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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131683, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351278

RESUMO

Butachlor being an important member of chloroacetanilide herbicides, is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Exposure to butachlor can induce cancer, human lymphocyte aberration, and immunotoxic effects in animals. The current experimental trial was executed to determine the potential risks of herbicide butachlor to immunotoxicity and its mechanism of adverse effects on the spleen. For this purpose, mice were exposed to 8 mg/kg butachlor for 28 days, and the toxicity of butachlor on the spleen of mice was evaluated. We found that butachlor exposure led to an increase in serum ALB, GLU, TC, TG, and TP and changes in the morphological structure of the spleen of mice. More importantly, results showed that butachlor significantly increased the expression level of ATG-5, decreased the protein expression of LC3B and M-TOR, and significantly decreased the mRNA content of M-TOR and p62. Results revealed that the mRNA contents of APAF-1, CYTC, and CASP-9 related genes were significantly decreased after butachlor treatment. Subsequently, the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-10) were reduced in the spleen of treated mice. This study suggested that butachlor induce spleen toxicity and activate the immune response of spleen tissue by targeting the CYTC/BCL2/M-TOR pathway and caspase cascading activation of spleen autophagy and apoptosis pathways which may ultimately lead to immune system disorders.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Acetanilidas , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Baço
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126899, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418838

RESUMO

Copper (Cu), a hazardous heavy metal, can lead to toxic effects on host physiology. Recently, specific mitochondria-localized miRNAs (mitomiRs) were shown to modulate mitochondrial function, but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Here, we identified mitomiR-1285 as an important molecule regulating mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy in jejunal epithelial cells under Cu exposure. Mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy were the important mechanisms of Cu-induced pathological damage in jejunal epithelial cells, which were accompanied by significant increase of mitomiR-1285 in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of mitomiR-1285 significantly attenuated Cu-induced mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, ATP deficiency, mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulation, and mitophagy. Subsequently, bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IDH2 was a direct target of mitomiR-1285. RNA interference of IDH2 dramatically reversed the effect that mitomiR-1285 knockdown relieved mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy induced by Cu, and the opposite effect was shown by overexpression of IDH2. Therefore, our results suggested that mitomiR-1285 aggravated Cu-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy via suppressing IDH2 expression. These findings identified the important mechanistic connection between mitomiRs and mitochondrial metabolism under Cu exposure, providing a new insight into Cu toxicology.

3.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9642-9657, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664585

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace mineral, but its excessive intake can lead to potentially toxic effects on host physiology. The mammalian intestine harbors various microorganisms that are associated with intestinal barrier function and inflammation. In this study, the influences of Cu on barrier function, microbiota, and its metabolites were examined in the jejunum and colon of pigs. Here, we identified that the physical and chemical barrier functions were impaired both in the jejunum and colon, as evidenced by the decreased expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Occludin, Claudin-1, and JAM-1) and mucous secretion-related genes, positive rate of Muc2, and secretion of SIgA and SIgG. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines were overexpressed in the jejunum and colon. Furthermore, Cu might increase the abundances of Mycoplasma, Actinobacillus and unidentified_Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum, which significantly affected pentose and glucoronate interconversions, histidine metabolism, folate biosynthesis, porphyrin metabolism, and purine metabolism. Meanwhile, the abundances of Lactobacillus and Methanobrevibacter were remarkably decreased and Streptococcus, unidentified_Enterobacteriaceae, and unidentified_Muribaculaceae were significantly increased in the colon, with an evident impact on glycerophospholipid metabolism, retinol metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. These findings revealed that excess Cu had significant effects on the microbiota and metabolites in the jejunum and colon, which were involved in intestinal barrier dysfunction and inflammation.

