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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 279: 118947, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980360

RESUMO

Due to the good biocompatibility and flexibility of cellulose and the excellent optical, electronic, as well as mechanical properties of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), cellulose/CNM hybrid materials have been widely synthesized and used in energy storage, sensors, adsorption, biomedicine, and many other fields. In this review, we present recent advances (2016-current) in the design, structural design, functional tailoring and various applications of cellulose/CNM hybrid materials. For this aim, first the interactions between cellulose and CNMs for promoting the formation of cellulose/CNM materials are analyzed, and then the hybridization between cellulose with various CNMs for tailoring the structures and functions of hybrid materials is introduced. Further, abundant applications of cellulose/CNM hybrid materials in various fields are presented and discussed. This comprehensive review will be helpful for readers to understand the functional design and facile synthesis of cellulose-based nanocomposites, and to promote the high-performance utilization and sustainability of biomass materials in the future.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of Numb, a protein that is important for cell fate and development and that, in human muscle, is expressed at reduced levels with advanced age, was investigated; adult mice skeletal muscle and its localization and function within myofibres were determined. METHODS: Numb expression was evaluated by western blot. Numb localization was determined by confocal microscopy. The effects of conditional knock out (cKO) of Numb and the closely related gene Numb-like in skeletal muscle fibres were evaluated by in situ physiology, transmission and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, three-dimensional reconstruction of mitochondria, lipidomics, and bulk RNA sequencing. Additional studies using primary mouse myotubes investigated the effects of Numb knockdown on cell fusion, mitochondrial function, and calcium transients. RESULTS: Numb protein expression was reduced by ~70% (P < 0.01) at 24 as compared with 3 months of age in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle. Numb was localized within muscle fibres as bands traversing fibres at regularly spaced intervals in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors. The cKO of Numb and Numb-like reduced specific tetanic force by 36% (P < 0.01), altered mitochondrial spatial relationships to sarcomeric structures, increased Z-line spacing by 30% (P < 0.0001), perturbed sarcoplasmic reticulum organization and reduced mitochondrial volume by over 80% (P < 0.01). Only six genes were differentially expressed in cKO mice: Itga4, Sema7a, Irgm2, Vezf1, Mib1, and Tmem132a. Several lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids through lipoxygenases were up-regulated in Numb cKO skeletal muscle: 12-HEPE was increased by ~250% (P < 0.05) and 17,18-EpETE by ~240% (P < 0.05). In mouse primary myotubes, Numb knockdown reduced cell fusion (~20%, P < 0.01) and delayed the caffeine-induced rise in cytosolic calcium concentrations by more than 100% (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings implicate Numb as a critical factor in skeletal muscle structure and function and suggest that Numb is critical for calcium release. We therefore speculate that Numb plays critical roles in excitation-contraction coupling, one of the putative targets of aged skeletal muscles. These findings provide new insights into the molecular underpinnings of the loss of muscle function observed with sarcopenia.

3.
Appl Intell (Dordr) ; : 1-24, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035093

RESUMO

Nonoverlapping sequential pattern mining, as a kind of repetitive sequential pattern mining with gap constraints, can find more valuable patterns. Traditional algorithms focused on finding all frequent patterns and found lots of redundant short patterns. However, it not only reduces the mining efficiency, but also increases the difficulty in obtaining the demand information. To reduce the frequent patterns and retain its expression ability, this paper focuses on the Nonoverlapping Maximal Sequential Pattern (NMSP) mining which refers to finding frequent patterns whose super-patterns are infrequent. In this paper, we propose an effective mining algorithm, Nettree for NMSP mining (NetNMSP), which has three key steps: calculating the support, generating the candidate patterns, and determining NMSPs. To efficiently calculate the support, NetNMSP employs the backtracking strategy to obtain a nonoverlapping occurrence from the leftmost leaf to its root with the leftmost parent node method in a Nettree. To reduce the candidate patterns, NetNMSP generates candidate patterns by the pattern join strategy. Furthermore, to determine NMSPs, NetNMSP adopts the screening method. Experiments on biological sequence datasets verify that not only does NetNMSP outperform the state-of-the-arts algorithms, but also NMSP mining has better compression performance than closed pattern mining. On sales datasets, we validate that our algorithm guarantees the best scalability on large scale datasets. Moreover, we mine NMSPs and frequent patterns in SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. The results show that the three viruses are similar in the short patterns but different in the long patterns. More importantly, NMSP mining is easier to find the differences between the virus sequences.

