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2.
J Org Chem ; 86(8): 5894-5900, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793234

RESUMO

Fischdiabietane A (1), a novel asymmetric diterpenoid dimer with a unique nonacyclic 6/6/6/5/7/6/6/6/6 ring system possessing unprecedented 2-oxaspiro[4.5]decane-1-one and 2-oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane frameworks in D/E/F rings, was isolated from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic techniques, electronic circular dichroism calculations, and X-ray diffraction experiments. Notably, 1 is the first abietane-type [4 + 2] Diels-Alder dimer identified from nature. The IC50 of 1 against T47D cells was about sixfold higher than that of cisplatin (the positive control). Furthermore, 1 induced apoptosis in T47D cells through the activation of caspase-3 and the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

3.
Cytokine ; 142: 155500, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810947

RESUMO

We quantified the serum levels of 34 cytokines/chemokines in 30 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Elevated levels of IP-10 and IL-7 were detected in the acute and convalescent stages of the infection and were highly associated with disease severity.

4.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104845, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812268

RESUMO

Steroidal alkaloids (1-11), including one new 24-hydroxylated cevanine-type steroidal alkaloid, named yibeinone F (1), were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of extensive spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those reported previously, and the structures of compounds 1, 7 and 11 were further confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses. The anti-inflammatory effects of all the isolated alkaloids were evaluated in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Among them, compounds 9 (stenanzine) and 10 (hapepunine) showed significant inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production with IC50 values of 8.04 µM and 20.85 µM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 9 effectively inhibited the release of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and suppressed the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Further experiments revealed the underlying mechanism that 9 blocked LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor-α of nuclear transcription factor κB (IκBα) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, compound 9 may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

5.
Org Lett ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861088

RESUMO

An electroreductive arylation reaction of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as ketones with electro-deficient (hetero)arenes is described. A variety of cyano(hetero)arenes and carbonyl compounds, especially aliphatic aldehydes, have been examined, providing secondary and tertiary alcohols in moderate to good yields. Mechanistic studies, including cyclic voltammetry (CV), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and divided-cell experiments, support the generation of aliphatic ketyl radicals and persistent heteroaryl radical anions via cathodic reduction followed by radical-radical cross-coupling.

6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114095, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819505

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. (Euphorbiaceae) is a perennial herb distributed in grassland, hill slopes or gravel hillside, with average altitude of 100-600 m. The whole grass of E. fischeriana is toxic with roots used as folk medicine to treat Zhushui, dyspepsia, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, cough, as well as external applications such as cure of scabies and tuberculosis of lymph nodes. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This systematic review aims to provide a detailed and in-depth summary about the reported advances in traditional uses, clinical applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity of E. fischeriana, so as to offer fresh ideas and broader vision and insights for subsequent studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various scientific data bases such as CNKI, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct, SciFinder Scholar and Web of Science were searched to collect information about E. fischeriana. Other relevant literatures were searched in 'Flora of China Editorial Committee', ancient books, Ph.D and Masters' Dissertation to get more data of E. fischeriana. RESULTS: A total of 241 chemical constituents have been identified from the roots of E. fischeriana, including diterpenoids, triterpenoids, meroterpenoids, acetophenones, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, phenolic acids, tannins, etc. Various pharmacological activities have been demonstrated, especially anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-leukemia activities. Moreover, different investigations about clinical uses and toxicology of E. fischeriana indicated that attention should be paid to its usage and dosage. CONCLUSION: The researches of E. fischeriana are excellent, but gap still remains. As a poisonous traditional Chinese medicine, there are not enough studies on the toxicity of E. fischeriana. In addition, scholars' research on the pharmacological mechanism of E. fischeriana focuses more on the anti-tumor activity, which can be broadened in the future. Presumably, chemical constituents and biological activities of diterpenoids and trace meroterpenoids in E. fischeriana deserve further research in-depth in the future, in order to provide low toxicity and high efficiency lead compounds. Meanwhile, further studies on other medicinal aspects may lay a foundation for the comprehensive development and utilization of E. fischeriana.

