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1.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637583

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to determine the correlation between B-lymphoid tyrosine kinase (BLK) polymorphism, mRNA gene expression of BLK, and NMOSD in a Chinese Han population. BACKGROUND: B-lymphoid tyrosine kinase gene expressed mainly in B cells plays a key role in various autoimmune disorders. However, no studies have investigated the association of BLK polymorphisms with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS: Han Chinese population of 310 subjects were recruited to analyze three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs13277113, rs4840568, and rs2248932) under allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies, followed by clinical characteristics stratified analysis. Real-time PCR was used to analyze mRNA expression levels of BLK in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 64 subjects. RESULTS: Patients with NMOSD showed lower frequencies of the minor allele G of rs2248932 than healthy controls (odds ratio (OR) =0.57, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.39-0.83, p = 0.003). The association between minor allele G of rs2248932 and reduced NMOSD susceptibility was found by applying genetic models of inheritance (codominant, dominant, and recessive) and haplotypes analysis. Subsequently, by stratification analysis for AQP4-positivity, the minor allele G frequencies of rs2248932 in AQP4-positive subgroup were significantly lower than in the healthy controls (OR =0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.72, p = 0.001). Notably, the genotype GG of rs2248932 was more frequent in AQP4-negative subgroup (n = 14) than in AQP4-positive subgroup (n = 93) (p = 0.003, OR =0.05, 95% CI =0.01-0.57). BLK mRNA expression levels in the NMOSD patients (n = 36) were lower than in healthy controls (n = 28) (p < 0.05). However, the acute non-treatment (n = 7), who were untreated patients in the acute phase from the NMOSD group, showed BLK mRNA expression levels 1.8-fold higher than healthy controls (n = 8) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study evaluated that the minor allele G of rs2248932 in BLK is associated with reduced susceptibility to NMOSD and protected the risk of AQP4-positive. BLK mRNA expression in NMOSD was lower as compared to healthy controls while significantly increased in acute-untreated patients.

3.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647631

RESUMO

A 33-year-old woman of giant broad ligament leiomyoma with myxoid degeneration was misdiagnosed as ovarian tumor. The patient underwent a transabdominal myomectomy and developed a pelvic infection after operation diagnosed with contrast-enhanced ultrasound. She was cured and ultimately discharged after symptomatic treatment. Only 21 cases of giant broad ligament leiomyomas with a diameter larger than 12 cm were included. The present systematic review aimed to increase awareness of the clinical characteristics and treatment methods of giant broad ligament leiomyoma, and reduce the rates of misdiagnosis and postoperative complications.

4.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647847

RESUMO

Quercetin (1) was converted into quercetin 7-O-succinyl glucoside (2) by used Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FJ18 as a solvent-resistant whole-cell biocatalyst. The structure of the new compound was confirmed by LC-MS analysis and NMR spectroscopy. The water-solubility of this novel quercetin 7-O-succinyl glucoside (2) was approximately 1000 times higher than that of native quercetin (2). Quercetin (1) and quercetin 7-O-succinyl glucoside (2) exhibited significant DPPH scavenging capacity with IC50 values of 23.55 and 36.05 µM, respectively. Both compounds showed moderate cytotoxic effects against the two human cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and HepG2) with IC50 values ranging from 39.45-63.38 µM.

5.
Appl Opt ; 60(27): 8466-8471, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612947

RESUMO

To simplify the design of a beam scanning device, we present a simple and compact structure to realize the frequency scanning characteristic based on a hybrid waveguide consisting of a spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) transmission line and half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW). Additionally, the radiation characteristic is implemented using periodically modulated slots. The scanning angle range covers backward to forward directions without an open stop band at the broadside. The results from both simulations and measurements show that the total scanning angle reaches 117° for a frequency range of 9-11.4 GHz. Owing to the inherent features of the HMSIW and the unique design of the SSPP transmission line, the entire structure is only 139.2mm×15mm in size. Moreover, the average gain is approximately 6.5 dBi. Overall, the compact size and good performance ensure that the proposed design is favorable for planar integrated communication systems.