4.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 333-342, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035786

RESUMO

HER2-positive breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous tumor, and about 30% of patients still suffer from recurrence and metastasis after trastuzumab targeted therapy. Predicting individual prognosis is of great significance for the further development of precise therapy. With the continuous development of computer technology, more and more attention has been paid to computer-aided diagnosis and prognosis prediction based on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) pathological images, which are available for all breast cancer patients undergone surgical treatment. In this study, we first enrolled 127 HER2-positive breast cancer patients with known recurrence and metastasis status from Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. We then proposed a novel multimodal deep learning method integrating whole slide H&E images (WSIs) and clinical information to accurately assess the risk of relapse and metastasis in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Specifically, we obtained the whole H&E staining images from the surgical specimens of breast cancer patients, and these images were adjusted to size 512 × 512 pixels. The deep convolutional neural network (CNN) was applied to these images to retrieve image features, which were combined with the clinical data. Based on the combined features. After that, a novel multimodal model was constructed for predicting the prognosis of each patient. The model achieved an area under curve (AUC) of 0.76 in the two-fold cross-validation (CV). To further evaluate the performance of our model, we downloaded the data of all 123 HER2-positive breast cancer patients with available H&E image and known recurrence and metastasis status in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which was severed as an independent testing data. Despite the huge differences in race and experimental strategies, our model achieved an AUC of 0.72 in the TCGA samples. As a conclusion, H&E images, in conjunction with clinical information and advanced deep learning models, could be used to evaluate the risk of relapse and metastasis in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

5.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044403

RESUMO

Environmental pollution is a global problem that endangers human health and ecological balance. As a new type of functional material, two-dimensional material (2DM)-based aerogel is one of the most promising candidates for pollutant detection and environmental remediation. The porous, network-like, interconnected three-dimensional (3D) structure of 2DM-based aerogels can not only preserve the characteristics of the original 2DMs, but also bring many distinct physical and chemical properties to offer abundant active sites for adsorbing and combining pollutants, thereby facilitating highly efficient monitoring and treatment of hazardous pollutants. In this review, the synthesis methods of 2DM aerogels and their broad environmental applications, including various sensors, adsorbents, and photocatalysts for the detection and treatment of pollutants, are summarized and discussed. In addition, the sustainability of 2DM aerogels compared to other water purification materials, such as activated carbon, 2DMs, and other aerogels are analyzed by the Sustainability Footprint method. According to the characteristics of different 2DMs, special focuses and perspectives are given on the adsorption properties of graphene, MXene, and boron nitride aerogels, as well as the sensing and photocatalytic properties of transition metal dichalcogenide/oxide and carbon nitride aerogels. This comprehensive work introduces the synthesis, modification, and functional tailoring strategies of different 2DM aerogels, as well as their unique characteristics of adsorption, photocatalysis, and recovery, which will be useful for the readers in various fields of materials science, nanotechnology, environmental science, bioanalysis, and others.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 873, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042920

