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1.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 14, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815766

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent pollutant that exerts toxicity and induces cardiogenesis in humans and animals. Yet, the effect of PFOS exposure on cardiac toxicity in adult rats has, to our knowledge, not been reported and the mechanism still remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of PFOS on rat hearts and any associated mechanisms. Rats were exposed to 0 (control), 1 and 10 mg/kg PFOS every other day for 14 days. Body weight and heart weight were recorded. The serum levels of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin-T (cTn-T) in heart tissues were measured using biochemical assays. TUNEL staining and western blotting were applied to analyze levels of apoptosis in rat hearts. Pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry analysis of heart tissues were used to evaluate the levels of PFOS-induced cardiotoxicity and inflammatory infiltration. PFOS exposure at the dosage of 10 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of heart to body weight; however, it did not alter the body weight. At 10 mg/kg, PFOS significantly increased expression levels of myocardial injury markers, such as cTn-T, LDH, CK and CK-MB, while 1 mg/kg PFOS upregulated the expression level of cTn-T in rats. Notably, cardiac fibrosis and myocardiac hypertrophy appeared in the 10 mg/kg PFOS group. In addition, TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased by exposure to 10 mg/kg PFOS in rat heart tissues. The protein expressions profiles of p53 and Bax were also significantly upregulated in the 10 mg/kg PFOS group. Inflammatory infiltration, detected by anaylzing expression levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α, was significantly raised by 10 mg/kg PFOS exposure. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that 10 mg/kg PFOS-induced cardiac toxicity in rats, which was associated with an increase in apoptosis and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

2.
Behav Brain Res ; 417: 113591, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551347

RESUMO

HIV-related neurocognitive impairment can be worsened by cigarette smoking and be more severe in women. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of sex on behavioral function in HIV transgenic (Tg) rats that were exposed to either nicotine alone, to smoke from either nicotine-containing or nicotine-free cigarettes, or non-exposed. The animals were then assessed on the open field test for the total distance traveled and for the fraction of the total distance traveled and the total time spent in the center of the field, and the results then compared to WT rats subjected to the same exposures and testing. Higher total distances indicate greater locomotor activity and a higher center field measures imply a lower anxiety state. Total distances were overall higher for female and for Tg rats exposed to nicotine-free CS. Also, the total distance and both center field measures were overall higher for female rats in the control and nicotine-free CS-exposed groups. This was observed specifically for WT females as compared to WT males and, for the center field measures, for WT females as compared to Tg males. No genotype or sex-related differences were found for rats in the nicotine-free cigarette smoke (CS) and nicotine-containing CS exposed groups. Therefore, nicotine exposure did not impact genotype- and sex-related differences in motor responses and anxiety levels that were found in the control state. However, exposure to the non-nicotine components of CS resulted in locomotor activation in the presence of the HIV genes and was anxiogenic in WT and Tg male animals.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851332

