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1.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942994

RESUMO

AIMS: NOTCH3 gene mutations predominantly cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, a common etiology of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). Besides, there may be a pathogenic link between NOTCH3 variants and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to study the role of NOTCH3 variants in AD and SVaD patients. METHODS: We recruited 763 patients with dementia (667 AD and 96 SVaD) and 365 healthy controls from the Southern Han Chinese population. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on NOTCH3 coding and adjacent intron regions to detect the pathogenic variants in AD and SVaD. The relationship between common or rare NOTCH3 variants and AD was further analyzed using Plink1.9. RESULTS: Five known pathogenic variants (p.R182C, p.C201S, p.R544C, p.R607C, and p.R1006C) and two novel likely pathogenic variants (p.C201F and p.C1061F) were detected in 16 SVaD patients. Additionally, no pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were found in AD patients. NOTCH3 was not associated with AD in either single-variant association analysis or gene-based association analysis. CONCLUSION: Our findings broaden the mutational spectrum of NOTCH3 and validate the pathogenic role of NOTCH3 mutations in SVaD, but do not support the notion that NOTCH3 variation influences the risk of AD.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 11352-11362, 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three polymorphisms in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T, A1298C, and A1793G) were reported associated with AD. However, their genotype distributions and associations with age at onset (AAO), homocysteine, and white matter lesions (WML) were unclear in the Chinese AD population. METHOD: We determined the presence of C677T, A1298C, and A1793G polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene using Sanger sequencing in a Chinese cohort comprising 721 AD patients (318 early-onset AD patients (EOAD) and 403 late-onset AD patients (LOAD)) and 365 elderly controls. Additionally, the homocysteine level and WML were evaluated in 121 AD patients. RESULTS: The frequency of allele T of C677T polymorphism was significantly higher in AD patients than in controls (P = 0.040), while no statistical difference was observed in A1298C and A1793G (P > 0.05). Besides, genotype distributions of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms statistically varied between AD patients and controls (P = 0.021, P = 0.012). Moreover, the AAO was significantly lower in CT/TT (C677T) genotypes carriers (P = 0.042) and higher in AC/CC (A1298C) and AG/GG (A1793G) genotypes carriers (P = 0.034, P = 0.009) in patients with LOAD. We also found that patients with CT/TT (C677T) genotypes were prone to present an increased homocysteine level (P = 0.036) and higher Fazekas score (P = 0.024). In comparison, patients with AG/GG genotypes (A1793G) had a significantly lower Fazekas score (P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: The genotype distributions of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with AD in the Chinese population. Moreover, AD patients with C677T polymorphism are prone to present an earlier onset, higher homocysteine level, and more severe WML.

3.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106349, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905861

RESUMO

Morphologically identified Penicillium (n = 103) and Talaromyces marneffei (n = 8) isolates were collected from various clinical sources between 2016 and 2017 at a medical centre in Beijing, China. Identification to species level was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, ß-tubulin gene (benA) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene. Of the 111 isolates, 56 (50.5%) were identified as Penicillium spp. and 55 (49.5%) as Talaromyces spp. Eleven species of Penicillium were detected, of which Penicillium oxalicum was the commonest, accounting for 51.8% (29/56), followed by Penicillium rubens (10.7%; 6/56) and Penicillium citrinum (10.7%; 6/56). Among the 55 Talaromyces isolates, nine species were identified, with Talaromyces funiculosus (36.4%; 20/55), Talaromyces stollii (27.3%; 15/55) and Talaromyces marneffei (14.5%; 8/55) being the most common. Of note, 89.3% (50/56) of the Penicillium isolates and 98.2% (54/55) of the Talaromyces isolates exhibited growth at 37°C. The isolates were mainly recovered from patients with pulmonary disorders (56.8%; 63/111), autoimmune disease (12.6%; 14/111) and AIDS (5.4%; 6/111). The azoles and amphotericin B exhibited potent activity against T. marneffei, while various levels of activity were observed against Penicillium and other Talaromyces species The echinocandins had the lowest MECs (MEC90, ≤0.12 mg/L) against most Penicillium and Talaromyces species, with the exception of T. marneffei whose MEC90 (4 mg/L) was five or more dilutions higher than that of the other species tested. These data on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility expand the current clinical knowledge of Penicillium and Talaromyces species.