6.
Redox Biol ; 47: 102154, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601426

RESUMO

Selenoprotein K (SELENOK), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein, is regulated by dietary selenium and expressed at a relatively high level in neurons. SELENOK has been shown to participate in oxidation resistance, calcium (Ca2+) flux regulation, and the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway in immune cells. However, its role in neurons has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that SELENOK gene knockout markedly enhanced ER stress (ERS) and increased apoptosis in neurons. SELENOK gene knockout elicited intracellular Ca2+ flux and activated the m-calpain/caspase-12 cascade, thus inducing neuronal apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, SELENOK knockout significantly reduced cognitive ability and increased anxiety in 7-month-old mice. Our findings reveal an unexpected role of SELENOK in regulating ERS-induced neuronal apoptosis.

7.
Biopharm Drug Dispos ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the clinical application of a population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model of vancomycin in patients with hematological diseases and neutropenia. METHODS: Patients with hematological diseases and neutropenia were included in the PPK model study. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling approach (NONMEM) was used for model establishment. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out. A total of 74 patients were divided into model group and non-model group for clinical application research. The model group was given the initial dose of 1g q8h, and the non-model group was given 1g q12h as an empiric initial dosage.the follow-up dose adjustments were made according to the concentration results. RESULTS: This two-compartment model showed good stability and accuracy. The first trough concentration(C0 ) and the compliance rate of the first C0 were much higher in the model group than that in the non-model group(14.30 ± 4.73 µg/ml and 59.38% vs. 8.02 ± 2.61 µg/ml, 35.71% ). Less patients needed dose adjustments and fewer adjustment times in the model group than those in the non-model group(12.50% and 0.13 ± 0.34times vs 50.00% and 0.61 ± 0.66times). This suggested that for those patients who had a CLCR≥90 ml/min/1.73m2 , the initial dose of 1g q8h may help to reach the target C0 (10∼20µg/ml) quickly. It also helped to reduce the times and number of patients who need dose adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: Our PPK model of vancomycin in patients with hematologic diseases and neutropenia can be used to shorten the time to reach the target concentration anddn reduce the number of dose adjustments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Food Chem ; 372: 131249, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634587

RESUMO

Nowadays, computational approaches have drawn more and more attention when exploring the relationship between sweetness and chemical structure instead of traditional experimental tests. In this work, we proposed a novel multi-layer sweetness evaluation system based on machine learning methods. It can be used to evaluate sweet properties of compounds with different chemical spaces and categories, including natural, artificial, carbohydrate, non-carbohydrate, nutritive and non-nutritive ones, suitable for different application scenarios. Furthermore, it provided quantitative predictions of sweetness. In addition, sweetness-related chemical basis and structure transforming rules were obtained by using molecular cloud and matched molecular pair analysis (MMPA) methods. This work systematically improved the data quality, explored the best machine learning algorithm and molecular characterizing strategy, and finally obtained robust models to establish a multi-layer prediction system (available at: https://github.com/ifyoungnet/ChemSweet). We hope that this study could facilitate food scientists with efficient screening and precise development of high-quality sweeteners.

9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(9): e3001386, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499638

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causal agent of malaria, caused more than half of the 229 million malaria cases worldwide in 2019. The emergence and spreading of frontline drug-resistant Plasmodium strains are challenging to overcome in the battle against malaria and raise urgent demands for novel antimalarial agents. The P. falciparum formate-nitrite transporter (PfFNT) is a potential drug target due to its housekeeping role in lactate efflux during the intraerythrocytic stage. Targeting PfFNT, MMV007839 was identified as a lead compound that kills parasites at submicromolar concentrations. Here, we present 2 cryogenic-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of PfFNT, one with the protein in its apo form and one with it in complex with MMV007839, both at 2.3 Å resolution. Benefiting from the high-resolution structures, our study provides the molecular basis for both the lactate transport of PfFNT and the inhibition mechanism of MMV007839, which facilitates further antimalarial drug design.