RESUMO

Hybrid photochromic materias (HPMs), especially crystalline HPMs (CHPMs), have been widely investigated due to their feasibility in maintaining the advantages of each constituent and genearating captivating photomodulated functionality. Metal-organic complexes (MOCs), as promising candidates for fabricating CHPMs, have attracted the interest of researchers. The molecular predesign of ligands plays a crucial role in yielding MOC-based CHPMs with tunable photochromic functionality. Hitherto, a great majority of CHPMs are driven by photosensitive ligands. However, the complicated synthesis and high cost of photosensitive ligands obviously prevent the macro-synthesis and future application of these CHPMs. Thus, it is indispensable to explore novel branches of CHPMs. Herein, we report a series of photochromic solid materials bearing modulated photochromic properties by hybridizing metal chlorides with a nonphotosensitive coplanar dipyridine unit 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and its derivative 5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline (5-Cl-phen). The resulting hybrids, [ZnCl2(phen)] (1), [CdCl2(phen)] (2), [PbCl2(phen)] (3), [ZnCl(H2O)(5-Cl-phen)2]Cl·2H2O (4), [Cd2Cl4(5-Cl-phen)2] (5) and [Pb2Cl4(5-Cl-phen)2] (6), exhibit distinct structures from the isolated molecular complexes (1 and 4) to the hybrid chain (2, 3, 5 and 6) because of the distinct coordination mode of central metal ions and chloride ions. After photo-irradiation with a Xe-lamp, all complexes, as expected, exhibited apparent color change because of the photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between coordinated chloride ions (Cl-) as electron donors (EDs) and the coordinated coplanar phen and 5-Cl-phen species as electron acceptors (EAs). More importantly, the photochromic performance of the title complexes could be modulated by phen and 5-Cl-phen. This study provides a general and facile way for modulating the structure and photochromic performance of hybrid metal chlorides with phen or phen-based derivatives under the synergy of crystalline engineering strategy and ET mechanism.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) or microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) status serves as a predictor of a poor response to adjuvant chemotherapy among stage 2 colon cancer patients. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in dMMR/MSI-H gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Clinical studies comparing adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery alone in dMMR/MSI-H GCs through June 2021 were retrieved to assess the survival of patients managed with both treatments. Two approaches were used to pool the hazard ratio (HR) of survival: (1) if Kaplan-Meier curves and number of patients at risk were provided, individual patient data were extracted. Cox models were used to calculate the HR with its 95% confidence interval (CI); (2) for study-level data, pooled HR was estimated using fixed/random-effects models. RESULTS: Seven clinical studies were assessed. For dMMR/MSI-H versus mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR)/microsatellite stable (MSS)/microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L) status, the estimated 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 74.2% versus 51.5% (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.62; P < 0.001) and the estimated 5-year OS rate was 60.5% versus 49.1% (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.85; P < 0.001). The study-level data showed pooled HRs of 0.42 for DFS (95% CI, 0.31-0.57; P < 0.001) and 0.65 for OS (95% CI, 0.38-1.11; P = 0.114). For adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation of dMMR/MSI-H, the estimated 5-year DFS rate was 76.1% versus 73.3% (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45-1.15; P = 0.171) and the estimated 5-year OS rate was 73.5% versus 59.7% (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.46-0.83; P = 0.001). Significant survival differences also were observed at study level. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirm the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for dMMR/MSI-H GC patients.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(46): 55700-55711, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752083

RESUMO

Currently, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are assembled with polar electrolytes; thus, resulting SEI layers are dominated with organics. Herein, a low-polarity electrolyte is formulated with a low-polarity solvent (tetraethyl silicate, TEOS) and a non-polar inert shielding co-solvent (cyclohexane, CYH); solvation behaviors of lithium salt are investigated. The use of such a low-polarity solvent is found to improve the fraction of anions in the solvation sheath of Li+, and the presence of the non-polar co-solvent further shields the reductive decomposition of the solvent on the anode. The resulting SEI layer is relatively rich in LiF and has a 3D cross-linked Si-O network as a skeleton from the decomposition of TEOS molecules, which is more robust to tolerate the damage from the volume expansion of silicon. A Si-nanoparticle-based anode in such a low-polarity electrolyte delivers a capacity as high as 1491 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles, outperforming those in the commercial polar electrolytes.

6.
iScience ; 24(11): 103252, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755092

RESUMO

It is well established that the early malignant tumor invades surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) in a manner that depends upon material properties of constituent cells, surrounding ECM, and their interactions. Recent studies have established the capacity of the invading tumor spheroids to evolve into coexistent solid-like, fluid-like, and gas-like phases. Using breast cancer cell lines invading into engineered ECM, here we show that the spheroid interior develops spatial and temporal heterogeneities in material phase which, depending upon cell type and matrix density, ultimately result in a variety of phase separation patterns at the invasive front. Using a computational approach, we further show that these patterns are captured by a novel jamming phase diagram. We suggest that non-equilibrium phase separation based upon jamming and unjamming transitions may provide a unifying physical picture to describe cellular migratory dynamics within, and invasion from, a tumor.