4.
Protoplasma ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884505

RESUMO

Sulfur (S) is an essential macronutrient required by plants. Plants absorb and transport S through sulfate transporters (SULTRs). In this study, we cloned 8 SULTR genes (CsSULTR1;1/1;2/2;1/3;1/3;2/3;3/3;5/4;1) from tea plant (Camellia sinensis), all of which contain a typical sulfate transporter and antisigma factor antagonist (STAS) conserved domain. Phylogenetic tree analysis further divided the CsSULTRs into four main groups. Many cis-acting elements related to hormones and environmental stresses were found within the promoter sequence of CsSULTRs. Subcellular localization results showed that CsSULTR4;1 localized in the vacuolar membrane and that other CsSULTRs localized to the cellular membrane. The tissue-specific expression of the 8 CsSULTR genes showed different expression patterns during the active growing period and dormancy period. In particular, the expression of CsSULTR1;1 was highest in the roots, but that of CsSULTR1;2 was lowest in the dormancy period. The expression of CsSULTR1;1/1;2/2;1/3;2 was stimulated under different concentrations of selenium (Se) and S; moreover, CsSULTR1;2/2;1/3;3/3;5 was upregulated in response to different valences of Se.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799726

RESUMO

Precipitation has an important impact on people's daily life and disaster prevention and mitigation. However, it is difficult to provide more accurate results for rainfall nowcasting due to spin-up problems in numerical weather prediction models. Furthermore, existing rainfall nowcasting methods based on machine learning and deep learning cannot provide large-area rainfall nowcasting with high spatiotemporal resolution. This paper proposes a dual-input dual-encoder recurrent neural network, namely Rainfall Nowcasting Network (RN-Net), to solve this problem. It takes the past grid rainfall data interpolated by automatic weather stations and doppler radar mosaic data as input data, and then forecasts the grid rainfall data for the next 2 h. We conduct experiments on the Southeastern China dataset. With a threshold of 0.25 mm, the RN-Net's rainfall nowcasting threat scores have reached 0.523, 0.503, and 0.435 within 0.5 h, 1 h, and 2 h. Compared with the Weather Research and Forecasting model rainfall nowcasting, the threat scores have been increased by nearly four times, three times, and three times, respectively.

6.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678090

RESUMO

Two new alkaloids, phranisines A-B (1-2), along with two known compounds, N-p-Coumaroyl serotonin (3) and N-p-coumaroyl-tryptamine (4), were isolated from the roots of Phragmites australis. The structures of 1-4 were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic. The absolute configuration of compounds 1-2 were identified through quantum-chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation compared with their experimental CD. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activities against HeLa and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines, and compounds 2-4 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against HeLa cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 13.2 to 18.6 µM.

7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 217: 113361, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740546

RESUMO

Diosgenin (DSG) has attracted attention recently as a potential anticancer therapeutic agent due to its profound antitumor activity. To better utilize DSG as an antitumor compound, two series of DSG-amino acid ester derivatives (3a-3g and 7a-7g) were designed and synthesized, and their cytotoxic activities against six human cancer cell lines (K562, T24, MNK45, HepG2, A549, and MCF-7) were evaluated. The results obtained showed that a majority of derivatives exhibited cytotoxic activities against these six human tumor cells. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the introduction of l-tryptophan to the C-3 position of DSG and the C-26 position of derivative 5 was the preferred option for these compounds to display significant cytotoxic activities. Among them, compound 7g exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line (IC50 = 4.41 µM) and was 6.8-fold more potent than diosgenin (IC50 = 30.04 µM). Further cellular mechanism studies in K562 cells elucidated that compound 7g triggered mitochondrial-related apoptosis by increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was associated with upregulation of the gene and protein expression levels of Bax, downregulation of the gene and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 and activation of the caspase cascade. The above results suggested that compound 7g might be considered a promising scaffold for further modification of more potent anticancer agents.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 412: 125258, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548788