10.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(1)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489378

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus isrecognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogens responsible for gastroenteritis in humans. The blaCARB-17 gene is an intrinsic ß-lactamase gene and a novel species-specific genetic marker of V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed targeting this blaCARB-17 gene. The specificity of LAMP-LFD was ascertained by detecting V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and other seven non-V. parahaemolyticus strains. Finally, the practicability of LAMP-LFD was confirmed by detection with V. parahaemolyticus-contaminated samples and natural food samples. The results showed that the optimized reaction parameters of LAMP are as follows: 2.4 mmol/L Mg2+, 0.96 mmol/L dNTPs, 4.8 U Bst DNA polymerase, 8:1 ratio of inner primer to outer primer, at 63 °C for 40 min. The optimized reaction time of the LFD assay is 60 min. Cross-reactivity analysis with seven non-V. parahaemolyticus strains showed that LAMP-LFD was exclusively specific for V. parahaemolyticus. The detection limit of LAMP-LFD for V. parahaemolyticus genomic DNA was 2.1×10-4 ng/µL, corresponding to 630 fg/reaction and displaying a sensitivity that is 100-fold higher than that of conventional PCR. LAMP-LFD in a spiking study revealed a detection limit of approximately 6 cfu/mL, which was similar with conventional PCR. The developed LAMP-LFD specifically identified the 10 V. parahaemolyticus isolates from 30 seafood samples. It suggested that this LAMP-LFD may be a suitable diagnostic method for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in aquatic foods.

11.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(5): 117-124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and leads to patient's death. Objective: To investigate the effect of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2C) on acute lung injury (ALI) with sepsis and its possible mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis rat model was established. The lung injury was determined by lung wet-dry weight ratio, the concentration of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interlukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, and IL-10, were measured by the enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay kit. The cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining assay. RESULTS: Interestingly, MEF2C was down-regulated in this model. Moreover, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-MEF2C treatment markedly suppressed TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 concentrations but promoted IL-10 concentration in serum in CLP-challenged rats. Besides, overexpression of MEF2C alleviates CLP-induced lung injury. Interestingly, AAV-MEF2C treatment was confirmed to suppress apoptosis in CLP-induced sepsis rats as well as promote aquaporin APQ1 expression. Mechanistically, the rescue experiments indicated that MEF2C alleviated CLP-induced lung inflammatory response and apoptosis via up-regulating AQP1. CONCLUSION: In summary, overexpression of MEF2C suppressed CLP-induced lung inflamma-tory response and apoptosis via up-regulating AQP1, providing a novel therapeutic target for sepsis-induced ALI.

12.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2915-2923, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472308

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides are the most promising alternatives to antibiotics. However, the strategy of producing antimicrobial peptides by recombinant technology is complicated and expensive, which is not conducive to the large-scale production. Oxysterlin 1 is a novel type of cecropin antimicrobial peptide mainly targeting on Gram-negative bacteria and is of low cytotoxicity. In this study, a simple and cost-effective method was developed to produce Oxysterlin 1 in Escherichia coli. The Oxysterlin 1 gene was cloned into a plasmid containing elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and protein splicing elements (intein) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pET-ELP-I-Oxysterlin 1). The recombinant protein was mainly expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and then the target peptide can be purified with a simple salting out method followed by pH changing. The final yield of Oxysterlin 1 was about 1.2 mg/L, and the subsequent antimicrobial experiment showed the expected antimicrobial activity. This study holds promise for large-scale production of antimicrobial peptides and the in-depth study of its antimicrobial mechanism.


Assuntos
Elastina , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/genética , Inteínas , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética
13.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520348

