Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 164
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048836

RESUMO

Unpaired electrons of organic radicals can offer high electrical conductivity without doping, but they typically suffer from low stability. Herein, we report two organic diradicaloids based on quinoidal oligothiophene derivative (QOT), i. e. BTICN and QTICN, with high stability and conductivity by employing imide-bridged fused molecular frameworks. The attachment of a strong electron-withdrawing imide group to the tetracyano-capped QOT backbones enables extremely deeply-aligned LUMO levels (-4.58 ~ -4.69 eV), cross-conjugated diradical characters, and remarkable ambient stabilities of the diradicaloids with half-lifes ˃ 60 days, which are among the highest for QOT diradicals and also the widely-explored polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-based diradicals. Specifically, QTICN based on a tetrathiophene imide exhibits a cross-conjugation assisted self-doping in film state as revealed by XPS and Raman studies. This property in combination with its ordered packing yields a high electrical conductivity of 0.34 S cm-1 for the QTICN films with substantial ambient stability, which is also among the highest values in organic radical-based undoped conductive materials reported to date. When used as a n-type thermoelectric material, QTICN shows a promising power factor of 1.52 uW m-1 K-2. Our results not only provide new insights into the electron conduction mechanism of the self-doped QOT diradicaloids but also demonstrate the great potential of fused quinoidal oligothiophene imides in developing stable diradicals and high-performance doping-free n-type conductive materials.

2.
Food Chem ; 310: 125827, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734011

RESUMO

Pathogenic fungi cause enormous losses to fruits, and ethylene (ET) is associated with disease development in fruit crops. In this study, ET production of several fungal pathogens was enhanced by light, probably through the free radicals produced by photochemical reactions. Real-time gas analysis showed a sharp increase in ET production when fungal cultures were moved from dark-to-light (DTL). Similarly, light accelerated ET production in the Botrytis cinerea-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants even when pyrazinamide, the inhibitor for plant ET synthesis, was applied, suggesting that the fungus is responsible for ET production during host invasion. Furthermore, a sharp increase in ET production after DTL transition was observed in B. cinerea-infected tomatoes and grapes, but not in healthy or physically wounded fruits. Taken together, these findings indicate that the DTL-induced ET is specific to the plant materials with fungal infection, and thus represents a candidate marker for non-destructive disease diagnosis of harvested fruits.

4.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808808

RESUMO

Many plants emit diverse floral scents that mediate plant-environment interactions and attain reproductive success. However, how plants evolve biosynthesis of novel and adaptive floral volatiles remains unclear. Here, we show that in the wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, a dominant species-specific floral volatile (benzyl acetone, BA) that attracts pollinators and deters florivore is synthesized by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 4 (NaPAL4), isoflavone reductase 3 (NaIFR3), and chalcone synthase 3 (NaCHAL3). Transient expression of NaFIR3 alone in N. attenuata leaves is sufficient and necessary for ectopic foliar BA emissions, and co-expressing NaIFR3 with NaPAL4 and NaCHAL3 increased the BA emission levels. Independent changes in transcription of NaPAL4 and NaCHAL3 contributed to intraspecific variations of floral BA emission. However, among species, the gain of expression in NaIFR3 resulted in the biosynthesis of BA that was only found in N. attenuata. This study suggests that novel metabolic pathways associated with adaptation can arise via re-configurations of gene expression.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(18): 3954-3959, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872730

RESUMO

Through investigation,it was found that the main disease of leaves was grey mold on Dendrobium officinale in Hubei province,which has a great impact on the yield and quality of D. officinale. The identification of morphological and molecular biological was used to prove that the pathogen was Botrytis cinerea. Through test the effect of 5 plant source fungicides and 4 antibiotic fungicides on mycelial growth of strain HS1,which proved 0. 3% eugenol had the best inhibitory effect,EC50 was 0. 29 mg·L-1,the second was1% osthol and EC50 was 1. 12 mg·L-1,the EC50 of 0. 5% matrine was 9. 16 mg·L-1,the EC50 of the other six fungicides was higher than 10 mg·L-1. The field control effect test proved that 0. 3% eugenol had the best control effect,reaching 89. 44%,secondly for 1%osthole,which was 77. 17%,0. 5% matrine was in the third place with 62. 37% of effective rate. However,the control effect of the other fungicides was less than 60%. The three plant-derived fungicides were safe for the produce of D. officinale and showed no phytotoxicity. The effect of these fungicides on the growth of D. candidum was tested,and proved that all the fungicides were safe and harmless to D. candidum. This study provides a research basis for the safe and effective prevention and control gray mold of D. officinale.