RESUMO

Phosphomolybdic acid catalyst (PMoA/TiO2) is a promising catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR) due to its strong acidity and excellent redox property. This work presents the NH3-SCR reaction mechanism by In-situ diffuse reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (In-situ DRIFTs) and density functional theory (DFT). In-situ DRIFTs results indicated that the NH3-SCR performance over PMoA/TiO2 followed both Eley-Rideal (E-R) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanisms. The reaction pathway, intermediate, transition state and energy barrier over PMoA to complete NH3-SCR reaction were calculated by DFT. The results showed that the catalytic cycle includes foundational reaction (NH3 + NO reaction) and regenerative reaction (NH3 + NO2 reaction). NH2, NH2NO, HNNOH and HO2NNH species were the key intermediates. In the foundational reactions, NO2 played an important role in the removal of remaining H atoms. The NH3 dissociation on Lewis acid site, the internal hydrogen transfer on Brønsted acid site and the formation of HO2NNH species were the rate-controlling steps. The catalytic cycle of NH3-SCR over PMoA consists of standard SCR and fast SCR.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145036, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578148

RESUMO

In this study, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 17 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) are determined in 18 species (including plankton, invertebrate, and fish) from Bohai Sea, China. Trophic transfer of these compounds is also assessed in the marine food web. Significant trophic magnification (p < 0.01) for 11 PBDE congeners (BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-66, BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE154 and BDE-183) is observed. No significant correlation is observed for BDE-138 (p = 0.06), and significant trophic dilution is observed for BDE-209 (p < 0.0001). In PBDEs, BDE-66 has the highest TMF value of 3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.2-4.7), followed by BDE-47 (TMF: 3.8, 95% CI: 2.6-5.4) and BDE-28 (3.0, 2.2-4.1). For NBFRs, ATE, TBECH (include α- and ß-isomer), PBBZ, TBCO (include α- and ß-isomer), PBT, DPTE, HBBZ, PBBA, BTBPE, PBEB and HCDBCO are observed significant trophic magnification (p < 0.01), significant trophic dilution is observed for BATE (p < 0.01), DBDPE (p < 0.001) and OBIND (p < 0.0001), no significant correlation is observed for p-TBX (p = 0.77). In NBFRs, PBT has the highest TMF value of 4.5 (95% CI: 3.1-6.3), followed by PBEB (TMF: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.1-7.6) and HCDBCO (3.9, 3.1-5.0). Regression analysis between KOW and TMF values of BFRs suggest that TMF values have a trend of first rising and then falling against the values of log KOW. Generally, chemicals with higher KOW value have stronger trophic magnification capacity than those with lower ones, but due to the influence of bioavailability, the trophic magnification ability of the superhydrophobic compounds may be inhibited. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of trophic transfer of NBFRs in marine food web and trophic transfer of 9 NBFRs (α-TBECH, p-TBX, BATE, PBBZ, α-TBCO, ß-TBCO, DPTE, OBIND, and HCDBCO) in aquatic food web.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise
10.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(5): 960-962, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491782

RESUMO

Implantation of leadless pacemaker is efficacy and safety compared with the traditional pacemaker in structurally normal hearts. However, delivery experience of leadless pacemaker in patients with severe right heart enlargement remains limited. We present the rare case of a patient with giant right heart and moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation implanted with a leadless Micra transcatheter pacemaker system. The extension of the Micra delivery catheter can be improved by using a single-loop snare on the catheter proximal to appropriate right ventricle (RV) pacing position. The snare-kissing-catheter technique can aid in successful deployment in the setting of challenging right heart enlargement.