7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805298

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful tool in charge transfer (CT) process research. By analyzing the relative intensity of the characteristic bands in the bridging molecules, one can obtain detailed information about the CT between two materials. Herein, we synthesized a series of Au nanorods (NRs) with different length-to-diameter ratios (L/Ds) and used these Au NRs to prepare a series of core-shell structures with the same Cu2O thicknesses to form Au NR-4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA)@Cu2O core-shell structures. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption bands were adjusted by tuning the L/Ds of Au NR cores in these assemblies. SERS spectra of the core-shell structure were obtained under 633 and 785 nm laser excitations, and on the basis of the differences in the relative band strengths of these SERS spectra detected with the as-synthesized assemblies, we calculated the CT degree of the core-shell structure. We explored whether the Cu2O conduction band and valence band position and the SPR absorption band position together affect the CT process in the core-shell structure. In this work, we found that the specific surface area of the Au NRs could influence the CT process in Au NR-MBA@Cu2O core-shell structures, which has rarely been discussed before.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800983

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is widely studied as a medicinal and edible fungus. Recent studies have shown that H. erinaceus has protective effects for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer, which are related to gut microbiota. To investigate the benefits of H. erinaceus intake on gut microbiota and blood indices in adulthood, we recruited 13 healthy adults to consume H. erinaceus powder as a dietary supplement. Blood changes due to H. erinaceus consumption were determined by routine hematological examination and characterized by serum biochemical markers. Microbiota composition was profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results showed that daily H. erinaceus supplementation increased the alpha diversity within the gut microbiota community, upregulated the relative abundance of some short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria (Kineothrix alysoides, Gemmiger formicilis, Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), and downregulated some pathobionts (Streptococcus thermophilus, Bacteroides caccae, Romboutsia timonensis). Changes within the gut microbiota were correlated with blood chemical indices including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), uric acid (UA), and creatinine (CREA). Thus, we found that the gut microbiota alterations may be part of physiological adaptations to a seven-day H. erinaceus supplementation, potentially influencing beneficial health effects.

9.
Org Lett ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720734

RESUMO

A dual gold-catalyzed hexadehydro-Diels-Alder/carboalkoxylation cascade reaction is reported. In this transformation, the gold catalyst participated in the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder step, switching the mechanism from a radical type to a cationic one, and then the catalyst activated the resulting aryne to form an ortho-Au phenyl cation species, which underwent a carboalkoxylation rearrangement rather than the expected aryne-ene reaction.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787214

RESUMO

Carbon supported and nitrogen coordinated single Mn site (Mn-N-C) catalysts are the most desirable platinum group metal (PGM)-free cathode catalysts for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) due to their insignificant Fenton reactions (vs. Fe), earth abundances (vs. Co), and encouraging activity and stability. However, current Mn-N-C catalysts suffer from high overpotential due to low intrinsic activity and less dense MnN4 sites. Herein, we present a sulfur-doped Mn-N-C catalyst (Mn-N-C-S) synthesized through an effective adsorption-pyrolysis process. Using electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques, we verify the uniform dispersion of MnN4 sites and confirm the effect of S doping on the Mn-N coordination. The Mn-N-C-S catalyst exhibits a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in acidic media relative to the S-free Mn-N-C catalyst. The corresponding membrane electrode assembly (MEA) generates enhanced performance with a peak power density of 500 mW cm-2 under a realistic H2/air environment. The constant voltage tests of fuel cells confirm the much-enhanced stability of the Mn-N-C-S catalyst compared to the Fe-N-C and Fe-N-C-S catalysts. The electron microscopy and Fourier transform XAS analyses provide insights into catalyst degradation associated with Mn oxidation and agglomeration. The theoretical calculation elucidates that the promoted ORR activity is mainly attributed to the spatial effect stemmed from the repulsive interaction between the ORR intermediates and adjacent S dopants.

