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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006403

RESUMO

The introduction of oxygen vacancies (Ov) has been regarded as an effective method to enhance the catalytic performance of photoanodes in oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, their stability under highly oxidizing environment is questionable but was rarely studied. Herein, NiFe-Metal-Organic Frameworks (NiFe-MOFs) was conformally coated on oxygen-vacancy-rich BiVO 4 (Ov-BiVO 4 ) as the protective layer and cocatalyst, forming a core-shell structure with caffeic acid as bridging agent. The as-synthesized Ov-BiVO 4 @NiFe-MOFs exhibits enhanced stability and a remarkable photocurrent density of 5.3±0.15 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V (vs. RHE). The reduced coordination number of Ni(Fe)-O and elevated valence state of Ni(Fe) in NiFe-MOFs layer greatly bolster OER, and the shifting of oxygen evolution sites from Ov-BiVO 4 to NiFe-MOFs promotes Ov stabilization. The results demonstrate that the Ovs can be effectively preserved by the coating of a thin NiFe-MOFs layer, leading to a photoanode of enhanced photocurrent and stability.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009695

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into high-value multi-carbon (C2+) chemical feedstocks offers a promising avenue to liberate the chemical industry from fossil-resource dependence and eventually close the anthropogenic carbon cycle, but is severely impeded by the lack of high-performance catalysts. Herein, aiming to break the linear scaling relationship of intermediates binding and minimize the kinetic barrier of CO2 reduction reactions (CO2 RR), ternary Cu-Au/Ag nanoframes are fabricated to decouple the two pivotal functions of CO generation and C-C coupling, where the former is greatly promoted by the alloyed Ag/Au substrate and the latter is elegantly facilitated by the highly strained and positively charged Cu domains. Thereby, extraordinary Faradic efficiencies of 69 ± 5% and 77 ± 2% on C2H4 production in H-cell and flow cell, respectively, are achieved with great electrocatalytic stability and material durability. In-situ IR and DFT calculations unveil two competing pathways for C2H4 generation, of which the direct CO dimerization is energetically favored. By integrating the tandem effect, electronic modulation, and defect engineering, the current study offers a paradigm in catalyst design to break the linear scaling relationship towards improved C2H4 production.

3.
Int J Pharm ; : 119936, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038455

RESUMO

Ethosomes are widely applied as the carriers for the transdermal delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. Herein, curcumin-loaded ethosomes (CE) with different phospholipid composition were formulated and thoroughly compared. A significant interaction between the unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and saturated hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine (HPC) was found by molecular simulation and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which led to the reduction of PC peroxidation with the presence of HPC. Subsequently, the composite phospholipid ethosomes containing curcumin were prepared for the first time to evaluate their properties in comparison with the conventional ethosomes composed of PC (CE-P) or HPC (CE-H). CE with PC/HPC ratio of 1:1 (CE-P1H1) with the best vesicle stability and flexibility significantly decreased the uptake by HaCaT cells compared to CE-H and free curcumin, indicating reduced skin cell toxicity. Compared with free curcumin, CE-P1H1 had the highest transdermal efficiency (p<0.001), followed by CE-P (p<0.05), partly due to the fact that CE-P1H1 could disturb lipid domain of stratum corneum (SC). Moreover, CE-P1H1 was found to promote curcumin for deep penetration of the skin via the hair follicles route. Our study has shown that using composite phospholipid ethosomes as lipid vesicular carriers could enhance transdermal penetration of drugs and increase in the vesicle stability.

4.
Org Lett ; 22(20): 8076-8081, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000951

RESUMO

A novel and efficient method for the synthesis of unsymmetrical substituted dibenzofurans has been developed, which can selectively produce disubstituted dibenzofurans and trisubstituted dibenzofurans products under metal-free conditions. This approach starts from cheap and available nonaromatic cyclohexanones, affording a simple and efficient access to unsymmetrical substituted dibenzofurans.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22337, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019410

RESUMO

At present, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) are used to evaluate glycemic control in diabetic patients, but they cannot reflect insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance.We investigated the feasibility of using estimated average glucose to fasting plasma glucose ratio (eAG/fPG ratio) to estimate insulin resistance in young adult diabetes. A total of 387 patients with type 2 diabetes were included and were stratified into 2 groups based on median values of the glycemic index ratio: the GA/A1c ratio <2.09 (n = 91) and ≥2.09 (n = 296); the eAG/fPG ratio <1.69 (n = 155) and ≥1.69 (n = 232). HbA1c, GA, fructosamine, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured. The ratio of GA to HbA1c was calculated, and the homeostasis model assessment of ß-cell function and insulin resistance were determined. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance level was significantly associated with the eAG/fPG ratio, but not with the ratio of GA to HbA1c, GA, HbA1c, and fructosamine levels. The ratio of estimated average glucose to fasting plasma glucose level correlates with insulin resistance in young adult diabetes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035159

