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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1644: 462068, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836299

RESUMO

Benzimidazoles, commonly used as pesticides and veterinary drugs, have posed a threat to human health and the environment due to unreasonable use and lack of valid regulation. Therefore, an up-to-date and comprehensive summary of the pretreatment and analytical approaches in different substrates is urgently needed. The present review consequently updates and covers various newly developed pretreatment methods (e.g., cationic micellar precipitation, magnetic-solid phase extraction, hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction, disperse liquid-liquid microextraction-solidified floating organic drop, stir cake sorptive extraction, solid phase microextraction method, QuEChERS, and molecular imprinted polymer-based methods) since 2005. The review also elaborates and discusses different determination methods (e.g., newly developed HPLC and related methods, improved spectrofluorimetry methods, capillary electrophoresis, and the electrochemical sensor). Furthermore, some critical points and prospects are highlighted, to describe the trends in this area.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 554604, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841321

RESUMO

Background: The interrelation between glucose and bone metabolism is complex and has not been fully revealed. This study aimed to investigate the association between insulin resistance, ß-cell function and bone turnover biomarker levels among participants with abnormal glycometabolism. Methods: A total of 5277 subjects were involved through a cross-sectional study (METAL study, http://www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR1800017573) in Shanghai, China. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ß-cell dysfunction (HOMA-%ß) were applied to elucidate the nexus between ß-C-terminal telopeptide (ß-CTX), intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP) and osteocalcin (OC). ß-CTX, OC and P1NP were detected by chemiluminescence. Results: HOMA-IR was negatively associated with ß-CTX, P1NP and OC (regression coefficient (ß) -0.044 (-0.053, -0.035), Q4vsQ1; ß -7.340 (-9.130, -5.550), Q4vsQ1 and ß -2.885 (-3.357, -2.412), Q4vsQ1, respectively, all P for trend <0.001). HOMA-%ß was positively associated with ß-CTX, P1NP and OC (ß 0.022 (0.014, 0.031), Q4vsQ1; ß 6.951 (5.300, 8.602), Q4vsQ1 and ß 1.361 (0.921, 1.800), Q4vsQ1, respectively, all P for trend <0.001). Conclusions: Our results support that lower bone turnover biomarker (ß-CTX, P1NP and OC) levels were associated with a combination of higher prevalence of insulin resistance and worse ß-cell function among dysglycemia patients. It is feasible to detect bone turnover in diabetes or hyperglycemia patients to predict the risk of osteoporosis and fracture, relieve patients' pain and reduce the expenses of long-term cure.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146731, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794460

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) is considered as one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the predominant species in China, which is frequently affected by environmental pollutants. However, potential toxicity mechanism of NP in shrimp has not been comprehensively studied. To explore the physiological changes and molecular mechanism involved in NP exposure of shrimp, we analyzed histological alterations, apoptosis and transcriptional responses of L.vannamei subjected to NP. Results indicated that significant changes in the histoarchitecture of the gills were observed after NP exposure for 3, 12 and 48 h. Apoptosis was also detected in a time-dependent manner. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained at 3 h, 12 h and 48 h after exposure. On the basis of the expression patterns over the time course, these DEGs were classified into 12 clusters. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of these DEGs was carried out and a dynamic and global view was obtained in shrimp after NP exposure on a transcriptome level. In addition, 15 DEGs involved in immune response, apoptosis, DNA repair, osmoregulation etc. were selected for qRT-PCR validation. The expression patterns of these DEGs kept a well consistent with the high-throughput data at different timepoints, which confirmed the accuracy and reliability of the transcriptome data. All the results demonstrated that NP exposure might lead to impairments of biological functions in gills, alter immune and antioxidant response, compromise DNA repair and anti-apoptosis abilities of shrimp, cause severe histopathological changes and eventually trigger apoptosis. The present study enriched the information on the toxicity mechanism of crustaceans in response to NP exposure.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834618