11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 636784, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776932

RESUMO

Mechanical stimulation induces bone growth and remodeling by the secondary messenger, cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP), in osteoblasts. However, the role of cGMP in the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis, whose deficiency is a major cause of osteoporosis, remains unclear. Here, we found that the prenylated flavonoids, 3-O-methoxymethyl-7-O-benzylicaritin (13), 7-O-benzylicaritin (14), and 4'-O-methyl-8-isopentylkaempferol (15), which were synthesized using icariin analogs, promoted estrogen biosynthesis in osteoblastic UMR106 cells, with calculated EC50 values of 1.53, 3.45, and 10.57 µM, respectively. 14 and 15 increased the expression level of the bone specific promoter I.4-driven aromatase, the only enzyme that catalyzes estrogen formation by using androgens as substrates, in osteoblastic cells. 14 inhibited phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), stimulated intracellular cGMP level and promoted osteoblast cell differentiation. Inhibition of cGMP dependent-protein kinase G (PKG) abolished the stimulatory effect of 14 on estrogen biosynthesis and osteoblast cell differentiation. Further, PKG activation by 14 stimulated the activity of SHP2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2), thereby activating Src and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling and increasing ERK-dependent aromatase expression in osteoblasts. Our findings reveal a previously unknown role of cGMP in the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis in the bone. These results support the further development of 14 as a PKG-activating drug to mimic the anabolic effects of mechanical stimulation of bone in the treatment of osteoporosis.

12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 35, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772032

RESUMO

Gene expression signatures have been used to predict the outcome of chemotherapy for breast cancer. The nucleosome footprint of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) carries gene expression information of the original tissues and thus may be used to predict the response to chemotherapy. Here we carried out the nucleosome positioning on cfDNA from 85 breast cancer patients and 85 healthy individuals and two cancer cell lines T-47D and MDA-MB-231 using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing (LCWGS) method. The patients showed distinct nucleosome footprints at Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) compared with normal donors. In order to identify the footprints of cfDNA corresponding with the responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients, we mapped on nucleosome positions on cfDNA of patients with different responses: responders (pretreatment, n = 28; post-1 cycle, post-3/4 cycles, and post-8 cycles of treatment, n = 12) and nonresponders (pretreatment, n = 10; post-1 cycle, post-3/4 cycles, and post-8 cycles of treatment, n = 10). The coverage depth near TSSs in plasma cfDNA differed significantly between responders and nonresponders at pretreatment, and also after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment cycles. We identified 232 TSSs with differential footprints at pretreatment and 321 after treatment and found enrichment in Gene Ontology terms such as cell growth inhibition, tumor suppressor, necrotic cell death, acute inflammatory response, T cell receptor signaling pathway, and positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production. These results suggest that cfDNA nucleosome footprints may be used to predict the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients and thus may provide help in decision making for individual patients.

13.
J Genet Genomics ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744162

RESUMO

Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the most important edible fungi in Basidiomycete division and includes white and gray strains. However, very limited knowledge is known about the genomic structures and the genetic basis for the white/gray diversity of this mushroom. Here, we report the near-complete high-quality H. marmoreus genome at the chromosomal level. Comparative genomics analysis indicates that chromosome structures were relatively conserved, and variations in collinearity and chromosome number were mainly attributed by chromosome split/fusion events in Aragicales, whereas the fungi genome experienced many genomic chromosome fracture, fusion, and genomic replication events after the split of Aragicales from Basidiomycetes. Resequencing of 57 strains allows us to classify the population into four major groups and associate genetic variations with morphological features, indicating that white strains were not originated independently. We further generated genetic populations and identified a cytochrome P450 as the candidate causal gene for the melanogenesis in H. marmoreus based on bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and comparative transcriptome analysis. The high-quality H. marmoreus genome and diversity data compiled in this study provide new knowledge and resources for the molecular breeding of H. marmoreus as well as the evolution of Basidiomycete.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746086

