+ ions in the trap, which verifies the trapping stability. This compact high-optical-access trap setup not only can be used as an extendable module for quantum information processing but also facilitates experimental studies on quantum chemistry in a cold hybrid ion-atom system.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4378, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282136

RESUMO

Photon echo is a fundamental tool for the manipulation of electromagnetic fields. Unavoidable spontaneous emission noise is generated in this process due to the strong rephasing pulse, which limits the achievable signal-to-noise ratio and represents a fundamental obstacle towards their applications in the quantum regime. Here we propose a noiseless photon-echo protocol based on a four-level atomic system. We implement this protocol in a Eu3+:Y2SiO5 crystal to serve as an optical quantum memory. A storage fidelity of 0.952 ± 0.018 is obtained for time-bin qubits encoded with single-photon-level coherent pulses, which is far beyond the maximal fidelity achievable using the classical measure-and-prepare strategy. In this work, the demonstrated noiseless photon-echo quantum memory features spin-wave storage, easy operation and high storage fidelity, which should be easily extended to other physical systems.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(2): 020401, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296907

RESUMO

We investigate whether paradigmatic measurements for quantum state tomography, namely mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete measurements, can be employed to certify quantum correlations. For this purpose, we identify a simple and noise-robust correlation witness for entanglement detection, steering, and nonlocality that can be evaluated based on the outcome statistics obtained in the tomography experiment. This allows us to perform state tomography on entangled qutrits, a test of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and a Bell inequality test, all within a single experiment. We also investigate the trade-off between quantum correlations and subsets of tomographically complete measurements as well as the quantification of entanglement in the different scenarios. Finally, we perform a photonics experiment in which we demonstrate quantum correlations under these flexible assumptions, namely with both parties trusted, one party untrusted and both parties untrusted.

11.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(6)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199267

RESUMO

Communication games are crucial tools for investigating the limitations of physical theories. The communication complexity (CC) problem is a typical example, for which several distributed parties attempt to jointly calculate a given function with limited classical communications. In this work, we present a method to construct CC problems from Bell tests in a graph-theoretic way. Starting from an experimental compatibility graph and the corresponding Bell test function, a target function that encodes the information of each edge can be constructed; then, using this target function, we can construct a CC function, and by pre-sharing entangled states, its success probability exceeds that of the arbitrary classical strategy. The non-signaling protocol based on the Popescu-Rohrlich box is also discussed, and the success probability in this case reaches one.

12.
Opt Lett ; 46(13): 3175-3178, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197409

RESUMO

To date, various quantum random number schemes have been demonstrated. However, the cost, size, and final random bit generation rate usually limits their wide application on-shelf. To overcome these limitations, we propose and demonstrate a compact, simple, and low-cost quantum random number generation based on a linear optocoupler. Its integrated structure consists mainly of a light emitting diode and a photodetector. Random bits are generated by directly measuring the intensity noise of the output light, which originates from the random recombination between holes of the p region and electrons of the n region in a light emitting diode. Moreover, our system is robust against fluctuation of the operating environment, and can be extended to a parallel structure, which will be of great significance for the practical and commercial application of quantum random number generation. After post-processing by the SHA-256 algorithm, a random number generation rate of 43 Mbps is obtained. Finally, the final random bit sequences have low autocorrelation coefficients with a standard deviation of 3.16×10-4 and pass the NIST-Statistical Test Suite test.

13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(4): 044904, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243481

RESUMO

The nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond has been broadly applied in quantum sensing since it is sensitive to different physical quantities. Meanwhile, it is difficult to isolate disturbances from unwanted physical quantities in practical applications. Here, we present a fiber-based quantum thermometer by tracking the sharp-dip in the zero-field optically detected magnetic resonance spectrum in a high-density nitrogen-vacancy ensemble. Such a scheme can not only significantly isolate the magnetic field and microwave power drift but also improve the temperature sensitivity. Thanks to its simplicity and compatibility in implementation and robustness, this quantum thermometer is then applied to the surface temperature imaging of an electronic chip with a sensitivity of 18mK/Hz. It thus paves the way to high sensitive temperature measurements in ambiguous environments.

14.
Nature ; 594(7861): 41-45, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079139

RESUMO

Owing to the inevitable loss in communication channels, the distance of entanglement distribution is limited to approximately 100 kilometres on the ground1. Quantum repeaters can circumvent this problem by using quantum memory and entanglement swapping2. As the elementary link of a quantum repeater, the heralded distribution of two-party entanglement between two remote nodes has only been realized with built-in-type quantum memories3-9. These schemes suffer from the trade-off between multiplexing capacity and deterministic properties and hence hinder the development of efficient quantum repeaters. Quantum repeaters based on absorptive quantum memories can overcome such limitations because they separate the quantum memories and the quantum light sources. Here we present an experimental demonstration of heralded entanglement between absorptive quantum memories. We build two nodes separated by 3.5 metres, each containing a polarization-entangled photon-pair source and a solid-state quantum memory with bandwidth up to 1 gigahertz. A joint Bell-state measurement in the middle station heralds the successful distribution of maximally entangled states between the two quantum memories with a fidelity of 80.4 ± 2.2 per cent (±1 standard deviation). The quantum nodes and channels demonstrated here can serve as an elementary link of a quantum repeater. Moreover, the wideband absorptive quantum memories used in the nodes are compatible with deterministic entanglement sources and can simultaneously support multiplexing, which paves the way for the construction of practical solid-state quantum repeaters and high-speed quantum networks.