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of regulators in multiple cancer biological processes. However, the functions of lncRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified PWAR6 as a frequently down-regulated lncRNA in PDAC samples as well as a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Down-regulated PWAR6 was associated with multiple clinical outcomes, including advanced tumour stage, distant metastasis, and overall survival of PDAC patients. In our cell-based assays, ectopic expression of PWAR6 dramatically repressed PDAC cells proliferation, invasion and migration, accelerated apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. In contrast, depletion of PWAR6 mediated by siRNA exhibited opposite effects on PDAC cell behaviours. In vivo study further validated the anti-tumour role of PWAR6 in PDAC. By taking advantage of available online sources, we also identified YAP1 as a potential PWAR6 target gene. Negative correlation between YAP1 and PWAR6 expressions were observed in both online database and our PDAC samples. Notably, rescue experiments further indicated that YAP1 is an important downstream effector involved in PWAR6-mediated functions. Mechanistically, PWAR6 could bind to methyltransferase EZH2, a core component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) in regulating gene expression, and scaffold EZH2 to the promoter region of YAP1, resulting in epigenetic repression of YAP1. In conclusion, our data manifest the vital roles of PWAR6 in PDAC tumorigenesis and underscore the potential of PWAR6 as a promising target for PDAC diagnosis and therapy.

6.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 38: 116119, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831697

RESUMO

In response to the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, we constructed a hybrid support vector machine (SVM) classification model using a set of publicly posted SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped particle (PP) entry assay repurposing screen data to identify novel potent compounds as a starting point for drug development to treat COVID-19 patients. Two different molecular descriptor systems, atom typing descriptors and 3D fingerprints (FPs), were employed to construct the SVM classification models. Both models achieved reasonable performance, with the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) of 0.84 and 0.82, respectively. The consensus prediction outperformed the two individual models with significantly improved AUC-ROC of 0.91, where the compounds with inconsistent classifications were excluded. The consensus model was then used to screen the 173,898 compounds in the NCATS annotated and diverse chemical libraries. Of the 255 compounds selected for experimental confirmation, 116 compounds exhibited inhibitory activities in the SARS-CoV-2 PP entry assay with IC50 values ranged between 0.17 µM and 62.2 µM, representing an enrichment factor of 3.2. These 116 active compounds with diverse and novel structures could potentially serve as starting points for chemistry optimization for COVID-19 drug discovery.

7.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e22786, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844371

RESUMO

Liver diseases are a major health issue in both men and women and cause significant mortality worldwide. The hepatoprotective effects of kirenol were evaluated in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells and ethanol (EtOH)- induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The cytotoxicity of kirenol (IC50 , 25 µM/ml) and APAP (20 µg/ml) with sylimarin (IC50 , 15 µg/ml) was observed in HepG2 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, suproxide dismutase, and catalase were assayed. Rats were administered a different dose (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg/day) for a period of 4 weeks before a single dose of EtOH (40% vol/vol) 3 g/kg/day. EtOH administered rats appeared to have lower body weight gain, severe hepatic and kidney damage as proved by elevated aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, increased malondialdehyde (MDA), and inflammatory markers, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Results showed that the kirenol treatment enhanced the GSH and reduced MDA in the liver and renal tissues and restored TNF-α and IL-6. Histoanalysis proved the protective effects of kirenol. In conclusion, it was proved that the kirenol demonstrated a hepato-protective effect in APAP- and EtOH-induced liver toxicity in HepG2 cells and rats, respectively.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8833098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815662