RESUMO

Transformation Equivariant Representations (TERs) aim to capture the intrinsic visual structures that equivary to various transformations by expanding the notion of translation equivariance underlying the success of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). For this purpose, we present both deterministic AutoEncoding Transformations (AET) and probabilistic AutoEncoding Variational Transformations (AVT) models to learn visual representations from generic groups of transformations. While the AET is trained by directly decoding the transformations from the learned representations, the AVT is trained by maximizing the joint mutual information between the learned representation and transformations. This results in Generalized TERs (GTERs) equivariant against transformations in a more general fashion by capturing complex patterns of visual structures beyond the conventional linear equivariance under a transformation group. The presented approach can be extended to (semi-)supervised models by jointly maximizing the mutual information of the learned representation with both labels and transformations. Experiments demonstrate the proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art models in both unsupervised and (semi-)supervised tasks. Moreover, we show that the unsupervised representation can even surpass the fully supervised representation pretrained on ImageNet when they are fine-tuned for the object detection task.

7.
Eur J Neurol ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies targeting the GluN1(NR1) subunit of the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) cause encephalitis. Although it has been shown that anti-NMDAR encephalitis is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci, susceptibility genes for the disease outside the HLA loci remain unidentified. In this study, we aimed to explore the association of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with non-HLA genes. METHODS: Two Chinese anti-NMDAR encephalitis cohorts from Han populations were recruited in this study. The North Chinese case-control set consisted 98 patients and 460 controls while the South Chinese case-control set included 78 patients and 541 controls. All subjects were genotyped for 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms which are associated with autoimmune disorders or infectious diseases. RESULTS: With two independent case-control sets, we identified significant association of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with IRF7 rs1131665 (OR=3.34, 95% CI: 1.99-5.63, P<0.000001, Padjusted =0.00004), BANK1 rs4522865 (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.15-1.82, P=0.0017, Padjusted =0.0149), and TBX21 rs17244587 (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.35-3.05, P=0.00051, Padjusted =0.0066). Furthermore, analysis of the three polymorphisms with clinical features of the disease revealed that the IRF7 rs1131665 is associated with the status of tumour. CONCLUSION: The current study has for the first time identified non-HLA susceptibility genes for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The association of IRF7, BANK1 and TBX21 with anti-NMDAR encephalitis suggests that B cells activation, Th1 responses, virus infection and type I IFN signaling pathway are involved in the pathogenesis of the diseases.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22647, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031325

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach is prone to relapse and metastasis after traditional surgical treatment, and the prognosis is also poor. We improved the concept of treatment and conducted cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) combined with intraperitoneal (IP) and intravenous (IV) chemotherapy for a gastric signet-cell carcinoma patient. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old male patient with complaint of intermittent hematemesis for over 10 days was referred to our hospital for treatment. The patient developed hematemesis of 800 mL without obvious causes on May 27, 2015, accompanied by dizziness and amaurosis fugax. After the bleeding was stopped with medicinal treatment, diagnostic gastroscopy revealed an ulcer at the less curvature of the stomach, with biopsy pathology diagnosis as severe atypical hyperplasia, which was confirmed to be poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma by a second biopsy. In past medical history, the patient had 5 coronary stents implanted because of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease 3 years ago. DIAGNOSIS: Gastric cancer (cT4NxMx) according to the patient's history and biopsy pathology. INTERVENTIONS: the patient was treated surgery-based multidisciplinary treatments integrating CRS + HIPEC and IP + IV adjuvant chemotherapy. The CRS was curative distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy, and HIPEC was cisplatin 120 mg plus mitomycin C 30 mg at 43 °C, for 60 minutes. Final pathological diagnosis of after surgery was: poorly differentiate adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells, with invasion beyond the serosal layer and into the duodenum, 10/23 lymph nodes positive, nerve invasion, vascular tumor thrombi, Borrmann type IV, Lauren type diffuse. TNM stage was pT4aN3M0, IIIC. After operation, the patient received 6 courses of IV chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil/Tegafur Gimeracil Oteracil Potassium capsules, and IP chemotherapy with docetaxel and carboplatin. OUTCOMES: Regular follow-up till July 20, 2020, revealed that the patient has a disease-free survival of over 61+ months. LESSONS: CRS + HIPEC combined with IP + IV chemotherapy achieved long-term disease-free survival for this patient with gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma and deserve further study. This new treatment modality deserves appropriate consideration in routine clinical practice for patients with advanced gastric cancer.

