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1.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378188

RESUMO

In the presence of the chiral Pd(0)/ligand complex, vinyl benzoxazinanones underwent the [4+2] cycloaddition with alkylidene pyrazolones smoothly and delivered spiropyrazolones in reasonable yields, diastereoselectivities, and eneantioselectivities (up to >99% yield, >99:1 dr and 99% ee). The absolute configuration of the obtained spiropyrazolones was unambiguously characterized with the use of X-ray single-crystal structure analysis. Moreover, the reaction mechanism was assumed to interpret the formation of the target compounds.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(44): 12326-12335, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107299

RESUMO

Toona sinensis, popularly known as Chinese toon or Chinese mahogany, is a perennial deciduous arbor belonging to the genus Toona in the Meliaceae family, which is widely distributed and cultivated in eastern and southeastern Asia. Its fresh young leaves and buds have been consumed as a very popular nutritious vegetable in China and confirmed to display a wide variety of biological activities. To investigate the chemical constituents and their potential health benefits from the fresh young leaves and buds of T. sinensis, a phytochemical study on its fresh young leaves and buds was therefore undertaken. In our current investigation, 16 limonoids (1-16), including four new limonoids, toonasinenoids A-D (1-4), and a new naturally occurring limonoid, toonasinenoid E (5), were isolated and characterized from the fresh young leaves and buds of T. sinensis. The chemical structures and absolute configurations of limonoids 1-5 were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic data analyses. All known limonoids (6-16) were identified via comparing their experimental spectral data containing mass spectrometry data, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, and optical rotation values to the data reported in the literature. All known limonoids (6-16) were isolated from T. sinensis for the first time. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of all isolated limonoids 1-16 against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were assessed in vitro. Limonoids 1-16 exhibited notable neuroprotective activities, with EC50 values in the range from 0.27 ± 0.03 to 17.28 ± 0.16 µM. These results suggest that regular consumption of the fresh young leaves and buds of T. sinensis might prevent the occurrence and development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the isolation and characterization of these limonoids that exhibit notable neuroprotective activities from the fresh young leaves and buds of T. sinensis could be very significant for researching and developing new neuroprotective drugs used for the prevention and treatment of PD.

3.
Bioorg Chem ; 102: 104101, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721778

RESUMO

Three new carbazole alkaloids, zanthoaustrones A-C (1-3), as well as nine known compounds 4-12, were isolated and characterized from the roots of Zanthoxylum austrosinense Huang (Rutaceae). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive and comprehensive spectroscopic methods, while the known alkaloids were identified by the comparison of their observed spectroscopic data including NMR data, MS data and optical rotation values with the data described in the literature. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activities as well as the anti-inflammatory effects of all isolated alkaloids in vitro were evaluated. All obtained alkaloids 1-12 displayed notable antiproliferative activities against diverse human cancer cell lines exhibiting IC50 values in range of 0.85 ± 0.06 to 29.56 ± 0.17 µM, which is equivalent to the positive control (cisplatin) showing IC50 values ranging from 1.58 ± 0.09 to 28.69 ± 0.21 µM. Moreover, compounds 1-12 exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values displaying IC50 values in range of 0.89 ± 0.05 to 9.62 ± 0.15 µM, which is comparable to the positive control (hydrocortisone) holding an IC50 value of 4.06 ± 0.11 µM. These findings indicate that the separation and characterization of these alkaloids displaying significant antiproliferative activities together with anti-inflammatory effects from the roots of Z. austrosinense could be meaningful to the research and development of new anti-cancer drugs as well as anti-inflammatory agents.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2024-2030, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037814

RESUMO

Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack tree) is an evergreen fruit tree belonging to the genus Artocarpus (Moraceae), which is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of Asia. Its fruits (jackfruit), well-known as the world's largest tree-borne fruit, are being consumed in our daily diets as a very popular tropical fruit throughout the world and have been confirmed to hold various health benefits. In this study, five new prenylated chromones, artocarheterones A-E (1-5), as well as seven known prenylated chromones (6-12) were purified and isolated from the ripe fruits of A. heterophyllus (jackfruit). Their chemical structures were determined through comprehensive spectroscopic methods. This is the first report on prenylated chromones isolated from A. heterophyllus. The anti-HIV-1 effects of all isolated chromones were assessed in vitro. As a result, prenylated chromones (1-12) showed remarkable anti-HIV-1 effects with EC50 values ranging from 0.09 to 9.72 µM. These research results indicate that the isolation and characterization of these prenylated chromones with remarkable anti-HIV-1 activities from the ripe fruits of A. heterophyllus could be significant to the discovery and development of new anti-HIV-1 drugs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Artocarpus/química , Cromonas/química , Cromonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Frutas/química , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Estrutura Molecular , Prenilação
5.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(24): 3499-3505, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931625