RESUMO

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has been shown to be valuable in a wide range of neuroscientific and clinical applications. However, reliable estimation of DKI tensors is often compromised by noise, especially for the kurtosis tensor (KT). Here, we propose a joint denoising and estimating framework that integrates multiple sources of prior information, including nonlocal structural self-similarity (NSS), local spatial smoothness (LSS), physical relevance (PR) of the DKI model, and noise characteristics of magnitude diffusion MRI (dMRI) images for improved estimation of DKI tensors. The local and nonlocal spatial smoothing constraints are complementary to each other, making the proposed framework highly effective in reducing the noise fluctuations on DKI tensors, especially KT. As an additional refinement, we propose to impose a physically relevant constraint within our joint denoising and estimation framework. We further adopt the first-moment noise-corrected fitting model (M1NCM) to remove the noncentral χ-distribution noise bias. The effectiveness of integrating multiple sources of priors into the joint framework is verified by comparing the proposed M1NCM-NSS-LSS-PR method with various versions of M1NCM-based estimators and two state-of-the-art methods. Results show that the proposed method outperformed the compared methods in simulations and in-vivo dMRI datasets of both spatially stationary and nonstationary noise distributions. The in-vivo experiments also show that the proposed M1NCM-NSS-LSS-PR method was robust to the number of diffusion directions.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150295, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536874

RESUMO

Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the impacts of microbial decomposing inoculants on greenhouse gas emissions and economic profit from paddy fields under different water regimes. Here, this study evaluated the effects of microbial decomposing inoculant treatments (straw returning without or with microbial decomposing inoculants (S and SMD)) on rice yield, CH4 and N2O emissions, economic profit and net ecosystem economic profit (NEEP) from paddy fields under different water regimes (continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWD)) in central China with a two-year field experiment. Compared with S treatment, SMD treatment significantly increased the rice yield and crop water productivity by 6.6-7.2% and 5.6-7.9%, respectively. AWD treatment significantly enhanced the crop water productivity by 56.9-73.7% while did not affect rice yield relative to CF treatment. Regardless of water regimes, SMD treatment did not affect N2O emissions, but significantly increased CH4 emissions by 13.8-39.6% relative to S treatment, resulting in a remarkable enhancement of global warming potential by 13.5-32.5%. Compared with S treatment, SMD treatment improved the economic profit and NEEP. By contrast, AWD treatment significantly increased N2O emissions by 19.1-64.8% compared with CF treatment, but significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 35.3-79.1%. Accordingly, AWD treatment significantly decreased the global warming potential by 33.4-73.9% compared with CF treatment. In addition, AWD treatment resulted in 39.9-96.4% higher economic profit and 48.0-124.4% higher NEEP relative to CF treatment. In summary, AWD treatment is a sustainable water regime that can maintain rice yield, mitigate global warming potential, and increase economic income. However, regardless of water regimes, SMD treatment led to higher rice yield and economic profit, as well as higher global warming potential than S treatment, suggesting that other appropriate treatments of crop straw are needed to mitigate CH4 emissions while improving economic profit for rice sustainable production.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534435

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Alteration of human respiratory microbiota had been observed in COVID-19. How the microbiota is associated with the prognosis in COVID-19 is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the feature and dynamics of the respiratory microbiota and its associations with clinical features in COVID-19 patients. Methods:We conducted metatranscriptome sequencing on 588 longitudinal oropharyngeal swab specimens collected from 192 COVID-19 patients (including 39 deceased patients), and 95 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Meanwhile, the concentration of 27 cytokines and chemokines in plasma was measured for COVID-19 patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota in COVID-19 patients differed from that in healthy controls, while deceased patients possessed a more distinct microbiota, both on admission and before discharge/death. The alteration of URT microbiota showed a significant correlation with the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and mortality. Specifically, Streptococcus-dominated microbiota was enriched in recovered patients, and show high temporal stability and resistance against pathogens. In contrast, the microbiota in deceased patients was more susceptible to secondary infections, and became more deviated from the normality after admission. Moreover, the abundance of S. parasanguinis on admission was significantly correlated with prognosis in non-severe patients (lower vs. higher abundance, odds ratio=7.80, [95% CI 1.70-42.05]). Conclusions:URT microbiota dysbiosis is a remarkable manifestation of COVID-19; its association with mortality suggests it may reflect the interplay between pathogens, symbionts, and the host immune status. Whether URT microbiota could be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases merits further investigation. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(17): 2025-2036, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517376