4.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704222

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to cause significant economic loss worldwide and remains a serious threat to the pork industry. Currently, vaccination strategies provide limited protection against PRRSV infection, and consequently, new antiviral strategies are urgently required. Andrographolide (Andro) and its derivative potassium dehydrographolide succinate (PDS) have been used clinically in China and other Asian countries as therapies for inflammation-related diseases, including bacterial and viral infections, for decades. Here, we demonstrate that Andro and PDS exhibit robust activity against PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells and primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The two compounds exhibited broad-spectrum inhibitory activities in vitro against clinically circulating type 2 PRRSV GD-HD, XH-GD, and NADC30-like HNhx strains in China. The EC50 values of Andro against three tested PRRSV strain infections in Marc-145 cells ranged from 11.7 to 15.3 µmol/L, with selectivity indexes ranging from 8.3 to 10.8, while the EC50 values of PDS ranged from 57.1 to 85.4 µmol/L, with selectivity indexes ranging from 344 to 515. Mechanistically, the anti-PRRSV activity of the two compounds is closely associated with their potent suppression on NF-κB activation and enhanced oxidative stress induced by PRRSV infection. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that PDS, but not Andro, is able to directly interact with PRRSV particles. Taken together, our findings suggest that Andro and PDS are promising PRRSV inhibitors in vitro and deserves further in vivo studies in swine.

5.
J Anim Ecol ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448211

RESUMO

One of the most intriguing concepts in animal ecology is the reproductive advantages offered by larger body size, and the females prefer to mate with larger males to gain reproductive advantage. Currently, it is not clear how females recognize signs of male 'quality' and what mechanisms are involved in producing offspring with direct or indirect benefits. Our study aims to assess the preferences of females for males in Ophraella communa, determine the reproductive benefits and reveal the underlying mechanism behind this advantage. We demonstrate that male body size is an important determinant in the evolutionary process of O. communa, affecting female mate choice. Moreover, our study establishes that females prefer males with a larger body size, and this could further improve the developmental and reproductive fitness of their offspring. Finally, we focus on the seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) in O. communa, determine differentially expressed genes (i.e. OcACE, OcCBP and OcSFP) by analysing their proteomes and transcriptomes, and define the role of these SFPs-related genes through RNAi. Our study proved that the reproductive benefit of large males may be regulated by biased expression of crucial SFPs genes. The present study advances our understanding of the biological significance of preferential mating.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112587, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352579

RESUMO

Cu is a metallic element that widely spread over in the environment, which have raised wide concerns about the potential toxic effects and public health threat. The objective of this study aimed to investigate the impression of copper (Cu)-triggered toxicity on mitochondrial dynamic, oxidative stress, and unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in fundic gland of pigs. Weaned pigs were randomly distributed into three groups, fed with different Cu of 10 mg/kg (control group), 125 mg/kg (group I), and 250 mg/kg (group Ⅱ). The trial persisted for 80 days and the fundic gland tissues were collected for further researches. Moreover, the markers participated to mitochondrial dynamic, UPRmt,and oxidative stress in fundic gland were determined. Results revealed that vacuolar degeneration were observed in the treated groups contrast with control group, and the Cu level was boosted with the increasing intake of Cu. Besides that, the levels of CAT, TRX, H2O2, and G6PDH were reduced in group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ, the mRNA levels of NRF2, HO-1, SOD-1, CAT, SOD-2, GSR, GPX1, GPX4, and TRX in the treated groups were promoted contrast to control group. Furthermore, the protein expression of KEAP1 was dramatically decreased, and the protein expression of NRF2, TRX and HO-1 were markedly enhanced in group Ⅰ and Ⅱ at 80 days. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of MFN1, MFN2, and OPA1 down-regulated and protein level of DRP1 was increased with the adding levels of Cu. Nevertheless, the UPRmt-related mRNA levels of CLPP, HTRA-2, CHOP, HSP10, and HSP60 were enhanced dramatically in Cu treatment group compared with control group. In general, our current study demonstrated that excessive absorption of Cu in fundic gland were related with stimulating UPRmt, oxidative stress, and the NRF2 interceded antioxidant defense. These results could afford an updated evidence on molecular theory of Cu-invited toxicity.