15.
Opt Lett ; 46(11): 2573-2576, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061059

RESUMO

There is an increasing demand for multiplexing of quantum key distribution with optical communications in single fiber in consideration of high costs and practical applications in the metropolitan optical network. Here, we realize the integration of quantum key distribution and an optical transport network of 80 Gbps classical data at 15 dBm launch power over 50 km of the widely used standard (G.652 Recommendation of the International Telecom Union Telecom Standardization Sector) telecom fiber. A secure key rate of 11 Kbps over 20 km is obtained. By tolerating a high classical optical power up to 18 dBm of 160 Gbps classical data on single-mode fiber, our result shows the potential and tolerance of quantum key distribution being used in future large capacity transmission systems, such as metropolitan area networks and data centers. The quantum key distribution system is stable, practical, and insensitive to the polarization disturbance of channels by using a phase coding system based on a Faraday-Michelson interferometer. We also discuss the fundamental limit for quantum key distribution performance in the multiplexing environment.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(23): 230401, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170148

RESUMO

The duration, strength, and structure of memory effects are crucial properties of physical evolution. Because of the invasive nature of quantum measurement, such properties must be defined with respect to the probing instruments employed. Here, using a photonic platform, we experimentally demonstrate this necessity via two paradigmatic processes: future-history correlations in the first process can be erased by an intermediate quantum measurement; for the second process, a noisy classical measurement blocks the effect of history. We then apply memory truncation techniques to recover an efficient description that approximates expectation values for multitime observables. Our proof-of-principle analysis paves the way for experiments concerning more general non-Markovian quantum processes and highlights where standard open systems techniques break down.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(23): 230503, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170155

RESUMO

Topological photonics has been introduced as a powerful platform for integrated optics, since it can deal with robust light transport, and be further extended to the quantum world. Strikingly, valley-contrasting physics in topological photonic structures contributes to valley-related edge states, their unidirectional coupling, and even valley-dependent wave division in topological junctions. Here, we design and fabricate nanophotonic topological harpoon-shaped beam splitters (HSBSs) based on 120-deg-bending interfaces and demonstrate the first on-chip valley-dependent quantum information process. Two-photon quantum interference, namely, Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with a high visibility of 0.956±0.006, is realized with our 50/50 HSBS, which is constructed by two topologically distinct domain walls. Cascading this kind of HSBS together, we also demonstrate a simple quantum photonic circuit and generation of a path-entangled state. Our work shows that the photonic valley state can be used in quantum information processing, and it is possible to realize more complex quantum circuits with valley-dependent photonic topological insulators, which provides a novel method for on-chip quantum information processing.

18.
Light Sci Appl ; 10(1): 103, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001846

RESUMO

In optical metrological protocols to measure physical quantities, it is, in principle, always beneficial to increase photon number n to improve measurement precision. However, practical constraints prevent the arbitrary increase of n due to the imperfections of a practical detector, especially when the detector response is dominated by the saturation effect. In this work, we show that a modified weak measurement protocol, namely, biased weak measurement significantly improves the precision of optical metrology in the presence of saturation effect. This method detects an ultra-small fraction of photons while maintains a considerable amount of metrological information. The biased pre-coupling leads to an additional reduction of photons in the post-selection and generates an extinction point in the spectrum distribution, which is extremely sensitive to the estimated parameter and difficult to be saturated. Therefore, the Fisher information can be persistently enhanced by increasing the photon number. In our magnetic-sensing experiment, biased weak measurement achieves precision approximately one order of magnitude better than those of previously used methods. The proposed method can be applied in various optical measurement schemes to remarkably mitigate the detector saturation effect with low-cost apparatuses.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3223, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050146

RESUMO

Optically addressable solid-state color center spin qubits have become important platforms for quantum information processing, quantum networks and quantum sensing. The readout of color center spin states with optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technology is traditionally based on Stokes excitation, where the energy of the exciting laser is higher than that of the emission photons. Here, we investigate an unconventional approach using anti-Stokes excitation to detect the ODMR signal of silicon vacancy defect spin in silicon carbide, where the exciting laser has lower energy than the emitted photons. Laser power, microwave power and temperature dependence of the anti-Stokes excited ODMR are systematically studied, in which the behavior of ODMR contrast and linewidth is shown to be similar to that of Stokes excitation. However, the ODMR contrast is several times that of the Stokes excitation. Coherent control of silicon vacancy spin under anti-Stokes excitation is then realized at room temperature. The spin coherence properties are the same as those of Stokes excitation, but with a signal contrast that is around three times greater. To illustrate the enhanced spin readout contrast under anti-Stokes excitation, we also provide a theoretical model. The experiments demonstrate that the current anti-Stokes excitation ODMR approach has promising applications in quantum information processing and quantum sensing.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(17): 170505, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988432

RESUMO

Masking of quantum information spreads it over nonlocal correlations and hides it from the subsystems. It is known that no operation can simultaneously mask all pure states [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 230501 (2018)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.120.230501], so in what sense is quantum information masking useful? Here, we extend the definition of quantum information masking to general mixed states, and show that the resource of maskable quantum states is far more abundant than the no-go theorem seemingly suggests. Geometrically, the simultaneously maskable states lays on hyperdisks in the state hypersphere, and strictly contains the broadcastable states. We devise a photonic quantum information masking machine using time-correlated photons to experimentally investigate the properties of qubit masking, and demonstrate the transfer of quantum information into bipartite correlations and its faithful retrieval. The versatile masking machine has decent extensibility, and may be applicable to quantum secret sharing and fault-tolerant quantum communication. Our results provide some insights on the comprehension and potential application of quantum information masking.

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