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequently occurring microvascular complication induced by long-term hyperglycemia. Pericyte-endothelial cell crosstalk is critical for maintaining vascular homeostasis and remodeling; however, the molecular mechanism underlying that crosstalk remains unknown. In this study, we explored the crosstalk that occurs between endothelial cells and pericytes in response to diabetic retinopathy. Pericytes were stimulated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to activate the HIF pathway. Hypoxia-stimulated pericytes were cocultured with high glucose- (HG-) induced endotheliocytes. Cell viability was determined using the CCK-8 assay. Western blot studies were performed to detect the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis, hypoxia, and inflammation. ELISA assays were conducted to analyze the release of IL-1ß and IL-18. We performed a circRNA microarray analysis of exosomal RNAs expressed under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. A FISH assay was performed to identify the location of circEhmt1 in pericytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) was used to identify the specific DNA-binding site on the NFIA-NLRP3 complex. We found that pericyte survival was negatively correlated with the angiogenesis activity of endotheliocytes. We also found that hypoxia upregulated circEhmt1 expression in pericytes, and circEhmt1 could be transferred from pericytes to endotheliocytes via exosomes. Moreover, circEhmt1 overexpression protected endotheliocytes against HG-induced injury in vitro. Mechanistically, circEhmt1 was highly expressed in the nucleus of pericytes and could upregulate the levels of NFIA (a transcription factor) to suppress NLRP3-mediated inflammasome formation. Our study revealed a critical role for circEhmt1-mediated NFIA/NLRP3 signaling in retinal microvascular dysfunction and suggests that signaling pathway as a target for treating DR.

9.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has been widely used for type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with overweight or obesity. However, the long-term outcomes of RYGB versus medical therapy have not been well compared. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of RYGB versus medical therapy for patients with T2D. SETTING: University-affiliated hospital, China. METHODS: Four electronic databases-PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov-were searched for articles published through February 2021. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: Of 7 randomized controlled trials (15 articles), 477 patients were included: 239 were randomly divided into RYGB groups and 238 to medical therapy groups. Statistically higher rates of T2D remission were observed in RYGB groups at 1 year (relative risk [RR], 18.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.53- 71.70; P < .0001), 3 years (RR, 29.58; 95% CI, 5.92-147.82; P < .0001), and 5 years (RR, 16.92; 95% CI, 4.15-69.00; P < .0001). Meanwhile, statistically higher rates of achieving the American Diabetes Association's (ADA's) treatment goal were observed in RYGB groups at 1 year (RR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.01-15.82; P = .05), 2 years (RR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.62- 5.48; P = .0004), 3 years (RR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.33-7.49; P = .009), and 5 years (RR, 6.18; 95% CI, 1.69-22.68; P = .006). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicated that RYGB led to higher rates of T2D remission than medical therapy at 1, 3, and 5 years, as well as higher rates of achieving ADA's composite goal at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years.

10.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864177

RESUMO

The fish abnormal embryonic development has attracted public attention in the recent few years. In this study, an iTRAQ proteomic analysis of mosquitofish between conjoined twins and normal fishes is applied for the first time by using the genome database of mosquitofish. Three thousand four hundred ninety proteins were identified with 304 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). One hundred six differentially upregulated proteins (DUPs) and 198 differentially downregulated proteins (DDPs) were identified between the conjoined twins and normal mosquitofish groups. Notably, the proteins related to lipid and proteolysis were the important GO terms for the DUPs while response to light stimulus and response to radiation were the most enriched GO terms for the DDPs. The proteins related to lysosome, apoptosis, autophagy, and phagosome were the functional KEGG pathway for the DUPs while most of the pathways were related to cardiovascular for the DDPs. This study expatiated a pivotal protein profile between the conjoined twins and normal mosquitofish which can provide a conference for fish embryonic development.

11.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763978

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was aimed to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) would increase the secretion of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from injured spinal cord tissue, and, if so, whether the increased NT-3 would promote the survival, differentiation, and migration of grafted tyrosine kinase C (TrkC)-modified mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived neural network cells. We next sought to determine if the latter would integrate with the host spinal cord neural circuit to improve the neurological function of injured spinal cord. METHODS: After NT-3-modified Schwann cells (SCs) and TrkC-modified MSCs were co-cultured in a gelatin sponge scaffold for 14 days, the MSCs differentiated into neuron-like cells that formed a MSC-derived neural network (MN) implant. On this basis, we combined the MN implantation with EA in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) and performed immunohistochemical staining, neural tracing, electrophysiology, and behavioral testing after 8 weeks. RESULTS: Electroacupuncture application enhanced the production of endogenous NT-3 in damaged spinal cord tissues. The increase in local NT-3 production promoted the survival, migration, and maintenance of the grafted MN, which expressed NT-3 high-affinity TrkC. The combination of MN implantation and EA application improved cortical motor-evoked potential relay and facilitated the locomotor performance of the paralyzed hindlimb compared with those of controls. These results suggest that the MN was better integrated into the host spinal cord neural network after EA treatment compared with control treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Electroacupuncture as an adjuvant therapy for TrkC-modified MSC-derived MN, acted by increasing the local production of NT-3, which accelerated neural network reconstruction and restoration of spinal cord function following SCI.