9.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720954140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050736

RESUMO

This study tested the hypothesis that both allogenic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) and human inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPS-MSCs) offered a comparable effect for protecting the lung against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rodent through downregulating the inflammatory, oxidative stress, and autophagic signaling pathways. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) were categorized into group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 (IRI), group 3 [IRI + ADMSCs (1.0 × 106 cells)/tail-vein administration at 0.5/18/36 h after IR], and group 4 [IRI + iPS-MSCs (1.0 × 106 cells)/tail-vein administration at 0.5/18/36 h after IR], and lungs were harvested at 72 h after IR procedure. In vitro study demonstrated that protein expressions of three signaling pathways in inflammation (TLR4/MyD88/TAK1/IKK/I-κB/NF-κB/Cox-2/TNF-α/IL-1ß), mitochondrial damage/cell apoptosis (cytochrome C/cyclophilin D/DRP1/ASK1/APAF-1/mitochondrial-Bax/caspase3/8/9), and autophagy/cell death (ULK1/beclin-1/Atg5,7,12, ratio of LCB3-II/LC3B-I, p-AKT/m-TOR) were significantly higher in lung epithelial cells + 6h hypoxia as compared with the control, and those were significantly reversed by iPS-MSC treatment (all P < 0.001). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that percentages of the inflammatory cells in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid and circulation, and immune cells in circulation/spleen as well as circulatory early and late apoptotic cells were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 4 (all P < 0.0001). Microscopy showed the lung injury score and numbers of inflammatory cells and Western blot analysis showed the signaling pathways of inflammation, mitochondrial damage/cell apoptosis, autophagy, and oxidative stress exhibited an identical pattern of flow cytometric results among the four groups (all P < 0.0001). Both xenogeneic and allogenic MSCs protected the lung against IRI via suppressing the inflammatory, oxidative stress, and autophagic signaling.

11.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057930

RESUMO

Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel partitivirus from Phomopsis vexans strain PvHZ002, a plant-pathogenic fungus infecting eggplant. The virus was designated "Phomopsis vexans partitivirus 1" (PvPV1). PvPV1 contains two dsRNA segments, dsRNA1 and dsRNA2, which are 1,662 bp and 1,628 bp long, respectively. Each segment contains a single open reading frame, putatively encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (dsRNA 1) and capsid protein (dsRNA 2). A homology search and phylogenetic analysis showed that PvPV1 clustered with viruses of the genus Deltapartitivirus of the family Partitiviridae.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22529, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduction malarplasty is a routine clinical procedure among Asian women, but the traditional surgical methods are still associated with serious complications, such as nonunion of the osteotomy sites. Revisional surgery to correct such complications is common, but poor bone healing in the osteotomy area presents a challenge to plastic surgeons. In this report, the authors present a new technique for revision malarplasty that uses the piezosurgery (piezoelectric bone surgery) approach. PATIENT AND DIAGNOSIS: A 30-year-old female patient underwent reduction malarplasty with titanium plate fixation in the zygomatic region at another hospital 4 years ago, but the root of the zygomatic arch was not fixed. The patient was diagnosed with bone nonunion, facial asymmetry, and soft tissue sagging on the right side of the face after malarplasty. INTERVENTION: We used piezosurgery to truncate the displaced healed broken end of the zygomatic bone according to the original osteotomy line. Following this, the malar was re-fixed with micro-titanium mesh, and the zygomatic arch was fixed with a titanium plate. OUTCOME: The patient was followed up for 11 months after the revision procedure. Her facial appearance was satisfactory, and no complications were observed on computed tomography images. LESSONS: This report presents a novel therapeutic option for surgical revision of failed malarplasty. Piezosurgery can help overcome the limitations of traditional surgical methods by reducing bone resorption, preventing resorption of the bone in revision malarplasty, modifying the degree of inward and upward movement of the zygomatic bone by facilitating adjustment of the position of the drill hole in the cortex of the bone stump for stable fixation. Hence piezosurgery can be a simple, accurate, and non-invasive osteotomy method for revision malarplasty.