RESUMO

The investigation on the stems and leaves of Clausena sanki led to the isolation of a previously undescribed bisabolane sesquiterpene, clausemargic A (1), together with six known analogues (2-7). The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and the known compounds were identified by comparisons with data reported in the literature. All known compounds (2-7) were isolated from C. sanki for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities via examining the inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Compounds 1-7 showed significant inhibitory activities with IC50 values comparable to that of hydrocortisone.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 11942-11947, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622090

RESUMO

Manilkara zapota, usually known as Sapodilla, is a fairly slow-growing evergreen tropical tree which belongs to the genus Manilkara (Sapotaceae), indigenous to Central America, southern Mexico, and the Caribbean. The ripe fruits of M. zapota have been widely consumed as an uniquely flavored tropical fruit and verified to hold a variety of health benefits. In order to investigate the potential health-promoting chemical compositions from the fruits of M. zapota cultivated in Hainan Island of China, a systematic and in-depth phytochemical study on this fruit was accordingly implemented. In our current study, three new prenylated coumarins, manizapotins A-C (1-3), together with seven known prenylated coumarins (4-10), were separated from the fruits of M. zapota. The chemical structures of new prenylated coumarins 1-3 were unambiguously established by means of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and the known compounds 4-10 were determined by comparing their experimental spectral data with those described data in the literature. This is the first time to discover prenylated coumarins occurring in M. zapota. The potential anti-inflammatory effects and anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) activities of all these separated prenylated coumarins were assessed. Prenylated coumarins 1-10 dispalyed remarkable inhibitory effects against nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with the IC50 values equivalent to that of hydrocortisone in vitro. Meanwhile, prenylated coumarins 1-10 exhibited pronounced anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activities with the EC50 values in range of 0.12-8.69 µM. These results suggest that appropriate and reasonable consumption of the fruits of M. zapota might assist people to prevent and reduce the occurrence of inflammatory diseases together with the infection of HIV. Furthermore, the discovery of these prenylated coumarins from the fruits of M. zapota holding pronounced anti-inflammatory effects along with anti-HIV activities could be of great significance to the research and development of new natural anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV agents.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Cumarínicos/química , Manilkara/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , China , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/enzimologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prenilação , Células RAW 264.7
7.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523980

RESUMO

The investigation on the stems and leaves of Clausena lenis led to the isolation of a previously undescribed carbazole alkaloid, clausenalenine A (1), along with seven known analogues (2-8). The structure of 1 was elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and the known compounds were identified by comparisons with data reported in the literatures. All known compounds (2-8) were isolated from C. lenis for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their neuroprotective activities against 6-hydroxydopamine induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. Compounds 1-8 showed significant neuroprotective effects with EC50 values ranging from 0.68 to 18.76 µM.

8.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103278, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541802

RESUMO

Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels is an evergreen small tree or shrub with great economic value, which belongs to the genus Clausena of the Rutaceae family. C. lansium is indigenous to Southern China, while currently widely cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions not only for the nutritional value and pharmacological uses of its fruits but also as a medicinal and ornamental plant. In this study, a systematic phytochemical study on the stems and leaves of C. lansium caused the separation and identification of two new geranylated carbazole alkaloids, clauselansiumines A (1) and B (2), as well as 10 known geranylated carbazole alkaloids (3-12). The chemical structures of these isolated geranylated carbazole alkaloids (1-12) were unambiguously determined based on comprehensive spectral data analyses. All these isolated geranylated carbazole alkaloids were tested for their neuroprotective effects against 6-hydroxydopamine induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. Compounds 1-12 displayed remarkable neuroprotective effects holding the EC50 values ranging from 0.48 ±â€¯0.04 to 12.36 ±â€¯0.16 µM. These research results disclosed that the separation and purification of these geranylated carbazole alkaloids possessing remarkable neuroprotective effects separated from C. lansium could be extremely important to the discovery of new agents for the treatment and prevention for Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Clausena/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2096-2101, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355567