12.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769083

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus is a common foodborne pathogen that can cause both gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal diseases. In this study, we collected 603 meat and meat products from 39 major cities in China. The positive contamination rate of B. cereus in the collected samples was 26.37% (159/603), and the contamination level in 5.03% (8/159) positive samples exceeded 1100 most probable number/g. The detection rates of virulence genes were 89.7% for the nheABC gene group, 37.1% for the hblACD gene cluster, 82.3% for cytK-2, and 2.9% for cesB. Notably, all isolates presented with multiple antibiotic resistance, and 99.43% of isolates were resistant to five classes of antibiotics. In addition, the multilocus sequence typing results indicated that all isolates were rich in genetic diversity. Collectively, we conducted a systematic investigation on the prevalence and characterization of B. cereus in meat and meat products in China, providing crucial information for assessing the risk of B. cereus occurrence in meat and meat products.

13.
Zootaxa ; 4926(2): zootaxa.4926.2.7, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756752

RESUMO

The larvae of Caliphaea angka Hämäläinen, 2003 and Mnais gregoryi Fraser, 1924 are described and illustrated for the first time from Erhai lake Basin, Yunnan Province, China. Notes on their habitat are provided. This paper represents the first verified description of the larva of Caliphaea Hagen in Selys, 1859.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , China , Lagos , Larva
14.
Med Oncol ; 38(5): 49, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772655

RESUMO

Increasing evidence demonstrated that alternative splicing (AS) plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and clinical outcome of patient. However, systematical analysis of AS in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is lacking and greatly necessary. Thus, this study was to systematically estimate the function of AS events served as prognostic indicators in LUSC. Among 31,345 mRNA AS events in 9633 genes, we detected 1996 AS in 1409 genes which have significant connection with overall survival (OS) of LUSC patients. Then, prognostic model based on seven types of AS events was established and we further constructed a combined prognostic model. The Kaplan-Meier curve results suggested that seven types of AS signatures and the combined prognostic model could exhibit robust performance in predicting prognosis. Patients in the high-risk group had significantly shorter OS than those in the low-risk group. The ROC showed all prognostic models had high accuracy and powerful predictive performance with different AUC ranging from 0.837 to 0.978. Moreover, the combined prognostic model had highest performance in risk stratification and predictive accuracy than single prognostic models and had higher accuracy than other mRNA model. Finally, a significant correlation network between survival-related AS genes and prognostic splicing factors (SFs) was established. In conclusion, our study provided several potential prognostic AS models and constructed splicing network between AS and SFs in LUSC, which could be used as potential indicators and treatment targets for LUSC patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787205

RESUMO

Recent advances in high-entropy alloys have spurred many breakthroughs in the fields of high-temperature materials and optical materials and they provide incredible application potentialities for photothermal conversion systems. Solar-selective absorbers (SSAs), as key components, play a vital role in photothermal conversion efficiency and service life. The most pressing problem with SSAs is their inconsistent optical performance, an instability constraint induced by thermal stress. A feasible method of improving performance stability is the introduction of high-entropy materials, such as high-entropy alloy nitrides. In this study, enabled by an intrinsic MoTaTiCrN absorption layer, the solar configuration achieves greatly enhanced, exceptional thermotolerance and optical properties, leading to the formation of a scalable, highly efficient, and cost-effective structure. Computational and experimental approaches are employed to achieve optimum preparation parameters for thicknesses and constituents. The crystal structure of high-entropy ceramic MoTaTiCrN is fully investigated, including thickness-dependent crystal nucleation. High-temperature and long-term thermal stability tests demonstrate that our proposed SSA is mechanically robust and chemically stable. Moreover, a low thermal emittance (15.86%) at 500 °C promotes the photothermal conversion efficiency. In addition, due to the exceptional spectral selectivity (α/ε = 92.3/6.5%), thermal robustness (550 °C for 168 h), and photothermal conversion efficiency (86.9% at 550 °C under 100 sun), it is possible for our proposed SSA to enhance the practical realization of large-area photothermal conversion applications, especially for concentrated solar power systems.