Assuntos
Assimetria Facial/cirurgia , Piezocirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Zigoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Placas Ósseas , Feminino , Humanos , Osteotomia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Reoperação
13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 170: 112662, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032198

RESUMO

Cancer cell enumeration and phenotyping can predict the prognosis and the therapy efficacy in patients, yet it remains challenging to detect the rare tumor cells. Herein, we report an octopus-inspired, bifunctional aptamer signal amplifier-based cytosensor (OApt-cytosensor) for sensitive cell analysis. By assembling high-affinity antibodies on an electrode surface, the target cells could be specifically captured and thus been sandwiched by the cell surface marker-specific DNA aptamers. These on-cell aptamers function as electrochemical signal amplifiers by base-selective electronic doping with methylene blue. Such a sandwich configuration enables highly sensitive cell detection down to 10 cells/mL (equal to ~1-2 cells at a sampling volume of 150 µL), even in a large excess of nontarget blood cells. This approach also reveals the cell-surface markers and tracks the cellular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by signaling regulators. Furthermore, the electron-doped aptamer shows remarkable cell fluorescent labeling that guides the release of the captured cells from electrode surface via electrochemistry. These features make OApt-cytosensor a promising tool in revealing the heterogeneous cancer cells and anticancer drug screening at the single-cell level.

14.
Environ Res ; 192: 110282, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038361

RESUMO

Sulfate dependent ammonium oxidation (Sulfammox) is a potential microbial process coupling ammonium oxidation with sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions, which provides a novel link between nitrogen and sulfur cycle. Recently, Sulfammox was detected in wastewater treatments and was confirmed to occur in natural environments, especially in marine sediments. However, knowledge gaps in the mechanism of Sulfammox, functional bacteria, and their metabolic pathway, make it challenging to estimate its environmental significance and potential applications. This review provides an overview of recent advances in Sulfammox, including possible mechanisms, functional bacteria, and main influential factors, and discusses future challenges and opportunities. Future perspectives are outlined and discussed, such as exploration of microbial community structure and metabolic pathways, possible interactions with other microbes, environmental significance, and potential applications for nitrogen and sulfate removal, to inspire more researches on the Sulfammox process.

15.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 280, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing public interest in the use of TM internationally, yet there is a paucity of research on the use of TM by the public in the dental setting. This study aimed to explore the views, use of and access to TM in dentistry among different ethnic groups residing in New Zealand. METHODS: Qualitative study and in-depth interviews were used. An individual semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using an inductive approach to identify the main themes. RESULTS: Three main themes were extracted from interviews with 14 participants from diverse cultural backgrounds: [1] the perspectives of TM varied among different ethnic groups and included the involvement of spirituality, the environment, knowledge and usage of TM. [2] The TM that was used by different ethnic groups included plants, herbs, massage, and other forms of healing. Reasons for choosing traditional or western medicines generally included family tradition, access to TM, and finding a competent traditional healer. [3] The barriers in accessing TM included the paucity of traditional healers, difficulty accessing plants and cost, therefore most would look for a substitution or alternative treatment. CONCLUSION: Even though the access to these TM in New Zealand was a challenge for the majority of the participants, they are still considered the first-line treatment for the majority. This study provided dental practitioners an insight into the different sort of TM used by the population. By understanding and acknowledging the use of TM, dental practitioners could create a supportive environment for patients to disclose their use of TM and allow them to educate patients on the use of TM.

16.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the mobile Atrial Fibrillation App (mAFA)-II trial, the use of mobile health (mHealth) technology, incorporating AF screening and integrated management strategy, was associated with improved short-term clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to report adherence/persistence and long term (≥1 year) clinical outcomes of the mAFA-II trial, with mHealth-supported optimised stroke prevention, symptom control and comorbidity management. METHODS: We studied an adult population screened for AF, where identified patients could enter a structured program of holistic and integrated care based on the ABC (Atrial fibrillation Better Care) pathway using mHealth with a mAFA intervention. In this cluster randomised trial, comparing mHeath intervention to usual care, the primary composite outcome was 'stroke/thromboembolism, all-cause death and rehospitalization'. RESULTS: The 1261 subjects (mean age 67.0 years, 38.0% female) who were followed up over one year (mean follow-up 687 (standard deviation, SD 191) days) in the intervention arm, had a lower risk of the composite outcome of 'ischaemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism, death, and rehospitalization' (hazard ratio, HR 0.18, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.13-0.25, P < 0.001), compared to usual care (1212 subjects, mean age 70.1 years, 42.1% female). Of 842 patients using their smart devices for 'Better symptom management', 70.8% had good management adherence (monitoring time/follow-up since initial monitoring ≥ 70%), with the persistence of use of 91.7%. CONCLUSION: Amongst AF patients with long term use (≥1 year) of mHealth technology for optimising stroke prevention, symptom control and comorbidity management, adherence/persistence was good and associated with a reduction in adverse clinical outcomes.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074801