Assuntos
Botrytis/patogenicidade , Dendrobium/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Alcaloides , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos , Eugenol , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Quinolizinas
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(22)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752400

RESUMO

For the time-consuming and stressful body measuring task of Qinchuan cattle and farmers, the demand for the automatic measurement of body dimensions has become more and more urgent. It is necessary to explore automatic measurements with deep learning to improve breeding efficiency and promote the development of industry. In this paper, a novel approach to measuring the body dimensions of live Qinchuan cattle with on transfer learning is proposed. Deep learning of the Kd-network was trained with classical three-dimensional (3D) point cloud datasets (PCD) of the ShapeNet datasets. After a series of processes of PCD sensed by the light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor, the cattle silhouettes could be extracted, which after augmentation could be applied as an input layer to the Kd-network. With the output of a convolutional layer of the trained deep model, the output layer of the deep model could be applied to pre-train the full connection network. The TrAdaBoost algorithm was employed to transfer the pre-trained convolutional layer and full connection of the deep model. To classify and recognize the PCD of the cattle silhouette, the average accuracy rate after training with transfer learning could reach up to 93.6%. On the basis of silhouette extraction, the candidate region of the feature surface shape could be extracted with mean curvature and Gaussian curvature. After the computation of the FPFH (fast point feature histogram) of the surface shape, the center of the feature surface could be recognized and the body dimensions of the cattle could finally be calculated. The experimental results showed that the comprehensive error of body dimensions was close to 2%, which could provide a feasible approach to the non-contact observations of the bodies of large physique livestock without any human intervention.

7.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 40(23): e1900394, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702099

RESUMO

Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based copolymers have received considerable attention as promising semiconducting materials for high-performance organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). However, these polymers typically exhibit p-type or ambipolar charge-transporting characteristics in OTFTs due to their high-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels. In this work, a new series of DPP-based n-type polymers have been developed by incorporating fused bithiophene imide oligomers (BTIn) into DPP polymers. The resulting copolymers BTIn-DPP show narrow band gaps as low as 1.27 eV and gradually down-shifted frontier molecular orbital energy levels upon the increment of imide group number. Benefiting from the coplanar backbone conformation, well-delocalized π-system, and favorable polymer chain packing, the optimal polymer in the series shows promising n-type charge transport with an electron mobility up to 0.48 cm2 V-1 s-1 in OTFTs, which is among the highest values for the DPP-based n-type polymers reported to date. The results demonstrate that incorporating fused bithiophene imide oligomers into polymers can serve as a promising strategy for constructing high-performance n-type polymeric semiconductors.

8.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632961

RESUMO

Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) promote de novo lipogenesis, which caused abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation, by the NFκB-Orai1 pathway. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been recognized as key mechanisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Whether Orai1 facilitates ER stress by oxidative stress remains unknown. The rat model of NAFLD was constructed by feeding high-fat diet (HFD). BRL-3A cells were treated with NEFAs, Orai1inhibtor BTP2, NFκB inhibitor wogonin, or small interfering Orai (siOrai) 1, respectively. The content of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating oxidative stress, was measured by a spectrophotometer. ER stress major proteins PERK, IRE1, ATF6, CHOP, and GRP78 were quantified using Western blot and qRT-PCR analyses. For the intracellular location of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Orai1 were measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence, and cytosolic Ca2+ was measured by flow cytometry. As we expected, the liver of rats with NAFLD showed lipid droplets in HE and Oil Red O. The decreased GSH and increased MDA were found in rats fed with HFD. ER stress major proteins PERK, IRE1, ATF6, GRP78, and CHOP were significantly increased in the HFD group. In BRL-3A cells, GSH content dramatically decreased from 1 h, MDA content dramatically increased from 3 h, and expression levels of ER stress significantly increased from 3 h by NEFA treatment. Furthermore, cytosolic Ca2+ increased from 0.5 h by NEFAs treated in BRL-3A cells. It indicated that NEFAs increased cytosolic Ca2+ to induce oxidative stress, thus ER stress. The content of oxidative stress and ER stress proteins showed the same trends by NEFAs treated in BRL-3A cells. These effects were reversed by the Orai1 inhibitor BTP2 and the NFκB inhibitor wogonin. Moreover, siOrai1 abrogated NEFAs' influence in BRL-3A cells. Last, ROS was found by NEFAs treated in BRL-3A cells, and NEFA treatment enhanced the nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 and ORAI1. It was considered that high NEFAs increased cytosolic Ca2+ and enhanced NFκB-dependent SOCE and its moiety protein Orai1 to decrease GSH and thus induced oxidative stress at earlier stages and furthermore tempted ER stress in the pathologic progress of NAFLD.