Assuntos
Cobre , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112662, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411823

RESUMO

Fluorine being a well-known and essential element for normal physiological functions of tissues of different organisms is frequently used for growth and development of body. The mechanisms of adverse and injurious impacts of fluoride are not clear and still are under debate. Therefore, this study was executed to ascertain the potential mechanisms of sodium fluoride in liver tissues of ducks. For this purpose, a total of 14 ducks were randomly divided and kept in two groups including control group and sodium fluoride treated group. The ducks in control group were fed with normal diet while the ducks in other group were exposed to sodium fluoride (750 mg/kg) for 28 days. The results showed that exposure to sodium fluoride induced deleterious effects in different liver tissues of ducks. The results indicated that mRNA levels of Cas-3, Cas-9, p53, Apaf-1, Bax and Cyt-c were increased in treated ducks with significantly higher mRNA level of Cas-9 and lower levels of the mRNA level of Bcl-2 as compared to untreated control group (P < 0.01). The results showed that protein expression levels of Bax and p53 were increased while protein expression level of Bcl-2 was reduced in treated ducks. No difference was observed in protein expression level of Cas-3 between treated and untreated ducks. The results of this study suggest that sodium fluoride damages the normal structure of liver and induces abnormal process of apoptosis in hepatocyte, which provide a new idea for elucidating the mechanisms of sodium fluoride induced hepatotoxicity in ducks.

8.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(5): 306-310, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384669

RESUMO

A 19-year-old male patient who suffered from sudden and repeated multiple organ dysfunction syndrome one month after the bar removal procedure of Nuss surgery for pectus excavatum was admitted to our department. With organ function supportive treatment, the etiology was finally identified to be a bone spur located at the inner border of the left costa due to repeated friction between the implanted steel bar and the rib, which damaged the heart repeatedly and induced the consequent acute cardiac tamponade. After operation, the patient was successfully managed and discharged. Follow-ups till three years indicated a good recovery.


Assuntos
Tórax em Funil , Adulto , Tórax em Funil/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Inorg Biochem ; 224: 111581, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419760

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is one of the ubiquitous environmental pollutants which have raised wide concerns about the potential toxic effects and public health threat. For deeply investigating the nephrotoxicity induced by Cu, the effects of Cu on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in kidney were first to analyze by combining metabolomics and molecular biology techniques. In this study, broiler chicks were fed with different contents of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg/kg Cu) for 49 d. The results of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and transmission electron microscope showed that Cu could induce apoptosis in kidney, characterized by the increasing of TUNEL-positive cells and mitochondrial vacuolation. Additionally, a total of 62 differential metabolites were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and mainly enriched in the metabolic pathways including riboflavin metabolism, glutathione metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism, which were closely to mitochondrial metabolism. Meanwhile, the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and the change of mRNA and protein expression levels associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial dynamics confirmed that Cu could induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Cu induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in kidney. Moreover, this study highlighted the metabolic characteristics of Cu to kidney, which suggested that mitochondrial metabolism could be considered as an important factor influencing toxicity.

10.
Oncol Lett ; 22(2): 630, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267822

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most lethal cancer in the world. Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), a mitochondrial chaperone that maintains mitochondrial proteostasis, is highly expressed in tumors compared with in paracancerous tissues, suggesting that high HSP60 expression benefits tumor growth. To determine the effects of HSP60 expression on tumor progression, stable HSP60-knockdown HCT116 cells were constructed in the present study, revealing that knockdown of HSP60 inhibited cell proliferation. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial proteins were downregulated, indicating that knockdown of HSP60 disrupted mitochondrial homeostasis. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that cellular adenine levels were >30-fold higher in HSP60-knockdown cells than in control cells. It was further confirmed that elevated adenine activated the AMPK signaling pathway, which inhibited mTOR-regulated protein synthesis to slow down cell proliferation. Overall, the current results provide a valuable resource for understanding mitochondrial function in CRC, suggesting that HSP60 may be a potential target for CRC intervention.