RESUMO

The chemical constituents from the stems and leaves of Clausena emarginata were separated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20,and PR-HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis,as well as comparisons with the data reported in the literature. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the 90% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of C. emarginata,which were identified as siamenol( 1),murrastanine A( 2),3-formyl-1,6-dimethoxycarbazole( 3),3-methoxymethylcarbazole( 4),3-methylcarbazole( 5),murrayafoline A( 6),3-formylcarbazole( 7),3-formyl-1-hydroxycarbazole( 8),3-formyl-6-methoxycarbazole( 9),murrayanine( 10),murrayacine( 11),girinimbine( 12),nordentatin( 13),chalepin( 14),8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-pentylisocoumarin( 15) and ethyl orsellinate( 16). Compounds 1-4,14-16 were isolated from C. emarginata for the first time. Among them,compounds 1,2,15 and 16 were isolated from the genus Clausena for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60,SMMC-7721,A-549,MCF-7 and SW480 in vitro. Compounds 12 and 14 showed significant inhibitory effects against various human cancer cell lines with IC_(50) values comparable to those of doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Clausena/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(20): 5764-5771, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083994

RESUMO

Clausena lansium, also known as wampee, is a species of strongly scented evergreen trees belonging to the genus Clausena (Rutaceae), which is native to southern China. Its ripe fruits have been consumed as a very popular fruit and reported to possess a range of biological activities. To study the potential health-promoting constituents from the fruits of C. lansium, a chemical investigation on its fruits was thus carried out. In this study, 16 carbazole alkaloids (1-16), including six new carbazole alkaloids, clausenalansines A-F (1-6), were separated from the fruits of C. lansium. The molecular structures of these isolated new carbazole alkaloids (1-6) were ambiguously established on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The known analogues (7-16) were determined via comparing their experimental data with those described in the literature, which were separated from C. lansium for the first time. All these isolated alkaloids were tested in vitro for their neuroprotective effects against 6-hydroxydopamine induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Carbazole alkaloids 1-16 displayed remarkable neuroprotective effects possessing the EC50 values ranging from 0.36 ± 0.02 to 10.69 ± 0.15 µM. These findings indicate that regular consumption of the fruits of C. lansium may help people prevent the occurrence of Parkinson's disease. In addition, the separation and identification of these carbazole alkaloids possessing remarkable neuroprotective effects from the fruits of C. lansium could be extremely important to the discovery of new agents for the prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Carbazóis/química , Clausena/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Carbazóis/isolamento & purificação , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 4817-4823, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973720

RESUMO

Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant belonging to the genus Ficus of the family Moraceae, native to Western Asia and the Middle East. Its fruits, usually known as common fig or fig, have been consumed as a very popular health-promoting fruit worldwide since ancient times. To investigate the potential health-promoting chemical constituents of the fruits of F. carica, a systematic phytochemical study on its fruits was therefore carried out. In our study, four new structurally diverse prenylated isoflavone derivatives, ficucaricones A-D (1-4), along with 12 known analogues (5-16) were separated from the fruits of F. carica. Their chemical structures were ambiguously elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic methods. The anti-inflammatory effects and antiproliferative activities of these isolated prenylated isoflavone derivatives were tested. Prenylated isoflavone derivatives (1-16) displayed remarkable inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production with the IC50 values ranging from 0.89 ± 0.05 to 8.49 ± 0.18 µM, comparable to that of the positive control (hydrocortisone). Furthermore, compounds 1-16 also exhibited pronounced antiproliferative activities against diverse human cancer cell lines in vitro, holding the IC50 values ranging from 0.18 ± 0.03 to 18.76 ± 0.09 µM. These findings indicate that regular consumption of the fruits of F. carica may help to prevent the occurrence of inflammatory diseases and tumors. Moreover, the isolation and characterization of these prenylated isoflavone derivatives possessing remarkable anti-inflammatory effects and antiproliferative activities could be meaningful to the discovery of new anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Ficus/química , Inibidores do Crescimento/química , Isoflavonas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Inibidores do Crescimento/farmacologia , Humanos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prenilação , Células RAW 264.7
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(66): 9178-9181, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062358

RESUMO

Under the catalysis of Pd2(dba)3 (2.5 mol%), PPh3 (10.0 mol%) and TMSCl (1.0 eq.), the formal [5+2] cycloaddition of vinylethylene carbonates to oxazol-5-(4H)-ones proceeded readily in THF at 60 °C to r.t., thus furnishing 3,4-dihydrooxepin-2(7H)-ones in 67-99% chemical yields. The chemical structure of one compound was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, and the others were suggested by inference.