RESUMO

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can be expanded in vitro in different culture conditions, resulting in a spectrum of cell states with distinct properties. Understanding how PSCs transition from one state to another, ultimately leading to lineage-specific differentiation, is important for developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Although there is significant information regarding gene expression changes controlling these transitions, less is known about post-translational modifications of proteins. Protein crotonylation is a newly discovered post-translational modification where lysine residues are modified with a crotonyl group. Here, we employed affinity purification of crotonylated peptides and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to systematically profile protein crotonylation in mouse PSCs in different states including ground, metastable, and primed states, as well as metastable PSCs undergoing early pluripotency exit. We successfully identified 3628 high-confidence crotonylated sites in 1426 proteins. These crotonylated proteins are enriched for factors involved in functions/processes related to pluripotency such as RNA biogenesis, central carbon metabolism, and proteasome function. Moreover, we found that increasing the cellular levels of crotonyl-coenzyme A (crotonyl-CoA) through crotonic acid treatment promotes proteasome activity in metastable PSCs and delays their differentiation, consistent with previous observations showing that enhanced proteasome activity helps to sustain pluripotency. Our atlas of protein crotonylation will be valuable for further studies of pluripotency regulation and may also provide insights into the role of metabolism in other cell fate transitions.

15.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 269881120985183, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term morphine use is associated with serious side effects, such as morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance. Previous investigations have documented the association between dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and pain. However, whether VTA DA neurons are implicated in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance remains elusive. METHODS: Initially, we observed behavioural effects of lidocaine administration into VTA or ablation of VTA DA neurons on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Subsequently, c-Fos expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell-projecting and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-projecting VTA DA neurons after chronic morphine treatment was respectively investigated. Afterwards, the effects of chemogenetic manipulation of NAc shell-projecting or mPFC-projecting DA neurons on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance were observed. Additionally, effects of chemogenetic manipulation of VTA GABA neurons on c-Fos expression in VTA DA neurons were investigated. RESULTS: Lidocaine injection into VTA relieved established hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance whereas ablation of VTA DA neurons prevented the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Chronic morphine treatment increased c-Fos expression in NAc shell-projecting DA neurons, rather than in mPFC-projecting DA neurons. Chemogenetic manipulation of NAc shell-projecting DA neurons had influence on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. However, chemogenetic manipulation of mPFC-projecting DA neurons had no significant effects on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Chemogenetic manipulation of VTA GABA neurons affected the c-Fos expression in VTA DA neurons. CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed the involvement of NAc shell-projecting VTA DA neurons in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance, and may shed new light on the clinical management of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance. PERSPECTIVE: This study demonstrated that NAc shell-projecting DA neurons rather than mPFC-projecting DA neurons in the VTA were implicated in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Our findings may pave the way for the discovery of novel therapies for morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 897, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563974

RESUMO

The dynamics, duration, and nature of immunity produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear. Here, we longitudinally measured virus-neutralising antibody, specific antibodies against the spike (S) protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), and the nucleoprotein (N) of SARS-CoV-2, as well as T cell responses, in 25 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients up to 121 days post-symptom onset (PSO). All patients seroconvert for IgG against N, S, or RBD, as well as IgM against RBD, and produce neutralising antibodies (NAb) by 14 days PSO, with the peak levels attained by 15-30 days PSO. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NAb remain detectable and relatively stable 3-4 months PSO, whereas IgM antibody rapidly decay. Approximately 65% of patients have detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses 3-4 months PSO. Our results thus provide critical evidence that IgG, NAb, and T cell responses persist in the majority of patients for at least 3-4 months after infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , /virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Cinética , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 94: 225-234, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607235