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045886, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study quantified how the efficiency of testing and contact tracing impacts the spread of COVID-19. The average time interval between infection and quarantine, whether asymptomatic cases are tested or not, and initial delays to beginning a testing and tracing programme were investigated. SETTING: We developed a novel individual-level network model, called CoTECT (Testing Efficiency and Contact Tracing model for COVID-19), using key parameters from recent studies to quantify the impacts of testing and tracing efficiency. The model distinguishes infection from confirmation by integrating a 'T' compartment, which represents infections confirmed by testing and quarantine. The compartments of presymptomatic (E), asymptomatic (I), symptomatic (Is), and death with (F) or without (f) test confirmation were also included in the model. Three scenarios were evaluated in a closed population of 3000 individuals to mimic community-level dynamics. Real-world data from four Nordic countries were also analysed. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Simulation result: total/peak daily infections and confirmed cases, total deaths (confirmed/unconfirmed by testing), fatalities and the case fatality rate. Real-world analysis: confirmed cases and deaths per million people. RESULTS: (1) Shortening the duration between Is and T from 12 to 4 days reduces infections by 85.2% and deaths by 88.8%. (2) Testing and tracing regardless of symptoms reduce infections by 35.7% and deaths by 46.2% compared with testing only symptomatic cases. (3) Reducing the delay to implementing a testing and tracing programme from 50 to 10 days reduces infections by 35.2% and deaths by 44.6%. These results were robust to sensitivity analysis. An analysis of real-world data showed that tests per case early in the pandemic are critical for reducing confirmed cases and the fatality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing testing delays will help to contain outbreaks. These results provide policymakers with quantitative evidence of efficiency as a critical value in developing testing and contact tracing strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112395, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102394

RESUMO

Copper (Cu), one of the heavy metals, is far beyond the carrying capacity of the environment with Cu mining, industrial wastewater discharging and the use of Cu-containing pesticides. Intaking excess Cu can cause toxic effects on liver, kidney, heart, but few studies report Cu toxicity on brain tissue. It is noteworthy that most toxicity tests are based on rodent models, but large mammals chosen as animal models has no reported. To explore the relationship of the Cu toxicity and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis on hypothalamus in pigs, the content of Cu, histomorphology, mitochondrial related indicators, apoptosis, and AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway were detected. Results showed that Cu could accumulate in hypothalamus and lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, evidenced by the decrease of ATP production, activities of respiratory chain complex I-IV, and mitochondrial respiratory function in Cu-treated groups. Additionally, the genes and proteins expression of Bax, Caspase-3, Cytc in treatment group were higher than control group. Furthermore, the protein level of p-AMPK was enhanced significantly and p-mTOR was declined, which manifested that AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway was activated in Cu-treated groups. In conclusion, this study illuminated that the accumulation of Cu could cause mitochondrial dysfunction, induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and activate AMPK-mTOR pathway in hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 656641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177801

RESUMO

Objective: A low concentration of plasma triiodothyronine (T3) indicates euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), which could be associated with a poor outcome in patients in intensive care units (ICUs). This study evaluated the relationship between ESS and prognostic indicators in patients admitted to an ICU and examined the free T3 (FT3) cut-off points that could be associated with 28-day mortality. Methods: This prospective observational study included patients admitted to the ICU of The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University between February and November 2018. Baseline variables and data on the occurrence of low FT3 were collected. The patients were divided into ESS (FT3 < 3.28 pmol/L) and non-ESS groups. The relationship between ESS and prognostic indicators in patients admitted to the ICU was evaluated, and the FT3 cut-off points that could be associated with 28-day mortality were examined. Results: Out of a total of 305 patients, 118 (38.7%) were in the ESS group. Levels of FT3 (P < 0.001) and FT4 (P = 0.001) were lower, while the 28-day mortality rate (P < 0.001) and hospitalization expenses in the ICU (P = 0.001) were higher in the ESS group. A univariable analysis identified ESS, FT3, free thyroxine (FT4)/FT3, the APACHE II score, the sequential organ failure (SOFA) score, the duration of mechanical ventilation, creatinine (CREA) levels, the oxygenation index (HGB), white blood cells, albumin (ALB) levels, age, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels as factors associated with 28-day mortality (all P < 0.05). The cut-off value of FT3 for 28-day mortality was 2.88 pmol/L, and the 28-day mortality rate and hospitalization expenses in the ICU were higher in patients with ESS. The syndrome was confirmed to be independently associated with 28-day mortality. Conclusion: This study determined the incidence of ESS in the comprehensive ICU to be 38.7%. APACHE II, SOFA, BNP, APTT, HGB, PLT, CREA, ALB, FT4, SBP, and DBP are closely related to ESS, while BNP, PLT, and ALB are independent risk factors for the syndrome.