9.
Adv Mater ; 31(46): e1905161, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566274

RESUMO

Currently, n-type acceptors in high-performance all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) are dominated by imide-functionalized polymers, which typically show medium bandgap. Herein, a novel narrow-bandgap polymer, poly(5,6-dicyano-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-alt-indacenodithiophene) (DCNBT-IDT), based on dicyanobenzothiadiazole without an imide group is reported. The strong electron-withdrawing cyano functionality enables DCNBT-IDT with n-type character and, more importantly, alleviates the steric hindrance associated with typical imide groups. Compared to the benchmark poly(naphthalene diimide-alt-bithiophene) (N2200), DCNBT-IDT shows a narrower bandgap (1.43 eV) with a much higher absorption coefficient (6.15 × 104 cm-1 ). Such properties are elusive for polymer acceptors to date, eradicating the drawbacks inherited in N2200 and other high-performance polymer acceptors. When blended with a wide-bandgap polymer donor, the DCNBT-IDT-based all-PSCs achieve a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 8.32% with a small energy loss of 0.53 eV and a photoresponse of up to 870 nm. Such efficiency greatly outperforms those of N2200 (6.13%) and the naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based analog NDI-IDT (2.19%). This work breaks the long-standing bottlenecks limiting materials innovation of n-type polymers, which paves a new avenue for developing polymer acceptors with improved optoelectronic properties and heralds a brighter future of all-PSCs.

10.
J Virol ; 93(24)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554686

RESUMO

Outbreaks of severe diarrhea in neonatal piglets in Guangdong, China, in 2017 resulted in the isolation and discovery of a novel swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV) derived from the species Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 (Y. Pan, X. Tian, P. Qin, B. Wang, et al., Vet Microbiol 211:15-21, 2017). SeACoV was later referred to as swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV) by another group (P. Zhou, H. Fan, T. Lan, X.-L. Yang, et al., Nature 556:255-258, 2018). The present study was set up to investigate the potential species barriers of SADS-CoV in vitro and in vivo We first demonstrated that SADS-CoV possesses a broad species tropism and is able to infect cell lines from diverse species, including bats, mice, rats, gerbils, hamsters, pigs, chickens, nonhuman primates, and humans. Trypsin contributes to but is not essential for SADS-CoV propagation in vitro Furthermore, C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with the virus via oral or intraperitoneal routes. Although the mice exhibited only subclinical infection, they supported viral replication and prolonged infection in the spleen. SADS-CoV nonstructural proteins and double-stranded RNA were detected in splenocytes of the marginal zone on the edge of lymphatic follicles, indicating active replication of SADS-CoV in the mouse model. We identified that splenic dendritic cells (DCs) are the major targets of virus infection by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry approaches. Finally, we demonstrated that SADS-CoV does not utilize known CoV receptors for cellular entry. The ability of SADS-CoV to replicate in various cells lines from a broad range of species and the unexpected tropism for murine DCs provide important insights into the biology of this bat-origin CoV, highlighting its possible ability to cross interspecies barriers.IMPORTANCE Infections with bat-origin coronaviruses (CoVs) (severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV [SARS-CoV] and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV [MERS-CoV]) have caused severe illness in humans after "host jump" events. Recently, a novel bat-HKU2-like CoV named swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV) has emerged in southern China, causing lethal diarrhea in newborn piglets. It is important to assess the species barriers of SADS-CoV infection since the animal hosts (other than pigs and bats) and zoonotic potential are still unknown. An in vitro susceptibility study revealed a broad species tropism of SADS-CoV, including various rodent and human cell lines. We established a mouse model of SADS-CoV infection, identifying its active replication in splenic dendritic cells, which suggests that SADS-CoV has the potential to infect rodents. These findings highlight the potential cross-species transmissibility of SADS-CoV, although further surveillance in other animal populations is needed to fully understand the ecology of this bat-HKU2-origin CoV.