RESUMO

Representation learning with small labeled data have emerged in many problems, since the success of deep neural networks often relies on the availability of a huge amount of labeled data that is expensive to collect. To address it, many efforts have been made on training sophisticated models with few labeled data in an unsupervised and semi-supervised fashion. In this paper, we will review the recent progresses on these two major categories of methods. A wide spectrum of models will be categorized in a big picture, where we will show how they interplay with each other to motivate explorations of new ideas. We will review the principles of learning the transformation equivariant, disentangled, self-supervised and semi-supervised representations, all of which underpin the foundation of recent progresses. Many implementations of unsupervised and semi-supervised generative models have been developed on the basis of these criteria, greatly expanding the territory of existing autoencoders, generative adversarial nets (GANs) and other deep networks by exploring the distribution of unlabeled data for more powerful representations.

18.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044146

RESUMO

"Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CaLas), an uncultured α-proteobacterium, is associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a destructive disease threatening citrus production worldwide. Here, we reported the draft genome sequence of CaLas strain Myan16 from a HLB-affected lime tree in Myitkyina, Kachin State, Myanmar. The strain Myan16 genome is 1,229,102 bp with an average G+C content of 36.4%, along with a circular prophage: P-Myan16-2 (36,303 bp, Type 2). This is the first genome sequence of CaLas strain from Myanmar, which will enrich the current CaLas genome sequence database and facilitate HLB epidemiology research in Asia and world.

19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e241, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998791

RESUMO

A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has quickly spread across the world. Unfortunately, a simplified risk score that could easily be used in primary care or general practice settings has not been developed. The objective of this study is to identify a simplified risk score that could easily be used to quickly triage severe COVID-19 patients. All severe and critical adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on the West campus of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, from 28 January 2020 to 29 February 2020 were included in this study. Clinical data and laboratory results were obtained. CURB-65 pneumonia score was calculated. Univariate logistic regressions were applied to explore risk factors associated with in-hospital death. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve and multivariate COX-PH model to analyse risk factors for in-hospital death. A total of 74 patients (31 died, 43 survived) were finally included in the study. We observed that compared with survivors, non-survivors were older and illustrated higher respiratory rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but lower SpO2 as well as impaired liver function, especially synthesis function. CURB-65 showed good performance for predicting in-hospital death (area under curve 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.91). CURB-65 ⩾ 2 may serve as a cut-off value for prediction of in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19 (sensitivity 68%, specificity 81%, F1 score 0.7). CURB-65 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.61; 95% CI 1.05-2.46), LDH (HR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001-1.004) and albumin (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.81-1) were risk factors for in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19. Our study indicates CURB-65 may serve as a useful prognostic marker in COVID-19 patients, which could be used to quickly triage severe patients in primary care or general practice settings.

20.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 612, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064202

RESUMO

This review (with 106 references) summarizes the latest progress in the synthesis, properties and biomedical applications of gold nanotubes (AuNTs). Following an introduction into the field, a first large section covers two popular AuNTs synthesis methods. The hard template method introduces anodic alumina oxide template (AAO) and track-etched membranes (TeMs), while the sacrificial template method based on galvanic replacement introduces bimetallic, trimetallic AuNTs and AuNT-semiconductor hybrid materials. Then, the factors affecting the morphology of AuNTs are discussed. The next section covers their unique surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and their catalytic properties. This is followed by overviews on the applications of AuNTs in biosensors, protein transportation, photothermal therapy and imaging. Several tables are presented that give an overview on the wealth of synthetic methods, morphology factors and biological application. A concluding section summarizes the current status, addresses current challenges and gives an outlook on potential applications of AuNTs in biochemical detection and drug delivery.Graphical abstract.

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