11.
J Adv Nurs ; 77(5): 2307-2318, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481272

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to explore illness perception and coping style in relation to health behaviour and the mediating role of coping style between illness perception and health behaviour among stroke patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This survey was conducted with 515 stroke patients aged ≥18 years from September 2019 to January 2020 in Zhengzhou, China. The demographic and clinical characteristics questionnaire, Stroke Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Health Behavior Scale for Stroke Patients were included in this study. Data analysis was performed by correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, and structural equation modelling. RESULTS: The valid questionnaires were 495 (effective response rate: 96.1%). Low negative illness perception, high positive coping style, and low negative coping style are related to high level of health promoting behaviour (all p < 0.01). The results revealed that the effect of illness perception on health behaviour was partly mediated by coping style. It also confirmed that the mediation effect accounts for 43.7% (-0.169/-0.387) of the total effect. CONCLUSION: Illness perception may influence health behaviour partly because of coping style. IMPACT: This study implies that targeted interventions for stroke patients' illness perception are needed to motivate them to take proactive coping strategy to ultimately improve their health behaviours.

12.
Nano Lett ; 21(1): 414-423, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356313

RESUMO

Salmonella selectively colonizes into the hypoxic tumor region and exerts antitumor effects via multiple mechanisms, while the tumor colonized Salmonella recruits host neutrophils into the tumor, presenting a key immunological restraint to compromise the Salmonella efficacy. Here, we develop a combinatorial strategy by employing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to improve the efficacy and biosafety of Salmonella. The AgNPs were decorated with sialic acid (SA) to allow selective recognition of L-selectin on neutrophil surfaces, based on which the tumor-homing of AgNPs was achieved by neutrophil infiltration in the Salmonella colonized tumor. The tumor-targeting AgNPs exert the functions of (1) local depletion of neutrophils in tumors to boost the efficacy of Salmonella, (2) direct killing tumor cells via L-selectin-mediated intracellular delivery, and (3) clearing the residual Salmonella after complete tumor eradication to minimize the side effects. With a single tail vein injection of such combination treatment, the tumor was eliminated with high biosafety, resulting in a superior therapeutic outcome.

13.
Biomaterials ; 264: 120390, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980634

RESUMO

Infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially the M1 macrophages that secrete various types of inflammation cytokines, play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To relief synovial inflammation, M1 macrophages must be eliminated or switched to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. We herein developed folic acid modified silver nanoparticles (FA-AgNPs) that can actively deliver into M1 macrophages to synergistically induce M1 macrophages reduction and M2 macrophages polarization for effective RA treatment. The AgNPs was facilely prepared, PEGylated and modified with FA to realize M1 macrophages targeting delivery via folate receptor overexpressed on M1 macrophages surface. After entering cells, FA-AgNPs dissolved and released Ag+ in response to intracellular glutathione (GSH), which is the key element to exert a series of anti-inflammatory functions, such as M1 macrophages apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging to facilitate M2 macrophages polarization, both of which contributed to RA treatment. This nano-system could passively accumulate into inflamed joints, permit potent anti-inflammatory activity, and impose strong therapeutic efficacy in mice RA models with high biosafety. After treatment, FA-AgNPs could be gradually cleared from the body mainly via feces without tissue accumulation, and did not show any appreciable long-term toxicity. This work declares the first example of using bio-active nanoparticles for RA treatment without loading any drugs, and highlights the potential of FA-AgNPs for targeted RA therapy via simultaneous M1 macrophage apoptosis and M1-to-M2 macrophages re-polarization.