11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547358

RESUMO

An efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding paper with excellent water repellency and mechanical flexibility has been developed, by assembling silver nanowires (AgNWs) and hydrophobic inorganic ceramic on the cellulose paper, via a facile dip-coating preparation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirmed that AgNWs were interconnected and densely coated on both sides of the cellulose fiber, which endows the as-prepared paper with high conductivity (33.69 S/cm in-plane direction) at a low AgNW area density of 0.13 mg/cm2. Owing to multiple reflections and scattering between the two outer highly conductive surfaces, the obtained composite presented a high EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of up to 46 dB against the X band, and ultrahigh specific EMI SE of 271.2 dB mm-1. Moreover, the prepared hydrophobic AgNW/cellulose (H-AgNW/cellulose) composite paper could also maintain high EMI SE and extraordinary waterproofness (water contact angle > 140°) by suffering dozens of bending tests or one thousand peeling tests. Overall, such a multifunctional paper might have practical applications in packaging conductive components and can be used as EMI shielding elements in advanced application areas, even under harsh conditions.

12.
Sleep ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552427

RESUMO

Light has immediate effects on sleep in rodents, but the neural pathways underlying the effect remain to be elucidated. The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) containing GABAergic neurons receives direct retinal inputs. We hypothesized that IGL GABAergic neurons may mediate light-induced sleep. EEG/electromyogram recording, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, optogenetics, fiber photometry, behavioral tests, and cell-specific destruction were employed to investigate the role of IGL GABAergic neurons in the regulation of acute light-induced sleep. Here, EEG/ electromyogram recordings revealed that acute light exposure during the nocturnal active phase in mice induced a significant increase in non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep compared with controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that acute light exposure for 2 h in the active phase induced an increase in c-Fos expression in the IGL, whereas lights-off in the rest phase inhibited it. Patch clamp coupled with optogenetics demonstrated that retinal ganglion cells had monosynaptic functional connections to IGL GABAergic neurons. Calcium activity by fiber photometry in freely behaving mice showed that light exposure increased the activity of IGL GABAergic neurons. Furthermore, lesion of IGL GABAergic neurons by caspase-3 virus significantly attenuated the sleep-promoting effect of light exposure during active phases. Collectively, these results clearly indicated that the IGL is one of key nuclei mediating light-induced sleep in mice.

13.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481754

RESUMO

Despite the diverse etiologies of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), innate immunity activation is a common feature involved in DILI progression. However, the involvement of innate immunity regulation in inflammation resolution and liver regeneration in DILI remains obscure. Herein, we identified the chemokine CCL5 as a central mediator of innate immunity regulation in the pathogenesis of DILI. First, we showed that serum and hepatic CCL5 levels are elevated in both DILI patients and an APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) mouse model. Interestingly, both nonparenchymal cells and stressed hepatocytes are cell sources of CCL5 induction in response to liver injury. Functional experiments showed that CCL5 deficiency has no effect on the early phase of AILI but promotes liver repair in the late phase mainly by promoting inflammation resolution and liver regeneration, which are associated with an increased number of hepatic M2 macrophages. Mechanistically, CCL5 can directly activate M1 polarization and impede M2 polarization through the CCR1- and CCR5-mediated activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. We then showed that CCL5 inhibition mediated by either a CCL5-neutralizing antibody or the antagonist Met-CCL5 can greatly alleviate liver injury and improve survival in an AILI mouse model. Our data demonstrate CCL5 induction during DILI, identify CCL5 as a novel innate immunity regulator in macrophage polarization, and suggest that CCL5 blockage is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DILI.

14.
Virology ; 536: 110-118, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419711

RESUMO

Swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV), also known as swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), belongs to the species Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2. Herein, we report on the primary characterization of SeACoV in vitro. Four antibodies against the SeACoV spike, membrane, nucleocapsid and nonstructural protein 3 capable of reacting with viral antigens in SeACoV-infected Vero cells were generated. We established a DNA-launched SeACoV infectious clone based on the cell adapted passage-10 virus and rescued the recombinant virus with a unique genetic marker in cultured cells. Six subgenomic mRNAs containing the leader-body junction sites, including a bicistronic mRNA encoding the accessory NS7a and NS7b genes, were experimentally identified in SeACoV-infected cells. Cellular ultrastructural changes induced by SeACoV infection were visualized by electron microscopy. The availability of the SeACoV infectious clone and a panel of antibodies against different viral proteins will facilitate further studies on understanding the molecular mechanisms of SeACoV replication and pathogenesis.