16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 40: 127906, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689873

RESUMO

Zika virus has emerged as a potential threat to human health globally. A previous drug repurposing screen identified the approved anthelminthic drug niclosamide as a small molecule inhibitor of Zika virus infection. However, as antihelminthic drugs are generally designed to have low absorption when dosed orally, the very limited bioavailability of niclosamide will likely hinder its potential direct repurposing as an antiviral medication. Here, we conducted SAR studies focusing on the anilide and salicylic acid regions of niclosamide to improve physicochemical properties such as microsomal metabolic stability, permeability and solubility. We found that the 5-bromo substitution in the salicylic acid region retains potency while providing better drug-like properties. Other modifications in the anilide region with 2'-OMe and 2'-H substitutions were also advantageous. We found that the 4'-NO2 substituent can be replaced with a 4'-CN or 4'-CF3 substituents. Together, these modifications provide a basis for optimizing the structure of niclosamide to improve systemic exposure for application of niclosamide analogs as drug lead candidates for treating Zika and other viral infections. Indeed, key analogs were also able to rescue cells from the cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection, indicating relevance for therapeutic strategies targeting the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Life Sci ; 276: 119402, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785335

RESUMO

In our previous study, we observed that donor pulmonary intravascular nonclassical monocytes play a major role in early PGF, but the specific mechanism remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic role of monocytes in inducing pyroptosis of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) during IRI. A murine hilar ligation model of IRI was utilized whereby left lungs underwent 1 h of ischemia and 23 h of reperfusion. Monocyte depletion by intraperitoneal clodronate-liposome treatment on pulmonary edema and pyroptosis activation were determined. In vitro experiments, we performed the co-culture experiments under hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) conditions to mimic the IRI environment. We monitored the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1ß in co-cultures of monocytes (U937 cells) and HPMECs under H/R conditions. NLRP3, IL-1ß and IL-1R siRNA knockdown, caspase-1 and NF-κB pathway inhibitors were employed to elucidate the mechanism modulating HPMEC pyroptosis during H/R. Treatment of mice with clodronate-liposome attenuated IR-induced pulmonary edema, cytokine production and pyroptosis activation. In vitro, NLRP3 knockdown in monocytes reduced caspase-1 and IL-1ß secretion in co-cultures of monocytes and HPMECs. Reduced HPMEC pyroptosis was also observed either containing HPMECs with genetically engineered IL-1R knockdown or in co-culture treated with a Triplotide inhibitor that disrupts NF-κB signaling. Monocytes play a vital role in the development of transplant-associated ischemia-reperfusion injury. A potential role is that monocytes secrete IL-1ß to induce HPMEC pyroptosis via the IL-1R/NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247074, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility of use of radiomic features extracted from axillary lymph nodes for diagnosis of their metastatic status in patients with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 176 axillary lymph nodes of patients with breast cancer, consisting of 87 metastatic axillary lymph nodes (ALNM) and 89 negative axillary lymph nodes proven by surgery, were retrospectively reviewed from the database of our cancer center. For each selected axillary lymph node, 106 radiomic features based on preoperative pharmacokinetic modeling dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (PK-DCE-MRI) and 5 conventional image features were obtained. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used to select useful radiomic features. Logistic regression was used to develop diagnostic models for ALNM. Delong test was used to compare the diagnostic performance of different models. RESULTS: The 106 radiomic features were reduced to 4 ALNM diagnosis-related features by LASSO. Four diagnostic models including conventional model, pharmacokinetic model, radiomic model, and a combined model (integrating the Rad-score in the radiomic model with the conventional image features) were developed and validated. Delong test showed that the combined model had the best diagnostic performance: area under the curve (AUC), 0.972 (95% CI [0.947-0.997]) in the training cohort and 0.979 (95% CI [0.952-1]) in the validation cohort. The diagnostic performance of the combined model and the radiomic model were better than that of pharmacokinetic model and conventional model (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Radiomic features extracted from PK-DCE-MRI images of axillary lymph nodes showed promising application for diagnosis of ALNM in patients with breast cancer.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5260, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664278