RESUMO

The morphological and vascular characteristics of the optic nerve head (ONH) of normal guinea pigs have not been fully recognized. Therefore, we aimed to investigate them using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). We measured the refractive error, axial length, and intraocular pressure (IOP) and performed OCT and OCTA of the ONH of 3- and 4-week-old tricolour guinea pigs. A total of 208 right eyes from 208 normal guinea pigs were examined. The refractive error (both myopic and hyperopic) of the 3-week group was significantly higher than that of the 4-week group (p < 0.001), the IOP of the 3-week group was significantly lower than that of the 4-week group (p = 0.014), and the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (cpRNFL) of the 3-week group was significantly thicker than that of the 4-week group (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences in the average vessel area, vascular density, total number of junctions, total vessel length, total number of endpoints, and vascular diameter between the two groups. However, an age-adjusted linear regression analysis revealed that the total vessel length was positively associated with the cpRNFL thickness (p = 0.024) and negatively associated with IOP (p = 0.016). This is the first report on morphological and vascular characteristics of the ONH in normal guinea pigs based on in vivo OCT and OCTA imaging and quantification of ONH parameters. These results may contribute to further research on myopia using guinea pig models.

7.
Int J Neural Syst ; : 2250005, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023812

RESUMO

Emotion plays a significant role in human daily activities, and it can be effectively recognized from EEG signals. However, individual variability limits the generalization of emotion classifiers across subjects. Domain adaptation (DA) is a reliable method to solve the issue. Due to the nonstationarity of EEG, the inferior-quality source domain data bring negative transfer in DA procedures. To solve this problem, an auto-augmentation joint distribution adaptation (AA-JDA) method and a burden-lightened and source-preferred JDA (BLSP-JDA) approach are proposed in this paper. The methods are based on a novel transfer idea, learning the specific knowledge of the target domain from the samples that are appropriate for transfer, which reduces the difficulty of transfer between two domains. On multiple emotion databases, our model shows state-of-the-art performance.

8.
Brain Struct Funct ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989870

RESUMO

Postnatal development of cerebral cortex is associated with a variety of neuronal processes and is thus critical to development of brain function and cognition. Longitudinal changes of cortical morphology and topology, such as postnatal cortical thinning and flattening have been widely studied. However, thorough and systematic investigation of such cortical change, including how to quantify it from multiple spatial directions and how to relate it to surface topology, is rarely found. In this work, based on a longitudinal macaque neuroimaging dataset, we quantified local changes in gyral white matter's surface area and sulcal depth during early development. We also investigated how these two metrics are coupled and how this coupling is linked to cortical surface topology, underlying white matter, and positions of functional areas. Semi-parametric generalized additive models were adopted to quantify the longitudinal changes of surface area (A) and sulcal depth (D), and the coupling patterns between them. This resulted in four classes of regions, according to how they change compared with global change throughout early development: slower surface area change and slower sulcal depth change (slowA_slowD), slower surface area change and faster sulcal depth change (slowA_fastD), faster surface area change and slower sulcal depth change (fastA_slowD), and faster surface area change and faster sulcal depth change (fastA_fastD). We found that cortex-related metrics, including folding pattern and cortical thickness, vary along slowA_fastD-fastA_slowD axis, and structural connection-related metrics vary along fastA_fastD-slowA_slowD axis, with which brain functional sites align better. It is also found that cortical landmarks, including sulcal pits and gyral hinges, spatially reside on the borders of the four patterns. These findings shed new lights on the relationship between cortex development, surface topology, axonal wiring pattern and brain functions.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 1710-1717, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935342

RESUMO

Photocathodes are essential components for various applications requiring photon-to-free-electron conversion, for example, high-sensitivity photodetectors and electron injectors for free-electron lasers. Alkali antimonide thin films are widely used as photocathode materials owing to their high quantum efficiency (QE) in the visible spectral range; however, their lifetime can be limited even in ultrahigh vacuum due to their high reactivity to residual gases and sensitivity to ion back-bombardment in these applications. An ambitious technical challenge is to extend the lifetime of bialkali photocathodes by coating them with suitable materials that can isolate the photocathode films from residual gases while still maintaining their highly emissive properties. We propose the use of graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional material with gas impermeability, as a promising candidate for this purpose. Here, we report that high-quality bialkali antimonide can be grown on a two-layer (2L) suspended graphene substrate with a peak QE of 15%. More importantly, by comparing the photoemission through varying layers of graphene, we demonstrate that photoelectrons can transmit through few-layer graphene with a maximum QE of over 0.7% at 4.5 eV for 2L graphene, corresponding to a transmission efficiency of 5%. These results demonstrate important progress toward fully encapsulated bialkali photocathodes having both high QEs and long lifetimes using atomically thin protection layers.