13.
J Org Chem ; 83(16): 9291-9299, 2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019580

RESUMO

Under the catalysis of chiral palladium(0)/ligand complex, the [4 + 2] cycloaddition between vinyl benzoxazinanones and barbiturate-based olefins proceeded readily and provided barbiturate-fused spirotetrahydroquinolines in up to 96% chemical yield with up to >99:1 dr and 97% ee. The absolute configuration of barbiturate-fused spirotetrahydroquinolines was clearly identified by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. The reaction mechanism was proposed to shed light on the enantioselective formation of barbiturate-fused spirotetrahydroquinolines.

14.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 38(2): 619-34, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: As a major complication after thoracic radiotherapy, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) has great impact on long term quality of life and could result in fatal respiratory insufficiency The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Myrtol standardized on RILI, and to investigate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: A mouse model of radiation-induced lung injury was generated by using thoracic irradiation with a single dose of 16Gy. Mice were orally administrated with Myrtol (25 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks after irradiation, while prednisone (5 mg/kg/day) was used as a positive control. After then, the body weight and lung coefficient were calculated. The severity of fibrosis was evaluated by observing pulmonary sections after radiation and collagen content in lung tissues was calculated following the hydroxyproline (HYP) assay. Pathological changes were observed in all the groups by using HE staining and Masson staining. The serum levels of TGF-ß1, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and PGE2 were also measured with an ELISA assay. Western blot assay was used to measure the impact of Myrtol on AKT and its downstream signaling pathway, including MMP-2 and MMP-9. The levels of Vimentin and α-SMA were evaluated with an immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Treatment with Myrtol standardized, but not prednisone, reduced lung coefficient and collagen deposition in lung tissues, while attenuated histological damages induced by irradiation. Myrtol standardized also reduced the production of MDA, while increased the level of SOD. It was also observed that Myrtol standardized inhibited TGF-ß1 and a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, PGE2. While in prednisone group, even though the early pneumonitis was ameliorated, the collagen disposition remained unchanged in latter times. Immunofluorescence analysis also revealed elevation of vimentin and α-SMA in the alveoli after a single dose of 16Gy. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest Myrtol standardized as an effective agent for attenuating the lung injury induced by irradiation.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Animais , Colágeno/análise , Citocinas/análise , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/patologia , Protetores contra Radiação/administração & dosagem , Superóxido Dismutase/análise
15.
Biochem Genet ; 47(3-4): 301-14, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19191020

RESUMO

Nicotiana rustica L. HZNH, a native Chinese tobacco germplasm, displays a hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance following infection with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). A resistance gene, CN, cloned from HZNH plants, was homologous to the N and NH genes identified in other Nicotiana species. The CN coding region (3423 bp) shares 93.63% and 86.50% nucleotide identity with N and NH, respectively. Whereas the five CN exon sequences are highly homologous with those of N and NH, the four introns differ significantly in length and sequence. Sequence analysis revealed that CN belongs to the TIR/NBS/LRR gene class. Expression of CN was up-regulated after TMV infection and was temperature sensitive. Organ-specific expression analysis suggested that CN transcripts accumulated at high levels in leaves, low levels in stems, and minimal levels in roots. When CN was inserted into TMV-susceptible N. tabacum cv. K326 plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic plants displayed HR and systemic HR due to uninhibited movement of the virus.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/patogenicidade
16.
Yi Chuan ; 30(9): 1115-20, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18779167

RESUMO

In this review of methods for purity assessment of isolated chromosome X- and Y-bearing sperm, we compared the principles, operating procedures, as well as pros and cons for various methods. We conclude that nested PCR of single sperm will become a conventional and popular method with lower costs, and the method will play a very important role in optimizing the X, Y sorting method, if the sensitivity and accuracy of the method can be increased and the testing time decreased, and promote the new progress in other genetic testing techniques on single sperm.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Pré-Seleção do Sexo , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Cromossomo X , Cromossomo Y , Animais , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Cabeça do Espermatozoide , Espermatozoides , Cromossomo X/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética
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