RESUMO

Aphids are infected by a series of bacteria that can help them survive on specific host plants. However, the associations between aphids and these bacteria are not clear, and the bacterial communities in many aphid species are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) on 2 representative winter host plants and transferred to 3 summer host plants by 16S rDNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Our results revealed that the bacterial communities varied among cotton aphids on hibiscus, cotton aphids on pomegranate, cotton aphids on cotton transferred from hibiscus, cotton aphids on muskmelon transferred from hibiscus, cotton aphids on cucumber transferred from hibiscus,. The diversity and richness of the bacterial communities were significantly higher in aphids on muskmelon and aphids on cucumber than in the other treatments. There were two main factors influencing the distribution of internal bacterial OTUs revealed by principal component analysis, including the differences among Punicaceae, Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. There were 28 bacterial communities with significant differences between two arbitrary treatments, which could be grouped into 6 main clusters depending on relative abundance. Moreover, our results indicated that in addition to the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera, with a dominant position (> 52%), A. gossypii also harbored 3 facultative endosymbiotic bacteria (Serratia, Arsenophonus, and Wolbachia) and 3 possibly symbiotic bacteria (Acinetobacter, Pantoea, and Flavobacterium). There were several correspondences between the symbiotic bacteria in cotton aphids and the specific host plants of the aphids. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions among symbiotic bacteria, aphids and host plants, suggesting that the selection pressure on aphid bacterial communities is likely to be exerted by the species of host plants.

20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 620372, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732661

RESUMO

Objectives: Distinguishing flares from bacterial infections in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients remains a challenge. This study aimed to build a model, using multiple blood cells and plasma indicators, to improve the identification of bacterial infections in SLE. Design: Building PLS-DA/OPLS-DA models and a bioscore system to distinguish bacterial infections from lupus flares in SLE. Setting: Department of Rheumatology of the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University. Participants: SLE patients with flares (n = 142) or bacterial infections (n = 106) were recruited in this retrospective study. Outcome: The peripheral blood of these patients was collected by the experimenter to measure the levels of routine examination indicators, immune cells, and cytokines. PLS-DA/OPLS-DA models and a bioscore system were established. Results: Both PLS-DA (R2Y = 0.953, Q2 = 0.931) and OPLS-DA (R2Y = 0.953, Q2 = 0.942) models could clearly identify bacterial infections in SLE. The white blood cell (WBC), neutrophile granulocyte (NEUT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels were significantly higher in bacteria-infected patients, while regulatory T (Treg) cells obviously decreased. A multivariate analysis using the above 10 dichotomized indicators, based on the cut-off value of their respective ROC curve, was established to screen out the independent predictors and calculate their weights to build a bioscore system, which exhibited a strong diagnosis ability (AUC = 0.842, 95% CI 0.794-0.891). The bioscore system showed that 0 and 100% of SLE patients with scores of 0 and 8-10, respectively, were infected with bacteria. The higher the score, the greater the likelihood of bacterial infections in SLE. Conclusions: The PLS-DA/OPLS-DA models, including the above biomarkers, showed a strong predictive ability for bacterial infections in SLE. Combining WBC, NEUT, CRP, PCT, IL-6, and IFN-γ in a bioscore system may result in faster prediction of bacterial infections in SLE and may guide toward a more appropriate, timely treatment for SLE.

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