10.
Biol Psychiatry ; 91(1): 61-71, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896621

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has complex etiologies, and the impact of sex on AD varies over the course of disease development. The literature provides some evidence of sex-specific contributions to AD. However, molecular mechanisms of sex-biased differences in AD remain elusive. Multiomics data in tandem with systems biology approaches offer a new avenue to dissect sex-stratified molecular mechanisms of AD and to develop sex-specific diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for AD. Single-cell transcriptomic datasets and cell deconvolution of bulk tissue transcriptomic data provide additional insights into brain cell type-specific impact on sex-biased differences in AD. In this review, we summarize the impact of sex chromosomes and sex hormones on AD, the impact of sex-biased differences during AD development, and the interplay between sex and a major AD genetic risk factor, the APOE ε4 genotype, through the multiomics landscape. Several sex-biased molecular pathways such as neuroinflammation and bioenergetic metabolism have been identified. The importance of sex chromosome and sex hormones, as well as the associated pathways in AD pathogenesis, is further strengthened by findings from omics studies. Future research efforts should integrate the multiomics data from different brain regions and different cell types using systems biology approaches, and leverage the knowledge into a holistic examination of sex differences in AD. Advances in systems biology technologies and increasingly available large-scale multiomics datasets will facilitate future studies dissecting such complex signaling mechanisms to better understand AD pathogenesis in both sexes, with the ultimate goals of developing efficacious sex- and APOE-stratified preventive and therapeutic interventions for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Encéfalo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
Talanta ; 238(Pt 1): 122860, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857316

RESUMO

Here we describe an affinity molecule-directed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for a label-free, differentiation and quantification of ricin and abrin from their structural highly like agglutinin biotoxins. By an introduction of protein G as the affinity capturing molecule, we fulfilled a complete strategy contains (i) screening monoclonal antibodies to be paired in a sandwiched format, (ii) differentiate quantification from the agglutinin, (iii) ascertain of active from inactive biotoxin, and (iv) structural identification of captured biotoxins on a single chip. By the aid of an enrichment step from immunomagnetic beads, we could accurately measure ricin or abrin with a concentration lowered to 0.6 ng/mL (10 pM) in different complex matrices such as stevia, protein powder, and human plasma, with linear ranges of two or three orders of magnitude, and satisfied recovery. We then differentially quantified the mixed crude extracts from castor beans and jequirity peas, and real samples from the fourth OPCW biotoxin exercise to prove the practical availability. We further provided a SPR-mass spectrometric evidence directly obtained from Protein G affinity chip via a noncovalent molecule surface for the first time for definitely structural identification for crude extracts.


Assuntos
Abrina , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Ricina , Aglutininas , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
12.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(1): 99-110, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969250