15.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(1): 153-163, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461432

RESUMO

In this study, an artificial wetland filler matrix capable of effectively fixing phosphorus was prepared using a non-combustion process to save energy. To evaluate the adsorption performance of this filler, adsorption experiments were performed and the phosphorus adsorption mechanism characterization was studied. An alkaline environment was found to be conducive to the increase of adsorption capacity, but excessive alkalinity was not conducive to adsorption. Static adsorption experiments showed that the phosphorus removal rate could reach 95% in the simulated phosphorus-containing wastewater after adsorption completion. The adsorption process is closely simulated by the pseudo-second-kinetic adsorption model. The isothermal adsorption experiment data were consistent with the Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The characterization results showed a large number of micropores and adsorption binding sites inside and on the surface of the filler. Speciation analysis on the adsorbed phosphorus revealed that chemisorption by calcium in this filler was the dominant adsorption mechanism. The research results of this study provide the basis and reference for the development of high-efficiency phosphorus removal filler in constructed wetlands.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Adsorção , Alumínio , Sulfato de Cálcio , Esgotos , Dióxido de Silício
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3326-3336, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299068

RESUMO

Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is often associated with inflammation-related disorders such as metritis and mastitis. The protein encoded by the Ca2+ release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1) gene is a membrane Ca2+ channel subunit that is activated when Ca2+ stores are depleted. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL) have a crucial role in the defense against infection through migration, adhesion, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to pathogens. Whether hypocalcemia affects the activity of PMNL and if ORAI1 is involved remains unknown. To address this, PMNL were isolated at 3 d of calving from dairy cows diagnosed as clinically healthy (n = 20, CONTROL) or with plasma concentration of calcium < 2.0 mmol/L as a criterion for diagnosis of subclinical hypocalcemia (n = 20, HYPOCAL). PMNL isolated from both groups of cows were treated with or without the sarcoendoplasmic Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, Ca2+ ionophore Ionomycin, and ORAI1 blocker 2APB. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration, ORAI1 abundance, ROS, phagocytosis rate, migration, and adhering capacity of treated PMNL were evaluated. Some of the in vitro assays also included use of small interfering ORAI1 RNA (siORAI1), 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3, or 100 nM parathyroid hormone (PTH). Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was markedly lower in HYPOCAL. In addition, ORAI1 was detected in PMNL plasma membrane via FACS and was markedly lower in cows with HYPOCAL. Migration, adhesion capacity, and phagocytosis rate of PMNL were lower in response to HYPOCAL. Furthermore, plasma and PMNL concentration of nucleosome assembly protein (NAP2) and pro-platelet basic protein (CXCL7) was markedly lower with HYPOCAL. All these changes were associated with lower ROS production by PMNL. Thapsigargin and ionomycin treatment in vitro increased ORAI1 expression, migration of PMNL, adhering capacity, phagocytosis rate, and ROS production; conversely, those effects were abrogated by siORAI1 and ORAI1 inhibitor 2APB treatment. Also cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and ORAI1 abundance were increased by 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH supplementation. Overall, the data indicate that failure of PMNL to uptake Ca2+ due to downregulation of ORAI1 during subclinical hypocalcemia is a factor contributing to impaired PMNL function. In addition, plasma PTH or 1,25(OH)2D3 could regulate ORAI1 and also participate in the regulation of PMNL activity.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Proteína ORAI1/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Hipocalcemia/imunologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Proteína ORAI1/genética , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Período Pós-Parto , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9013904, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275989

RESUMO

Background: It has been documented that vitamin D supplementation showed an improvement of symptoms of diabetic nephropathy; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We here tested the hypothesis that active vitamin D is able to up-regulate AKT/UCP2 signaling to alleviate oxidative stress of renal tubular cell line HK2. Methods: There are eight groups in the present study: normal glucose, osmotic control (5.5 mmol/L D-glucose+24.5 mmol/L D-mannitol), NAC control (30 mmol/L D-glucose + 1.0 mmol/L N-Methylcysteine), high glucose, high glucose+VD, high glucose (HG)+VD+siVDR, HG+VD+AKT inhibitor (AI), and high glucose+VD+UCP2 inhibitor (Gelipin). Concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was analyzed by ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. JC-1 was evaluated by flow cytometry. The presence of VDR, AKT, and UCP2 in HK cells was assessed using RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Results: VD administration significantly upregulated the SOD activation and downregulated MDA levels compared to HG group. siVDR, AKT inhibitor, and UCP2 inhibitor significantly suppressed the activation of SOD and increased the expression of MDA compared to VD group. ROS generation and apoptosis of HK2 cells in HG+VD group were significantly lower than those in HG, HG+VD+siVDR, HG+VD+AI, and HG+VD+Gelipin group. ΔΨm in HG+VD group was obviously higher than those in HG, HG+VD+siVDR, HG+VD+AI, and HG+VD+Gelipin group. Decreased mRNA and protein levels of VDR, p-AKT, and UCP2 were observed in HG+VD+siVDR, HG+VD+AI, and HG+VD+Gelipin group compared to those in HG+VD group. Conclusions: siVDR, AKT inhibitor, and UCP2 inhibitor elevated the ROS and apoptosis of HK2 cells while attenuating the mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that vitamin D protects renal tubular cell from high glucose by AKT/UCP2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Glucose/toxicidade , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Desacopladora 2/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
J Chem Phys ; 150(20): 204703, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153197