14.
J Control Release ; 330: 119-131, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333119

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) has been used as an anchor drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), while the patients with chronic MTX administration suffer from severe side-effects. To this end, targeted delivery of MTX by nanomedicine has attracted great interest. In this work, we aimed to employ metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as nanocarrier to deliver MTX by virtue of its facile and green preparation and exceptionally high drug loading. While MTX could be easily and effectively loaded via different MOF construction strategies, such as direct coordination, physical encapsulation, and covalent conjugation, we found that most of the MTX loading MOFs showed premature and burst drug release, attributable to the unstable coordination between MTX and metals. To address this issue, we rationally designed the MOFs by conjugating MTX with tannic acid (TA) at 2:1 M ratio and then coordinating with ferric ion (Fe3+), followed by surface modification of hyaluronic acid (HA). The resulting MOFs achieved ultra-high drug loading (45%) and sustained drug release, and could selectively recognize the diseased cells for anti-inflammatory effect. The in vivo therapeutic evaluation suggested that the MOFs could enhance the anti-rheumatic activity of MTX while minimizing its toxic effects by targeted drug delivery, resulting in improved therapeutic index. This work provides a biocompatible nano-platform to deliver MTX for RA treatment, and importantly, calls for special attention to the gap between MOFs design and their biological applications, and the gap needs to be filled by careful evaluation of in vivo stability and burst drug release.

15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High agglomeration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in neuroblastoma (NB) impeded therapeutic effects. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of targeted inhibition of MDSCs by low-dose doxorubicin (DOX) to enhance immune efficacy in NB. METHODS: Bagg albino (BALB/c) mice were used as tumor-bearing mouse models by injecting Neuro-2a cells, and MDSCs were eliminated by DOX or dopamine (DA) administration. Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 2.5 mg/kg DOX, 5.0 mg/kg DOX, 50.0 mg/kg DA, and control groups (n = 20). The optimal drug and its concentration for MDSC inhibition were selected according to tumor inhibition. NB antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) were prepared. Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into DOX, CTL, anti-ganglioside (GD2), DOX+CTL, DOX+anti-GD2, and control groups. Following low-dose DOX administration, immunotherapy was applied. The levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I, CD8, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ in peripheral blood, CTLs, T-helper 1 (Thl)/Th2 cytokines, perforin, granzyme and tumor growth were compared among the groups. The Wilcoxon two-sample test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to analyze results. RESULTS: The slowest tumor growth (F = 6.095, P = 0.018) and strongest MDSC inhibition (F = 14.632, P = 0.001) were observed in 2.5 mg/kg DOX group. Proliferation of T cells was increased (F = 448.721, P = 0.000) and then decreased (F = 2.047, P = 0.186). After low-dose DOX administration, HLA-I (F = 222.489), CD8 (F = 271.686), Thl/Th2 cytokines, CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, granzyme (F = 2376.475) and perforin (F = 488.531) in tumor, IL-2 (F = 62.951) and IFN-γ (F = 240.709) in peripheral blood of each immunotherapy group were all higher compared with the control group (all of P values < 0.05). The most significant increases in the aforementioned indexes and the most notable tumor growth inhibition were observed in DOX+anti-GD2 and DOX+CTL groups. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose DOX can be used as a potent immunomodulatory agent that selectively impairs MDSC-induced immunosuppression, thereby fostering immune efficacy in NB.

16.
Org Lett ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373258

RESUMO

Based on the DFT calculations, the sulfonamide was explored as an efficient hydrogen-atom transfer catalyst for the C(sp3)-H alkylation. The combination of a metal-free photoredox catalyst and a sulfonamide catalyst enables highly regioselective alkylation of the C-H bonds adjacent to heteroatoms, which features broad substrate scope and excellent functional group compatibility. Remarkably, the sulfonamide catalyst was also applicable to the C(sp3)-C(sp3) couplings through the merger of photoredox, nickel, and HAT catalysis.