RESUMO

Endogenous DNA lesions frequently occur due to internal effects such as oxidative stress, inflammation, endogenous alkylation, and epigenetic modifications. However, exposure to chemical toxicants from the environment, diet, or drugs can also induce significant endogenous DNA damage. The quantification of endogenous DNA damage effect markers might reflect the actual DNA damage level of chemical toxicants. Herein, we report a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of eight representative endogenous DNA damage biomarkers, including five endogenous DNA damage effect markers (oxidative damage, 8-oxo-dG; lipid peroxidation, εdA and N2-Et-dG; inflammation, 5-Cl-dC; and endogenous alkylation, O6-Me-dG), and three epigenetic modifications (5-m-dC, 5-hm-dC, and N6-Me-dA). The method validation was performed, and the linear range was 0.05 pg to 2 ng (on-column), the limit of detection was 0.02 pg (on-column), and the precision, accuracy, matrix effect, and recovery were all between 85 and 115%. We then applied this method to evaluate endogenous DNA damage to human embryonic lung fibroblast cells exposed to five nitrogen mustards [NMs, i.e., HN1, HN2, HN3, chlorambucil (CB), and cyclophosphamide (CTX)], where curcumin exposure was used as a control due to its inability to induce the formation of endogenous DNA adducts. The amounts of eight DNA adducts in the low-, middle-, and high-concentration exposure groups of five NMs were almost all significantly different from those in the blank group (P < 0.05). We obtained a positive correlation between the contents of eight DNA damage biomarkers and the inhibition dose of five NMs, except for N2-Et-dG and 5-Cl-dC. Via further principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, we clustered all NMs into three units with different cytotoxicity levels, that is, HN2 and HN1 (highly toxic), HN3 and CB (moderately toxic), and CTX (less toxic). Moreover, for the same concentration of HN1/2/3 exposure groups, as the cytotoxicity increased according to the order of HN3 < HN1 < HN2, the contents of 8-oxo-dG, 5-m-dC, 5-hm-dC, and N6-Me-dA increased, whereas the content of O6-Me-dG decreased. Therefore, the contents of these DNA damage effect markers were somewhat related to the cytotoxicity and concentration of NMs. We hope that this method will provide an alternative evaluation approach for the toxicological effects of NMs and the safety of the medication.

13.
Talanta ; 237: 122898, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736714

RESUMO

A nucleolus as a prominent sub-nuclear, membraneless organelle plays a crucial role in ribosome biogenesis, which is in the major metabolic demand in a proliferating cell, especially in aggressive malignancies. We develop a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-activatable indole-quinolinium (QI) based cyanine consisting of a novel tripeptide fragment (Pro-Gly-Glu), namely QI-PG-Glu as a turn-on red fluorescent probe for the rapid detection of GGT-overexpressed A549 cancer cells in vivo. QI-PG-Glu can be triggered by GGT to rapidly release an activated fluorophore, namely HQI, in two steps including the cleavage of the γ-glutamyl group recognized by GGT and the rapid self-driven cyclization of the Pro-Gly linker. HQI exhibits dramatically red fluorescence upon binding to rRNA for imaging of nucleolus in live A549 cells. HQI also intervenes in rRNA biogenesis by declining the RNA Polymerase I transcription, thus resulting in cell apoptosis via a p53 dependent signaling pathway. Our findings may provide an alternative avenue to develop multifunctional cancer cell-specific nucleolus-targeting fluorescent probes with potential anti-cancer effects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Quinolinas , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes , Indóis , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Quinolinas/farmacologia , gama-Glutamiltransferase
14.
Food Chem ; 371: 131390, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808780

RESUMO

Some recent studies have revealed individual and the combined interactions of gluten and starch affecting dough mixing properties. However, the combined influence of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and starch on dough mixing and rheological properties requires elucidation. Thus four recombinant inbred lines, SS 1, SS 2, ZZ 1 and ZZ 2, were selected based on their HMW-GSs compositions. Compared to ZZ 1 and ZZ 2, both SS 1 and SS 2 carried superior HMW-GS alleles, and exhibited extended dough development and stability time, indicating their significant dough mixing characteristics. The gluten skeleton of the wheat lines SS 2 and ZZ 2 with higher B-type starch proportions exhibited fewer breakages along with the rise of dough temperature during mixing. Higher content of B-type starch strengthens interaction between starch and gluten skeleton at the dough heating stage, suggesting a specific range of B-type starch proportion can improve dough mixing characteristics.