15.
Food Funct ; 12(11): 4855-4863, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960999

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant in water and soil, causes environmental nephrosis. To reveal the toxic effect of ATR on the kidney and the potential chemical nephroprotective effect of lycopene (LYC), Kun-Ming mice of specific pathogen-free (SPF) grade were treated with LYC (5 mg kg-1) and/or ATR (50 mg kg-1 or 200 mg kg-1) for 21 days. The degree of renal injury was evaluated by measuring the ion concentration, ATPase activities and the mRNA expressions/levels of associated ATPase subunits. In addition, the expression of renal aquaporins (AQPs) was analyzed. The results showed that the renal tubular epithelial cells of ATR-exposed mice were swollen, the glomeruli were significantly atrophied, and the ion concentrations were obviously changed. The activity of Na+-K+-ATPase and the transcription of its subunits were downregulated. The activity of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase and the transcription of its subunits were upregulated. The expression of AQPs, especially the critical AQP2, was affected. Notably, ATR-induced nephrotoxicity was significantly improved by LYC supplementation. Therefore, LYC could protect the kidney against ATR-induced nephrotoxicity via maintaining ionic homeostasis, reversing the changes in ATPase activity and controlling the expression of AQPs on the cell membrane. These results suggested that AQP2 was a target of LYC and protected against ATR-induced renal ionic homeostasis disturbance.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 2/metabolismo , Atrazina/efeitos adversos , Homeostase , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Licopeno/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Atrazina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
16.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130222, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794430

RESUMO

Fluorine (F) and its compounds produced from industrial production and coal combustion can cause air, water and soil contamination, which can accumulate in animals, plants and humans via food chain threatening public health. Fluoride exposure affects liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and reproductive system in humans and animals. Literature regarding fluoride influence on intestinal structure and microbiota composition in ducks is scarce. This study was designed to investigate these effects by using simple and electron microscopy and 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated an impaired structure with reduced relative distribution of goblet cells in the fluoride exposed group. Moreover, the gut microbiota showed a significant decrease in alpha diversity. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla in both control and fluoride-exposed groups. Specifically, fluoride exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the relative abundance of 9 bacterial phyla and 15 bacterial genera. Among them, 4 phyla (Latescibacteria, Dependentiae, Zixibacteria and Fibrobacteres) and 4 genera (Thauera, Hydrogenophaga, Reyranella and Arenimonas) weren't even detectable in the gut microbiota of the ducks. In summary, higher fluoride exposure can significantly damage the intestinal structure and gut microbial composition in ducks.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Patos , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(5): 1331-1346, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891867

RESUMO

Stem cell-based embryo models by cultured pluripotent and extra-embryonic lineage stem cells are novel platforms to model early postimplantation development. We showed that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could form ITS (iPSCs and trophectoderm stem cells) and ITX (iPSCs, trophectoderm stem cells, and XEN cells) embryos, resembling the early gastrula embryo developed in vivo. To facilitate the efficient and unbiased analysis of the stem cell-based embryo model, we set up a machine learning workflow to extract multi-dimensional features and perform quantification of ITS embryos using 3D images collected from a high-content screening system. We found that different PSC lines differ in their ability to form embryo-like structures. Through high-content screening of small molecules and cytokines, we identified that BMP4 best promoted the morphogenesis of the ITS embryo. Our study established an innovative strategy to analyze stem cell-based embryo models and uncovered new roles of BMP4 in stem cell-based embryo models.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658332

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a major global health threat. Epidemiological studies suggest that bats (Rhinolophus affinis) are the natural zoonotic reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. However, the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and intermediate hosts that facilitate its transmission to humans remain unknown. The interaction of coronavirus with its host receptor is a key genetic determinant of host range and cross-species transmission. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter host cells in a species-dependent manner. In this study, we characterized the ability of ACE2 from diverse species to support viral entry. By analyzing the conservation of five residues in two virus-binding hotspots of ACE2 (hotspot 31Lys and hotspot 353Lys), we predicted 80 ACE2 proteins from mammals that could potentially mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. We chose 48 ACE2 orthologs among them for functional analysis, and showed that 44 of these orthologs-including domestic animals, pets, livestock, and animals commonly found in zoos and aquaria-could bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. In contrast, New World monkey ACE2 orthologs could not bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. We further identified the genetic determinant of New World monkey ACE2 that restricts viral entry using genetic and functional analyses. These findings highlight a potentially broad host tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be distributed much more widely than previously recognized, underscoring the necessity to monitor susceptible hosts to prevent future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/veterinária , Receptores Virais/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Tropismo Viral , Zoonoses Virais/genética , Zoonoses Virais/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses Virais/virologia , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112040, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610943

RESUMO

Among different synthetic compounds copper (Cu) is persistently and frequently used as growth promoter, antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic agent and has become common environmental pollutant. Therefore, this study explores the cardio-toxic effects of control group (10 mg/kg bw Cu) and treatment group (125 and 250 mg/kg bw Cu), and it association with process of autophagy and metabolomics in myocardium of pigs kept in three different experimental treatments for a period of 80 days. The results of serum biochemical parameters showed a significantly increase in creatinine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in pigs exposed to 125 mg/kg bw and 250 mg/kg bw Cu. Meanwhile, the severe structural abnormalities in cardiomyocytes were found when exposed to 250 mg/kg Cu at day 80. In addition, the mRNA and proteins (Beclin1, ATG5 and LC3II) expression levels were significantly increased and p62 was significantly decreased in cardiomyocytes exposed to 250 mg/kg Cu at day 80 of the trial. Further, UPLC-QTOF/MS technique showed that 7 metabolites were up-regulated and 37 metabolites were down-regulated in cardiomyocytes after 250 mg/kg Cu treatment, with a principal impact on the metabolic pathways including glycerophospholipid metabolism, one carbon pool by folate, fatty acid elongation and fatty acid degradation, which were related to autophagy. Overall, our study identified the autophagy processes and metabolites in metabolic pathways in Cu-induced myocardium injury, which provided useful evidence of myocardium toxicity caused by Cu exposure via metabolomics and multiple bioanalytic methods.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Coração/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Suínos
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111968, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550083

RESUMO

Despite the fact that copper (Cu) is a vital micronutrient to maintain body function, high doses of Cu through environmental exposure damage various organs, especially the liver, which is the main metabolic organ. To investigate the influence of long-term Cu-induced toxicity on mitophagy and apoptosis in rat liver, 96 seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed TBCC for 24 weeks. The results revealed that exposure to high Cu concentrations could promote oxidative stress liver injury by increasing the hepatic function index (ALT, AST and ALP) and MDA content, while reducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (T-SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) related to oxidative stress. Consistent with histopathological observations, proper dietary Cu (15-60 mg/kg) could improve antioxidant stress levels and induce a dose-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of mitophagy-related genes, whereas a high Cu concentration (120 mg/kg) could cause severe liver impairment and ultrastructural changes and a reduction in mitophagosomes, accompanied by downregulation of Atg5, Beclin1, Pink1, Parkin, NIX, P62 and LC3B. The expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bax, Bax/Bcl-2, Caspase3, Cytc and p53) and proteins (Caspase3 and p53) was upregulated with the addition of dietary Cu. The results demonstrated that an appropriate dose of TBCC could improve liver function by promoting mitophagy and Cu enzymes that play antioxidative roles, while the accumulation of excess Cu could induce liver lesions by enhancing apoptosis and inhibiting mitophagy pathways.


Assuntos
Cloretos/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Cobre/análise , Dieta , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
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