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease characteristic of small airway inflammation, obstruction, and emphysema. It is well known that spirometry alone cannot differentiate each separate component. Computed tomography (CT) is widely used to determine the extent of emphysema and small airway involvement in COPD. Compared with the pulmonary function test, small airway CT phenotypes can accurately reflect disease severity in patients with COPD, which is conducive to improving the prognosis of this disease. CT measurement of central airway morphology has been applied in clinical, epidemiologic, and genetic investigations as an inference of the presence and severity of small airway disease. This review will focus on presenting the current knowledge and methodologies in chest CT that aid in identifying discrete COPD phenotypes.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Humanos , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
J Mol Biol ; : 167243, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536442

RESUMO

Brain organoids are self-organized three-dimensional aggregates generated from pluripotent stem cells. They exhibit complex cell diversities and organized architectures that resemble human brain development ranging from neural tube formation, neuroepithelium differentiation, neurogenesis and gliogenesis, to neural circuit formation. Rapid advancements in brain organoid culture technologies have allowed researchers to generate more accurate models of human brain development and neurological diseases. These models also allow for direct investigation of pathological processes associated with infectious diseases affecting the nervous system. In this review, we first briefly summarize recent advancements in brain organoid methodologies and neurodevelopmental processes that can be effectively modeled by brain organoids. We then focus on applications of brain organoids to investigate the pathogenesis of neurotropic viral infection. Finally, we discuss limitations of the current brain organoid methodologies as well as applications of other organ specific organoids in the infectious disease research.

19.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 31(5): 79-94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591393

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, which is globally the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality. This study aims to identify new potential early-stage diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for HCC. The candidate gene SLC26A6 expression was analyzed based on the Oncomine and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) databases and verified forwards with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. The protein expression was retrieved from Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database. We also validated the diagnostic and prognostic value in HCC, and the relationship between SLC26A6 and clinicopathologic parameters were also accessed. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network were constructed to analyze the SLC26A6-related pathway. These results reveal that SLC26A6 expression was elevated in HCC, and the diagnostic sensitivity of SLC26A6 was higher than α-fetoprotein (AFP). SLC26A6 expression was independent prognostic factor for HCC. SLC26A6 up-regulation was mainly associated with excision repair, DNA replication, etc. SLC26A6-related mR-NAs was enriched in PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, axon guidance, pathways in cancer, and so on. PPI network indicated that SLC26A6 was interacted with solute carrier members, ABC transporters and other ion transport molecule. We further analyzed three positively correlated microRNAs and 10 negatively correlated microRNAs, all of these were reported participating or inhibiting in cancer progression. This is the first study demonstrated that SLC26A6 is up-regulated in HCC and correlated with poor prognosis, which might be served as a diagnostic marker or prognostic biomarker for HCC.

20.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to compare the efficacies of the immunosuppressants most commonly prescribed for patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The predictors, which might be associated with relapse and disability in NMOSD, were also analyzed. METHODS: This retrospective study included NMOSD patients treated with azathioprine (AZA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and rituximab (RTX). The annual relapse rate (ARR) and the incidence rates of adverse events were compared. Cox proportional-hazards model calculated the potential predictors of NMOSD relapse and disability. RESULTS: A total of 83 patients were included. The median treatment time of AZA group (n = 34), MMF group (n = 20), and RTX group (n = 29) were 19.5, 15.5, and 12 months, respectively. ARR of the three groups reduced significantly after treatment. In the three groups, 55.9%, 50%, and 79.3% of patients, respectively, were free from relapse. However, the difference among the three groups was of no statistical significance, possibly due to the small sample size. During the treatment, 32.4%, 15%, and 24.1% of patients experienced adverse events in the AZA group, MMF group, and RTX group, respectively. Additionally, the multivariate Cox analyses indicated that history of a severe attack and disease duration were associated with the risk of relapse after immunotherapy. Late-onset (≥ 50 years old) NMOSD patients were probably more susceptible to motor disability, and those with optic neuritis at onset were more likely to develop visual disability. CONCLUSIONS: AZA, MMF, and low-dose RTX were all effective in reducing the relapse rate in NMOSD. The age at onset, disease duration, history of severe attacks, and primary syndromes might be significant prognostic predictors in NMOSD.

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