Assuntos
Amido , Triticum , Glutens , Reologia , Esqueleto , Triticum/genética
15.
Dose Response ; 19(4): 15593258211057768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887716

RESUMO

Background: Brain exposure to ionizing radiation during the radiotherapy of brain tumor or metastasis of peripheral cancer cells to the brain has resulted in cognitive dysfunction by reducing neurogenesis in hippocampus. The water extract of Lycium barbarum berry (Lyc), containing water-soluble Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and flavonoids, can protect the neuronal injury by reducing oxidative stress and suppressing neuroinflammation. Reseach Design: To demonstrate the long-term radioprotective effect of Lyc, we evaluated the neurobehavioral alterations and the numbers of NeuN, calbindin (CB), and parvalbumin (PV) immunopositive hippocampal neurons in BALB/c mice after acute 5.5 Gy radiation with/without oral administration of Lyc at the dosage of 10 g/kg daily for 4 weeks. Results: The results showed that Lyc could improve irradiation-induced animal weight loss, depressive behaviors, spatial memory impairment, and hippocampal neuron loss. Immunohistochemistry study demonstrated that the loss of NeuN-immunopositive neuron in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, CB-immunopositive neuron in CA1 strata radiatum, lacunosum moleculare and oriens, and PV-positive neuron in CA1 stratum pyramidum and stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus after irradiation were significantly improved by Lyc treatment. Conclusion: The neuroprotective effect of Lyc on those hippocampal neurons may benefit the configuration of learning related neuronal networks and then improve radiation induced neurobehavioral changes such as cognitive impairment and depression. It suggests that Lycium barbarum berry may be an alternative food supplement to prevent radiation-induced neuron loss and neuropsychological disorders.

16.
Int J Surg Pathol ; : 10668969211056013, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Available data regarding survival outcomes of patients with SS still remains limited. In this study, a single center retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics, pathology and survival outcomes in patients with SS in China. METHODS: Patient data were systematically reviewed at the National Cancer Center from January 2015 to December 2020. The general information and treatment condition of patients were collected. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression method. RESULTS: A total of 237 consecutive patients were included in this study (follow-up cut-off date: December, 2020). The median age of patients involved was 35 years (ranging from 5 to 83 years) and the mean tumor diameter was 5.3 cm (ranging from .2 to 26.0 cm). The main findings of the immunohistochemical staining analyses were EMA (111/156) (71%), keratin (32/64) (50.0%), keratin (12/20) (60%), keratin (42/70) (60%), S-100 (18/160) (11%), BCL-2 (128/134) (96%), CD99 (137/148) (93%) and TLE1 (23/26) (88%). It was found that 109 patients (66%) were presented with monophasic subtype and 55 (34%) with biphasic subtype. A total of 137 patients were tested by FISH method and 119 patients (87%) demonstrated SS18 rearrangement, whereas 18 patients (13%) did not show SS18 rearrangement. Generally, it was found that the 3-year OS rate was 86% and the 3-year DFS was 55%. Results of univariate analysis revealed that age, tumor size, tumor site, radiotherapy and targeted therapy were significantly correlated with the overall survival (P < .05). Further, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that age, tumor size and radiotherapy were significantly associated with OS (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study shows that the outcomes of patients with SS significantly decrease with age and tumor size. It was evident that radiotherapy is an independent and positive prognostic factor for patients with SS. In addition, it was shown that the prognosis of SS varies with tumor location. For instance, primary tumors in lower extremities have a higher prognosis, whereas tumors located in thorax have a lower prognosis.

17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 785457, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868067

RESUMO

Respirovirus such as influenza virus infection induces pulmonary anti-viral immune response, orchestration of innate and adaptive immunity restrain viral infection, otherwise causes severe diseases such as pneumonia. Chemokines regulate leukocyte recruitment to the inflammation site. One chemokine CXCL5, plays a scavenging role to regulate pulmonary host defense against bacterial infection, but its role in pulmonary influenza virus infection is underdetermined. Here, using an influenza (H1N1) infected CXCL5-/- mouse model, we found that CXCL5 not only responds to neutrophil infiltration into infected lungs at the innate immunity stage, but also affects B lymphocyte accumulation in the lungs by regulating the expression of the B cell chemokine CXCL13. Inhibition of CXCL5-CXCR2 axis markedly induces CXCL13 expression in CD64+CD44hiCD274hi macrophages/monocytes in infected lungs, and in vitro administration of CXCL5 to CD64+ alveolar macrophages suppresses CXCL13 expression via the CXCL5-CXCR2 axis upon influenza challenge. CXCL5 deficiency leads to increased B lymphocyte accumulation in infected lungs, contributing to an enhanced B cell immune response and facilitating induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue formation in the infected lungs during the late infection and recovery stages. These data highlight multiple regulatory roles of CXCL5 in leukocyte chemotaxis during pulmonary influenza infection.

18.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870361

RESUMO

Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) has been increasingly used to characterize the brain transient temporal functional patterns and their alterations in diseased brains. Meanwhile, naturalistic neuroimaging paradigms have been an emerging approach for cognitive neuroscience with high ecological validity. However, the test-retest reliability of dFC in naturalistic paradigm neuroimaging is largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the test-retest reliability of dFC in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) under natural viewing condition. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of four dFC statistics including standard deviation (Std), coefficient of variation (COV), amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and excursion (Excursion) were used to measure the test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability of dFC in naturalistic viewing condition was then compared with that under resting state. Our experimental results showed that: (a) Global test-retest reliability of dFC was much lower than that of static functional connectivity (sFC) in both resting-state and naturalistic viewing conditions; (b) Both global and local (including visual, limbic and default mode networks) test-retest reliability of dFC could be significantly improved in naturalistic viewing condition compared to that in resting state; (c) There existed strong negative correlation between sFC and dFC, weak negative correlation between dFC and dFC-ICC (i.e., ICC of dFC), as well as weak positive correlation between dFC-ICC and sFC-ICC (i.e., ICC of sFC). The present study provides novel evidence for the promotion of naturalistic paradigm fMRI in functional brain network studies.

19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 159: 112722, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871667

RESUMO

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major cannabinoid present in extracts of the plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana). While the therapeutic effects of CBD on epilepsy have been demonstrated, less is understood regarding its potential adverse effects. Recent studies revealed that CBD induced toxicity in the male reproductive system of animal models. In this study, we used TM4, an immortalized mouse Sertoli cell line, and primary human Sertoli cells to evaluate the toxicities of CBD and its main metabolites, 7-carboxy-CBD and 7-hydroxy-CBD. CBD induced concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse and human Sertoli cells, which mainly resulted from the inhibition of the G1/S-phase cell cycle transition. CBD also inhibited DNA synthesis and downregulated key cell cycle proteins. Moreover, CBD reduced the mRNA and protein levels of a functional marker, Wilms' tumor 1. Similar to CBD, 7-carboxy-CBD and 7-hydroxy-CBD inhibited cellular proliferation and decreased DNA synthesis. 7-Carboxy-CBD was less cytotoxic than CBD, while 7-hydroxy-CBD showed comparable cytotoxicity to CBD in both mouse and human Sertoli cells. Compared to mouse Sertoli cells, CBD, 7-hydroxy-CBD, and 7-carboxy-CBD were more cytotoxic in human Sertoli cells. Our results indicate that CBD and its main metabolites can inhibit cell proliferation in mouse and human Sertoli cells.

20.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875041

RESUMO

Prior studies reported the global structure of brain networks exhibits the "small-world" and "rich-world" attributes. However, the underlying structural and functional architecture highlighted by these graph theory findings hasn't been explicitly related to the morphology of the cortex. This could be attributed to the lower resolution of used folding patterns, such as gyro-sulcal patterns. By defining a novel gyral folding pattern, termed gyral hinge (GH), which is the conjunction of ordinary gyri from multiple directions, we found GHs possess the highest length and cost in the white matter fiber connective network, and the shortest paths in the network tend to travel through GHs in their middle part. Based on these findings, we would hypothesize GHs could reside in the centers of a network core, thereby accounting for the highest cost and the highest communication capacity in a corticocortical network. The following results further support our hypothesis: 1) GHs possess stronger functional network integration capacity. 2) Higher cost is found on the connection with GHs to hinges and GHs to GHs. 3) Moving GHs introduces higher extra network cost. Our findings and hypotheses could reveal a profound relationship among the cortical folding patterns, axonal wiring architectures, and brain functions.

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