17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 584801, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240075

RESUMO

The genes involved in the metabolic pathways of amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau proteins significantly influence the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Various studies have explored the associations between some of these genes and AD in the Caucasian population; however, researches regarding these associations remain limited in the Chinese population. To systematically evaluate the associations of these genes with AD, we investigated 19 genes involved in the metabolism of Aß and tau based on previous studies selected using the PubMed database. This study included 372 patients with sporadic late-onset AD (sLOAD) and 345 cognitively healthy individuals from southern China. The results were replicated in the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). Protein-protein interactions were determined using the STRING v11 database. We found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs11682128, of BIN1 conferred susceptibility to sLOAD after adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ε4 status and performing the Bonferroni correction {corrected P = 0.000153, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.403 (1.079-1.824)}, which was replicated in the IGAP. Protein-protein interactions indicated that BIN1 was correlated with MAPT. Moreover, rare variants of NEP and FERMT2 (0.0026 < corrected P < 0.05), and the Aß degradation, tau pathology, and tau phosphatase pathways (0.01 < corrected P < 0.05), were nominally significantly associated with sLOAD. This study suggested that the genes involved in the metabolic pathways of Aß and tau contributed to the etiology of sLOAD in the southern Han Chinese population.

18.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(22): 2001939, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240757

RESUMO

Supercapacitors with the advantages of high power density and fast discharging rate have full applications in energy storage. However, the low energy density restricts their development. Conventional methods for improving energy density are mainly confined to doping atoms and hybridizing with other active materials. Herein, a Co3O4/g-C3N4 p-n junction with excellent capacity is developed and its application in an all-solid-state flexible device is demonstrated, whose capacity and energy density are considerably enhanced by simulated solar light irradiation. Under photoirradiation, the capacity is increased by 70.6% at the maximum current density of 26.6 mA cm-2 and a power density of 16.0 kW kg-1. The energy density is enhanced from 7.5 to 12.9 Wh kg-1 with photoirradiation. The maximum energy density reaches 16.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 6.4 kW kg-1. It is uncovered that the lattice distortion of Co3O4, reduces defects of g-C3N4, and the facilitated photo-generated charge separation by the Co3O4/g-C3N4 p-n junction all make contributions to the promoted electrochemical storage performance. This work may provide a new strategy to enhance the energy density of supercapacitors and expand the application range of photocatalytic materials.

19.
Neuroreport ; 31(18): 1249-1255, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Upregulation of P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) in activated microglia is associated with hyperalgesia. This study investigated whether nicotine increases pain hypersensitivity by altering the expression of these molecules in microglia. We also examined the role of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) in this process. METHODS: Experiments were performed in BV2 microglial cells. IRF8 was knocked down or overexpressed using lentiviruses harboring a short hairpin RNA targeting IRF8 or an IRF8 overexpression construct, respectively. P2X4R, BDNF, and IL-1ß mRNA and protein levels were evaluated by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively, and BDNF and IL-1ß secretion was assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: Chronic nicotine exposure enhanced the expression of P2X4R, BDNF, and IL-1ß in BV2 cells, and stimulated the release of BDNF and IL-1ß in the presence of ATP. IRF8 was found to mediate the nicotine-induced increases in BDNF and IL-1ß mRNA and P2X4R protein levels in BV2 cells. CONCLUSION: Nicotine may increase pain hypersensitivity by promoting the expression of P2X4R, BDNF, and IL-1ß through modulation of IRF8 levels in microglial cells.

20.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis ; 37(11): 1806-1813, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175757

RESUMO

Free-space propagation and experimental generation of a partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) vortex beam were studied recently [Opt. Express24, 13714 (2016)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.24.013714]. In this work, we explore the statistical properties of such a PCRP vortex beam propagating in a uniaxial crystal. We show that the anisotropy of the refractive index of the uniaxial crystal induces the asymmetrical distribution of the intensity, the degree and the state of polarization, as well as the degree of coherence of the beam during propagation. Further, by comparing the asymmetrical distribution of the statistical properties of the PRCP vortex beam with those of a PRCP beam without a vortex phase, we find that the asymmetrical features can be used for determining whether a PCRP beam carries the vortex phase. Further, we show that from the far-field distribution of the degree of coherence, we could quantify the topological charge and distinguish the handedness of the vortex phase. Our findings provide a novel approach for measuring the phase information of the partially coherent vortex beams.

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