RESUMO

A growing body of studies indicated that exosomes are one of vital players in pathological process of neuropsychiatric diseases, but their role in major depressive disorder (MDD) remains poorly understood. Here we purified plasma exosomes from depression including lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged depression, chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression, MDD subjects, and from control mice or volunteers. The therapeutic effect of these exogenous exosomes was assessed utilizing behavioral tests and biochemical approaches in the LPS-caused depression or microglial BV2 cells. The expression of exosomal sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) was evaluated by western blotting. The role of Sig-1R in the biological function of exosomes was determined using Sig-1R knockout mice and HEK 293 cells. Our results revealed that injection of exosomes from depression models or patients rather than normal controls significantly ameliorated depressive-like behaviors, deficiency of BDNF expression and neuro-inflammation in LPS-challenged mice. In addition, co-culture with exosomes from depression models or patients instead of from controls prevented LPS-induced inflammation responses in microglial BV2 cells. Moreover, Sig-1R was demonstrated for the first time to significantly be enriched in exosomes from depression models or patients compared with that from normal controls. However, Sig-1R null exosomes no longer emerged antidepressant-like action in LPS-challenged mice. Thus, we demonstrated that plasma exosomes from depression exerted antidepressant-like effects in a Sig-1R dependent manner in the LPS-induced depression. This work improves our understanding of the exosomes in depression, suggesting a novel exosomes-based approach for MDD treatment.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(3): 2037-2047, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435681

RESUMO

Roxarsone (ROX) has been widely used as an organoarsenic additive in animal feeding operations and poses a risk to the environment. Here, we first report the efficient degradation of ROX by UV/chlorine, where the kinetics, removal of total arsenic (As), and cytotoxicity were investigated. The kinetics study presented that reactive chlorine species (RCS) and HO• were the dominant species to react with ROX. Furthermore, the degradation rate of ROX can reach the maximum value at pH 7.5 due to the formation of more RCS. The degradation of ROX was affected by the amount of chlorine, pH, and water matrix. Through product analysis and Gauss theoretical calculation, two possible ROX degradation pathways were proposed. The free radicals attacked the As-C bond of ROX and resulted in releasing arsenate (As(V)). It was the reason that for an enhancement of the removal of total As by ferrous appeared after UV/chlorine, and over 98% of the total As was removed. In addition, cytotoxicity studies indicated that the cytotoxicity significantly enhanced during the degradation of ROX by UV/chlorine. However, by combination of UV/chlorine and adsorption, cytotoxicity can be greatly eliminated, probably due to the removal of As(V) and chlorinated products. These results further demonstrated that UV/chlorine treatment could be an effective method for the control of the potential environmental risks posed by organoarsenic.

20.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502764

RESUMO

The leaf is the main photosynthetic organ in plants, such as bamboo. Leaves from bamboo are used as a food additive. However, according to our investigation, to date there have been no reports concerning the leaf development of bamboo. By measuring over 7500 parenchymal cells, we discovered that the linear leaf growth of Pseudosasa japonica could be divided into three growth sections. The first one is a roughly 1-cm long division zone (DZ), containing about 1580 cells, located at the bottom of the leaf; the second one is an about 3-cm long elongation zone (EZ), with ~1905 cells, located above the DZ; and the last is a mature zone (MZ) in which cell elongation is completed. The cell production rate of the DZ was 25.33-35.81 cells per hour, with an average of 29.73; and the cell division rate was ~0.45 cells per cell every 24 h. PacBio and Illumina transcriptome sequencing found 21 933 unigenes expressed in these zones. Further analysis revealed a dynamic transcriptome, with transcripts for cell division in the DZ changing to transcripts for cell elongation, photosynthetic development, secondary metabolism, stress resistance, and nutrition transport toward the leaf distal. Those transcriptome transformations correlated well with the changes of relative water content, biomass accumulation, and cellulose crystal degree and were supported by quantitative polymerase chain reaction data. These results revealed a developmental gradient of the bamboo linear growth leaf, which offers a foundation to elucidate and engineer leaf development in bamboo, an economically valuable plant.

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