RESUMO

We explore the dynamics and kinetics of methane dissociation on the steps of Ni(211) and the terraces of Ni(111), as models for step and terrace sites, respectively, on a real Ni catalyst. A quantum approach is used to compute state resolved sticking probabilities, S0, and the thermally averaged sticking is computed from both S0 and more standard transition state methods. While the barriers can be much lower on the step edges, the terrace atoms can make important contributions to the overall reactivity if the step density is not too high and/or at higher temperatures. At 500 K, we find that for reaction on the step edge, sticking is dominated by molecules with either one or two quanta of bending vibration excited, with translational energies of about 0.10-0.35 eV or 0-0.2 eV, respectively. These energies are well below the rigid lattice activation energies, and reaction requires both a significant conversion of vibrational energy into motion along the reaction path and puckering of the lattice atom over which the molecule dissociates. We show that the average amount of puckering, which lowers the barrier to reaction, is about 0.28 Å at 500 K. Reactions are dominated by collisions at impact sites within a few tenths of an Å of the minimum barrier pathway at the step edge. Our computed sticking probabilities for reaction on the step at 500 K are in good agreement with available experimental data.

19.
Curr Biol ; 29(12): 2020-2030.e5, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178322

RESUMO

In flowering plants, intraspecific mate preference is frequently related to mating systems: the rejection of self pollen in self-incompatible (SI) plants that prevents inbreeding is one of the best described examples. However, in other mating systems, more nuanced patterns of pollen rejection occur. In the self-compatible (SC) Nicotiana attenuata, in which SI is not found and all crosses are compatible, certain pollen genotypes are consistently selected in mixed pollinations. However, the molecular mechanisms of this polyandrous mate selection remain unknown. Style-expressed NaS-like-RNases and pollen-expressed NaSLF-like genes, homologous to SI factors in Solanaceae, were identified and examined for a role in N. attenuata's mate selection. A comparison of two NaS-like-RNases and six NaSLF-like genes among 26 natural accessions revealed specific combinations of co-expression and direct protein-protein interactions. To evaluate their role in mate selection, we silenced the expression of specific NaS-like-RNases and NaSLF-like proteins and conducted diagnostic binary mixed pollinations and mixed pollinations with 14 different non-self pollen donors. Styles expressing particular combinations of NaS-like-RNases selected mates from plants with corresponding NaS-like-RNase expression patterns, while styles lacking NaS-like-RNase expression were non-selective in their fertilizations, which reflected the genotype ratios of pollen mixtures deposited on the stigmas. DNA methylation could account for some of the observed variation in stylar NaS-like-RNase patterns. We conclude that the S-RNase-SLF recognition mechanism plays a central role in polyandrous mate selection in this self-compatible species. These results suggest that after the SI-SC transition, natural variation of SI homologous genes was repurposed to mediate intraspecific mate selection.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(26): 23649-23658, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252483

RESUMO

Flexible strain sensors have attracted a great amount of attention for promising applications in next-generation artificially intelligent devices. However, it is difficult for conventional planar strain sensors to meet the requirements of miniature size and light weight for flexible electronics. Herein, a highly sensitive and stretchable fiber strain sensor with a millimeter diameter was innovatively fabricated by the capillary tube method to integrate silver nanowires (AgNWs) in polyurethane (PU) fibers. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrate that AgNWs were embedded into the surface layer of PU fibers and formed completely conductive networks. The unique AgNW networks endow the PU/AgNW fibers with superior electrical conductivity of 3.1 S/cm, high elongation at break of 265%, wide response range of 43%, high gauge factor of 87.6 up to 22% strain, fast response time of 49 ms, and excellent reliability and stability. Such satisfactory stretchability and sensitivity is attributed to the combination of the highly stretchable PU matrix and the embedded architecture of the AgNW conductive network. Moreover, PU/AgNW fibers can be employed as wearable devices to detect various human motions and to drive light-emitting diodes at a lower voltage (2.7 V).

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA