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1.
Respiration ; : 1-12, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although international bronchiectasis guidelines recommended screening of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) both at initial evaluation and prior to administration of macrolide treatment, data regarding NTM in bronchiectasis remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence, species, and clinical features of NTM in adults with bronchiectasis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published before April 2020 reporting the prevalence of NTM in adults with bronchiectasis. We only included studies with bronchiectasis confirmed by computed tomography and NTM identified by mycobacteria culture or molecular methods. Random-effects meta-analysis was employed. RESULTS: Of the 2,229 citations identified, 21 studies, including 12,454 bronchiectasis patients were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of NTM isolation and pulmonary NTM disease were 7.7% (5.0%-11.7%) (n/N = 2,677/12,454) and 4.1% (1.4%-11.4%) (n/N = 30/559), respectively, with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 97.7%, p < 0.001 and I2 = 79.9%, p = 0.007; respectively). The prevalence of NTM isolation varied significantly among different geographical regions with the highest isolation at 50.0% (47.3%-52.7%) reported in the United States. Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus complex accounted for 66 and 16.6% of all species, respectively. Some clinical and radiological differences were noted between patients with and without the presence of NTM isolation although the results are inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity in prevalence estimates of NTM isolation indicated that both local surveys to inform development of clinical services tailored to patients with bronchiectasis and population-based studies are needed. The clinical features associated with NTM in bronchiectasis and their incremental utility in studying the association is unknown and merits further investigation.

2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 239: 105956, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496328

RESUMO

Intensive aquaculture often results in immunosuppression in fish, which may cause a series of diseases. In this study, to investigate the immunosuppressive mechanisms in fish, tilapia were intrapleural injected cyclophosphamide (CTX) at the doses of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg·kg-1 to induce immunosuppression. We determined the viability of immune cells, the content of lysozyme (LZM) and immunoglobulin M (IgM), the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant parameters. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of complement C3 (c3), igm and the genes associated with the TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway in the head kidney (HK) and spleen were also determined. The results showed that CTX had a significant cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood leukocytes, HK macrophages and spleen cells in a dose-dependent manner. The protein and mRNA levels of C3 and IgM were down-regulated with the increase of CTX concentrations in serum, HK and/or spleen. The NO and LZM contents decreased significantly in HK and spleen after CTX treatments with 75 and 100 mg·kg-1. CTX treatments with 50, 75 and/or 100 mg·kg-1 markedly decreased the antioxidant ability and enhanced lipid peroxidation in HK and spleen. Furthermore, qPCR data showed that CTX treatments with 50-100 mg·kg-1 clearly down-regulated the mRNA levels of tlr2, myd88, irak1, traf6, nfκb1, nfκb2, il-6, il-10 and tnf-α in the HK and/or spleen. Overall results suggested that CTX treatment had a cytotoxic effect on immune cells, induced lipid peroxidation, decreased the antioxidant capacity and inhibited immune function. The immunosuppressive mechanisms of CTX may be associated with the TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533938

RESUMO

Biomaterial-associated infections caused by pathogenic bacteria have important implications on human health. This study presents the design and preparation of a smart surface with pH-responsive wettability. The smart surface exhibited synergistic antibacterial function, with high liquid repellency against bacterial adhesion and highly effective bactericidal activity. The wettability of the surface can switch reversibly between superhydrophobicity and hydrophobicity in response to pH; this controls bacterial adhesion and release. Besides, the deposited silver nanoparticles of the surface were also responsible for bacterial inhibition. Benefiting from the excellent liquid repellency, the surface could highly resist bacterial adhesion after immersing in a bacterial suspension for 10 s (85%) and 1 h (71%). Adhered bacteria can be easily eliminated using deposited silver nanoparticles during the subsequent treatment of alkaline bacterial suspension, and the ratio of deactivated bacteria was above 75%. After the pH returned to neutral, the deactivated bacteria can be easily released from the surface. This antibacterial surface showed an improved bacterial removal efficiency of about 99%. The results shed light on future antibacterial applications of the smart surface combining both bactericidal and adhesion-resistant functionalities.

4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132148, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509756

RESUMO

Nitrate/nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-DAMO) is an important process linking nitrogen and carbon cycle. It is recently demonstrated that n-DAMO archaea are able to couple n-DAMO to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In this work, a mathematical model is developed to describe DNRA by n-DAMO archaea for the first time. The anabolic and catabolic processes of n-DAMO archaea, n-DAMO bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria are involved. The different impacts of exogenous and endogenous nitrite on DNRA and n-DAMO microbes are considered. The developed model is calibrated and validated using experimental data collected from a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a counter-diffusion membrane biofilm bioreactor (MBfR). The model outputs fit well with the profiles of nitrogen (N) dynamics and biomass changes in both reactors, demonstrating its good predictive ability. The developed model is further used to simulate the counter-diffusion MBfR incorporating n-DAMO and Anammox process to treat sidestream wastewater. The simulated distribution profiles of N removal/production rates by different microbes along biofilm depth reveal that DNRA by n-DAMO archaea plays an important role in N transformation of the integrated n-DAMO and Anammox process. It is further suggested that the counter-diffusion MBfR under the investigated conditions should be operated at proper hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (i.e. 6h and 8h) with exogenous NO2- in the range of 0-10 mg N/L or at HRTs >3h with the absence of exogenous NO2- in order to achieve dischargeable effluent.

5.
Sex Health ; 18(4): 333-339, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470696

RESUMO

Background The uncertainty of how neurosyphilis is diagnosed and treated in clinical settings led us to investigate whether this serious manifestation of syphilis infection is properly managed in China. METHODS: This national cross-sectional study of the diagnosis and treatment of neurosyphilis included 1392 clinicians at 398 hospitals located in 116 cities in China. RESULTS: Of 398 hospitals, 244 (61.3%) failed to perform diagnostic laboratory tests and 181 (45.5%) failed to provide recommended treatment for neurosyphilis. Of 1392 clinicians, 536 (38.5%) had previously diagnosed patients with neurosyphilis, but 419 (78.2%) of the latter provided diagnoses that did not meet the criteria set by national guidelines. Of the 485 clinicians who had previously treated patients with neurosyphilis, 280 (57.7%) failed to follow national guidelines for treatment. Analysis indicated that clinicians working in North China (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 4.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-10.88), tertiary hospitals (aOR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.63-6.41), and hospitals specialising in sexually transmitted infections (aOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.24-4.99) were more likely to follow national guidelines for neurosyphilis treatment. CONCLUSION: Lack of knowledge in disease management poses a great obstacle to prevent the serious consequences of neurosyphilis in Chinese patients. More effective measures are urgently needed to improve this suboptimal situation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505945

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obtaining tumour-free margins is critical for avoiding re-excision and reducing local recurrence following breast-conserving surgery; however, it remains challenging. Imaging-guided surgery provides precise detection of residual lesions and assists surgical resection. Herein, we described water-soluble melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) peptides for breast cancer photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and surgical navigation. METHODS: The cRGD-MNPs were synthesised and characterized for morphology, photoacoustic characteristics and stability. Tumour targeting and toxicity of cRGD-MNPs were determined by using either breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice or the FVB/N-Tg (MMTV-PyVT) 634Mul/J mice model. PAI was used to locate the tumour and guide surgical resection in MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. RESULTS: The cRGD-MNPs exhibited excellent in vitro and in vivo tumour targeting with low toxicity. Intravenous administration of cRGD-MNPs to MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice showed an approximately 2.1-fold enhancement in photoacoustic (PA) intensity at 2 h, and the ratio of the PA intensity at the tumour site to that in the surrounding normal tissue was 3.2 ± 0.1, which was higher than that using MNPs (1.7 ± 0.3). Similarly, the PA signal in the spontaneous breast cancer increased ~ 2.5-fold at 2 h post-injection of cRGD-MNPs in MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice. Preoperative PAI assessed tumour volume and offered three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction images for accurate surgical planning. Surgical resection following real-time PAI showed high consistency with histopathological analysis. CONCLUSION: These results highlight that cRGD-MNP-mediated PAI provide a powerful tool for breast cancer imaging and precise tumour resection. cRGD-MNPs with fine PA properties have great potential for clinical translation.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5555796, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484564

RESUMO

The original Laminaria polysaccharide (LP0) was sulfated using the sulfur trioxide-pyridine method, and four sulfated Laminaria polysaccharides (SLPs) were obtained, namely, SLP1, SLP2, SLP3, and SLP4. The sulfated (-OSO3 -) contents were 8.58%, 15.1%, 22.8%, and 31.3%, respectively. The structures of the polysaccharides were characterized using a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. SLPs showed better antioxidant activity than LP0, increased the concentration of soluble Ca2+ in the solution, reduced the amount of CaOx precipitation and degree of CaOx crystal aggregation, induced COD crystal formation, and protected HK-2 cells from damage caused by nanometer calcium oxalate crystals. These effects can inhibit the formation of CaOx kidney stones. The biological activity of the polysaccharides increased with the content of -OSO3 -, that is, the biological activities of the polysaccharides had the following order: LP0 < SLP1 < SLP2 < SLP3 < SLP4. These results reveal that SLPs with high -OSO3 - contents are potential drugs for effectively inhibiting the formation of CaOx stones.

8.
Cell Metab ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536344

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major cause of adverse outcomes of revascularization after myocardial infarction. To identify the fundamental regulator of reperfusion injury, we performed metabolomics profiling in plasma of individuals before and after revascularization and identified a marked accumulation of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12)-dependent 12-HETE following revascularization. The potent induction of 12-HETE proceeded by reperfusion was conserved in post-MIR in mice, pigs, and monkeys. While genetic inhibition of Alox12 protected mouse hearts from reperfusion injury and remodeling, Alox12 overexpression exacerbated MIR injury. Remarkably, pharmacological inhibition of ALOX12 significantly reduced cardiac injury in mice, pigs, and monkeys. Unexpectedly, ALOX12 promotes cardiomyocyte injury beyond its enzymatic activity and production of 12-HETE but also by its suppression of AMPK activity via a direct interaction with its upstream kinase TAK1. Taken together, our study demonstrates that ALOX12 is a novel AMPK upstream regulator in the post-MIR heart and that it represents a conserved therapeutic target for the treatment of myocardial reperfusion injury.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 156: 83-92, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The combination of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade provides promising therapeutic opportunities for advanced mucosal melanoma in early phase trials. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination regimen for advanced mucosal melanoma in the real world. METHODS: Patients with advanced mucosal melanoma received an anti-PD-1 antibody plus the VEGFR inhibitor axitinib until confirmed disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. In addition, those with liver metastasis were allowed to take hepatic transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE). The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included disease control rate (DCR), time to treatment failure (TTF), duration of response (DOR), overall survival (OS) and treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). RESULTS: Eighty-one and sixty-six patients received axitinib plus immunotherapy as first-line and salvage therapy, respectively. Overall, ORR was 24.5% (95% CI, 17.3-31.6), DCR was 72.7% (95% CI, 65.3-80.1). Median TTF, DOR and OS were 5.2 months (95% CI, 3.7-6.6), 9.2 months (95% CI, 7.2-11.2) and 11.1 months (95% CI, 7.2-15.0). ORR was 30.0% (95% CI, 19.7-40.3) and 17.5% (95% CI, 7.8-27.1) as first-line and salvage therapy, respectively. No statistical difference among the primary sites was noted for ORR. The ORR of patients with liver metastasis with or without hepatic TACE was 26.1% (95% CI, 6.7-45.5) and 15.0% (95% CI, 2.1-32.1), respectively (P = 0.467). Elevated LDH and poor ECOG status are negative predictive factors. CONCLUSION: This is the largest analysis of anti-PD-1 plus VEGFR inhibitor therapy for mucosal melanoma to date. Immunotherapy plus anti-angiogenesis is applicable for advanced mucosal melanoma, especially as front-line. Hepatic TACE might act synergistically with systemic immunotherapy and anti-angiogenesis.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118046, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461416

RESUMO

Zero valent iron (ZVI)-microbe technology has an increasing application on the removal of organic pollution, yet the molecular mechanism of microbe respond to ZVI is still a mystery. Here, we established a successive ZVI-enhanced microbial system to remove azo dye (a typical organic pollutant) by Shewanella decolorationis S12 (S. decolorationis S12, an effective azo dye degradation bacterium) and examined the gene expression time course (10, 30, 60, and 120 min) by whole genome transcriptional analysis. The addition of ZVI to the microbial degradation system increases the rate of azo reduction from ~60% to over 99% in 16 h reaction, suggesting the synergistic effect of ZVI and S12 on azo dye degradation. Comparing with the treatment without ZVI, less filamentous cells were observed in ZVI treated system, and approximately 8% genes affiliated with 10 different gene expression profiles in S. decolorationis S12 were significantly changed in 120 min during the ZVI-enhanced azo reduction. Intriguingly, MarR transcriptional factor might play a vital role in regulating ZVI-enhanced azo reduction in the aspect of energy production, iron homeostasis, and detoxification. Further investigation showed that the induced [Ni-Fe] H2ase genes (hyaABCDEF) and azoreductase genes (mtrABC-omcA) contributed to ZVI-enhanced energy production, while the reduced iron uptake (hmuVCB and feoAB), induced sulfate assimilation (cysPTWA) and cysteine biosynthesis (cysM) related genes were essential to iron homeostasis and detoxification. This study disentangles underlying mechanisms of ZVI-enhanced organic pollution biotreatment in S. decolorationis S12.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3650-3659, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402289

RESUMO

Puerarin has the anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity,which can reverse nerve injury induced by Aßand inhibit neuronal apoptosis.However,its potential pharmacodynamic mechanism still needs to be further researched.The occurrence and development of AD is due to the change of multiple metabolic links in the body,which leads to the destruction of balance.Puerarin may act on multiple targets and multiple metabolic processes to achieve therapeutic purposes.Quantitative proteomic analysis provides a new choice to understand the mechanism as completely as possible.This research adopted SH-SY5Y cells induced by Aß_(1-42)to establish AD cell model,and Aßimmunofluorescence detection showed that Aßdecreased significantly after puerarin intervention.The mechanism of puerarin reversing SH-SY5Y cell injured by Aß_(1-42)was further explored by using label-free non-labeled quantitative technology and Western blot detection based on bioinformatics analysis result.The results showed that most of the differential proteins were related to biological processes such as cellular component organization or biogenesis,cellular component organization and cellular component biogenesis,and they mainly participated in the top ten pathways of P value such as pathogenic Escherichia coli infection,m TOR signaling pathway,regulation of autophagy,regulation of actin cytoskeleton,spliceosome,hepatocellular carcinoma,tight junction,non-small cell lung cancer,apoptosis and gap junction.Annexin V/PI flow cytometry and TUNEL were used to detect apoptosis,and the results showed that Aßdecreased significantly and the rate of apoptosis decreased significantly after puerarin intervention.Western blot analysis found that the protein expression level of autophagy related protein LC3Ⅱwas up-regulated after Aßinduction,and the degree of this up-regulation was further enhanced in puerarin intervention group.The trend of the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰamong groups was the same as the protein expression level of LC3Ⅱ,the protein expression level of p62 in the control group,AD model group and puerarin intervention group decreased successively.Protein interaction network analysis showed that CAP1 was correlated with TUBA1B,HSP90AB2P,DNM1L,TUBA1A and ERK1/2,and the correlation between CAP1 and ERK1/2 was the highest among them.Western blot showed that the expressions of p-ERK1/2,Bax and CAP1 were significantly down-regulated and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated after puerarin intervention.Therefore,puerarin might improve the SH-SY5Y cells injured by Aß_(1-42)through the interaction of multiple biological processes and pathways in cells multiple locations,and CAP1 might play an important role among them.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Isoflavonas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Proteômica
12.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(4): 777-781, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most frequent fractures of the paediatric elbow. The present study introduced a modified surgical procedure for treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures in children. METHODS: From February 2015 to August 2019, 73 patients with Gartland's type II and III supracondylar fractures were treated with this modified method. Totally, 68 of all patients were followed up for 3-12 months (mean 8.25 months). The evaluation results included fracture nonunion, ulnar nerve injury, pin track infection, carrying angle and elbow joint Flynn score. RESULTS: The results showed that bone union was observed in all children, one case had an iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury, and the symptoms were completely relieved in 4 months after removing of the medial-side pin. All children had no cubitus varus deformity and no pin track infection, and the rate of satisfactory results according to Flynn's criteria score was 100%. CONCLUSION: The modified closed reduction and Kirschner wires internal fixation could effectively reduce the rate of open reduction, the risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury, and the incidence of cubitus varus deformity in treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures in children.

13.
ACS Sens ; 6(8): 3112-3124, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347450

RESUMO

Infection, the most common complication of chronic wounds, has placed tremendous burden on patients and society. Existing care strategies could hardly reflect in situ wound status, resulting in overly aggressive or conservative therapeutic options. Multiplexed tracking of wound markers to obtain diagnostic information in a more accurate way is highly promising and in great demand for the emerging development of personalized medicine. Here, an integrated multiplex sensing bandage (MSB) system, including a multiplex sensor array (MSA), a corresponding flexible circuit, and a mobile application, was developed for real-time monitoring of sodium, potassium, calcium, pH, uric acid, and temperature indicators in the wound site to provide a quantitative diagnostic basis. The MSB was optimized for wound-oriented management applications, which exhibits a broad linear response, excellent selectivity, temporal stability, mechanical stability, reproducibility, and reliable signal transmission performance on the aforementioned physiological indicators. The results of in vivo experiments demonstrate that the MSA is capable of real-time monitoring of actual wounds as well as early prediction of infection. The results ultimately point to the potential clinical applicability of the MSB, which might benefit the quantifications of the complexity and diversity of the wound healing process. This work provides a unique strategy that holds promise for broad application in optimizing wound management and even coping with other diseases.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Ácido Úrico , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(8): 731-734, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the pathogenesis in two patients of restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) using high-throughput sequencing. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from the two patients and their parents were collected and genomic DNAs were extracted to conduct targeted next generation sequencing or whole exome sequencing. Bioinformation analysis was performed to identify the pathogenic variants in genes associated with cardiomyopathy, which were further validated by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: By high throughput sequencing, we detected a de novo heterozygous variant c.549+1G>T in TNNI3 gene in patient 1. The variant has not been reported previously and was predicted to be pathogenic in line with American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines (PVS1+PS2+PM2). Another heterozygous variant c.433C>T (p.Arg145Trp) in TNNI3 gene was identified in patient 2 and his father. The variant had been reported as pathogenic variant in Clinvar and HGMD databases; based on ACMG guidelines, the variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic (PS3+PM1+PP3). CONCLUSION: TNNI3 variants may be the causative gene responsible for restrictive cardiomyopathy in the two patients. High throughput sequencing results provide bases for the diagnosis of restrictive cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Restritiva , Cardiomiopatia Restritiva/genética , Criança , Genômica , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375083

RESUMO

Molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) has attracted ever-growing attention in recent years due to its novel characteristics in spintronics and phase-engineering, and an efficient and convenient method to achieve large-area high-quality film is an essential step toward electronic applications. However, the growth of large-area monolayer MoTe2 is challenging. Here, for the first time, we achieve the growth of a centimeter-sized monoclinic MoTe2 monolayer and manifest the mechanism of immobilized precursor particle driven growth. Microscopic characterizations reveal an obvious trend of immobilized precursor particles being consumed by the monolayer and continuing to provide a source for the growth of the monolayer. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry verifies the attachment of hydroxide ions on the surface of the MoTe2 monolayer, thereby realizing the inhibition of crystal growth along the [001] zone axis and the continuous growth of the MoTe2 monolayer. The first-principles DFT calculations prove the mechanism of immobilized precursor particles and the absorption of hydroxide ions on the MoTe2 monolayer. The as-grown MoTe2 monolayer exhibits a surface roughness of 0.19 nm and average conductivity of 1.5 × 10-5 S/m, which prove the smoothness and uniformity of the MoTe2 monolayer. Temperature-dependent electrical measurements together with the transfer characteristic curves further demonstrate the typical semimetallic properties of monoclinic MoTe2. Our research elaborates the microscopic process of immobilized precursor particles to grow large-area MoTe2 monolayer and provides a new thinking about the growth of many other two-dimensional materials.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375278

RESUMO

Channel attention mechanisms have been commonly applied in many visual tasks for effective performance improvement. It is able to reinforce the informative channels as well as to suppress the useless channels. Recently, different channel attention modules have been proposed and implemented in various ways. Generally speaking, they are mainly based on convolution and pooling operations. In this paper, we propose Gaussian process embedded channel attention (GPCA) module and further interpret the channel attention schemes in a probabilistic way. The GPCA module intends to model the correlations among the channels, which are assumed to be captured by beta distributed variables. As the beta distribution cannot be integrated into the end-to-end training of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with a mathematically tractable solution, we utilize an approximation of the beta distribution to solve this problem. To specify, we adapt a Sigmoid-Gaussian approximation, in which the Gaussian distributed variables are transferred into the interval [0; 1]. The Gaussian process is then utilized to model the correlations among different channels. In this case, a mathematically tractable solution is derived. The GPCA module can be efficiently implemented and integrated into the end-to-end training of the CNNs. Experimental results demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed GPCA module.

17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) inhibitors are front-line therapy in advanced melanoma. Severe immune-related adverse effects (irAEs) often require immunosuppressive treatment with glucocorticoids (GCCs), but GCC use and its correlation with patient survival outcomes during anti-PD-1 monotherapy remains unclear. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective analysis, patients treated with anti-PD-1 monotherapy between 2009 and 2019 and detailed GCC use data were identified from five independent cohorts, with median follow-up time of 206 weeks. IrAEs were tracked from the initiation of anti-PD-1 until disease progression, initiation of a new therapy, or last follow-up. Correlations between irAEs, GCC use, and survival outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the entire cohort of 947 patients, 509(54%) developed irAEs. In the MGH cohort (irAE(+)n=90), early-onset irAE (within 8 weeks of anti-PD-1 initiation) with high-dose-GCC use ({greater than or equal to}60mg prednisone equivalent qd) was independently associated with poorer post-irAE PFS/OS (post-irAE PFS: HR5.37, 95%CI 2.10-13.70, P<.001; post-irAE OS: HR5.95, 95%CI 2.20-16.09, P<.001) compared to irAE without early-high-dose-GCC use. These findings were validated in the combined validation cohort (irAE(+)n=419, post-irAE PFS: HR1.69, 95%CI 1.04-2.76, P=.04; post-irAE OS: HR1.97, 95%CI 1.15-3.39, P=.01). Similar findings were also observed in the 26-week landmark analysis for post-irAE-PFS but not for post-irAE-OS. A sensitivity analysis using accumulated GCC exposure as the measurement achieved similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Early high-dose-GCC use was associated with poorer PFS and OS after irAE onset. Judicious use of GCC early during anti-PD-1 monotherapy should be considered. Further prospective randomized control clinical trials designed to explore alternative irAE management options are warranted.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673693, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408744

RESUMO

Background: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is widely used to treat patients with COVID-19 in China; however, its efficacy remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Tα1 as a COVID-19 therapy. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study in five tertiary hospitals in the Hubei province of China between December 2019 and March 2020. The patient non-recovery rate was used as the primary outcome. Results: All crude outcomes, including non-recovery rate (65/306 vs. 290/1,976, p = 0.003), in-hospital mortality rate (62/306 vs. 271/1,976, p = 0.003), intubation rate (31/306 vs. 106/1,976, p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence (104/306 vs. 499/1,976, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (26/306 vs. 66/1,976, p < 0.001), and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (14.9 ± 12.7 vs. 8.7 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), were significantly higher in the Tα1 treatment group. After adjusting for confounding factors, Tα1 use was found to be significantly associated with a higher non-recovery rate than non-Tα1 use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.028). An increased risk of non-recovery rate associated with Tα1 use was observed in the patient subgroups with maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.9, p = 0.024), a record of ICU admission (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-14.0, p < 0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 values (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4, p = 0.046). Furthermore, later initiation of Tα1 use was associated with a higher non-recovery rate. Conclusion: Tα1 use in COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased non-recovery rate, especially in those with greater disease severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Timalfasina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Prognóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Timalfasina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347353

RESUMO

Regiodivergent addition reactions provide straightforward and atom-economic approaches to access different regioisomers. However, the regio-chemistry control to access all the possible results is still challenging especially for the reaction involving multiple addition steps. Herein, we reported regio-controllable cobalt-catalyzed sequential hydrosilylation/hydroboration of arylacetylenes, delivering all the possible regio-outcomes with high regioselectivities (up to >20/1 rr for all the cases). Each regioisomer of value-added silylboronates could be efficiently and regioselectively obtained from the same materials. The adjustment of the ligands of cobalt catalysts combined with dual catalysis relay strategy is the key to achieve regio-chemistry control. This regio-controllable research might inspire the exploration of the diversity-oriented synthesis that involves multiple additions and provide full sets of regioisomers of other synthetic useful molecules.

20.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 262: 120108, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198118

RESUMO

By using gold nanorods with silver coating as the sacrificial templates, we prepared spiky yolk-shell AuAg bimetallic nanorods with uniform interior gap via galvanic replacement reaction. The length and number of Au tips of the spiky yolk-shell AuAg nanorods can be tuned simultaneously by altering HAuCl4 volume. The influence of HAuCl4 volume and the sliver layer thickness on the SERS activity of spiky yolk-shell AuAg nanorods are studied. When the sliver layer is thin, the interior gap has not been shielded completely and the outer shell has obvious tips, thus the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity has the strongest enhancement with an enhancement factor (EF) of 4.9 × 105. The spiky yolk-shell AuAg nanorods with the strongest SERS activity are used as SERS substrates to detect thiram. The results demonstrate that the SERS intensity increases linearly with the logarithmic concentration of thiram in the range of 10-3 M to 10-7 M. The detection limit is as low as 97 nM, which is lower than the maximum pesticide residue limit (29 µM) in fruits stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Therefore, the spiky yolk-shell AuAg bimetallic nanorods have important practical application value in pesticide detection.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanotubos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Ouro , Prata , Análise Espectral Raman , Tiram/análise
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