8.
Gut ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.

9.
Small ; : e2103466, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837328

RESUMO

Embryonic morphogenesis is a biological process which depicts shape forming of tissues and organs during development. Unveiling the roles of mechanical forces generated, transmitted, and regulated in cells and tissues through these processes is key to understanding the biophysical mechanisms governing morphogenesis. To this end, it is imperative to measure, simulate, and predict the regulation and control of these mechanical forces during morphogenesis. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the recent advances on mechanical properties of cells and tissues, generation of mechanical forces in cells and tissues, the transmission processes of these generated forces during cells and tissues, the tools and methods used to measure and predict these mechanical forces in vivo, in vitro, or in silico, and to better understand the corresponding regulation and control of generated forces. Understanding the biomechanics and mechanobiology of morphogenesis will not only shed light on the fundamental physical mechanisms underlying these concerted biological processes during normal development, but also uncover new information that will benefit biomedical research in preventing and treating congenital defects or tissue engineering and regeneration.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt C): 127563, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736201

RESUMO

Design of high-efficiency visible light photocatalysts is critical in the degradation of antibiotic pollutants in water, a key step towards environmental remediation. In the present study, Mo-doped BiOBr nanocomposites are prepared hydrothermally at different feed ratios, and display remarkable visible light photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of sulfanilamide, a common antibacterial drug. Among the series, the sample with 2% Mo dopants exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, with a performance 2.3 times better that of undoped BiOBr. This is attributed to Mo doping that narrows the band gap of BiOBr and enhances absorption in the visible region. Additional contributions arise from the unique materials morphology, where the highly exposed (102) crystal planes enrich the photocatalytic active sites, and facilitate the adsorption of sulfanilamide molecules and their eventual attack by free radicals. The reaction mechanism and pathways are then unraveled based on theoretical calculations of the Fukui index and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry measurements of the reaction intermediates and products. Results from this study indicate that deliberate structural engineering based on heteroatom doping and morphological control may serve as an effective strategy in the design of highly active photocatalysts towards antibiotic degradation.

11.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 200, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade resistance narrows the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Delineating the inherent mechanisms of anti-PD1 resistance is important to improve outcome of patients with advanced HCC. METHOD: The level of cricTMEM181 was measured in HCC patients with anti-PD1 therapy by RNA sequencing and then confirmed by qPCR and Sanger sequencing. Immune status in tumor microenvironment of HCC patients or mice models was evaluated by flow cytometry and IHC. Exosomes from HCC cell lines were isolated by ultracentrifugation, and their internalization by macrophage was confirmed by immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of HCC-derived exosomal circTMEM181 to macrophage was confirmed by SILAC, RNA FISH and RNA immunoprecipitation. The ATP-ADO pathway amplified by HCC-macrophage interaction was evaluated through ATP, AMP and ADO measurement and macrophage-specific CD39 knockout mice. The role of circTMEM181 in anti-PD1 therapy and its clinical significance were also determined in our retrospective HCC cohorts. RESULTS: Here, we found that circTMEM181 was elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients responding poorly to anti-PD1 therapy and in HCC patients with a poor prognosis after operation. Moreover, we also found that high exosomal circTMEM181 favored the immunosuppressive microenvironment and endowed anti-PD1 resistance in HCC. Mechanistically, exosomal circTMEM181 sponged miR-488-3p and upregulated CD39 expression in macrophages. Using macrophage-specific CD39 knockout mice and pharmacologic approaches, we revealed a novel mode of anti-PD1 resistance in HCC. We discovered that cell-specific CD39 expression in macrophages and CD73 expression in HCC cells synergistically activated the eATP-adenosine pathway and produced more adenosine, thereby impairing CD8+ T cell function and driving anti-PD1 resistance. CONCLUSION: In summary, HCC-derived exosomal circTMEM181 contributes to immunosuppression and anti-PD1 resistance by elevating CD39 expression, and inhibiting the ATP-adenosine pathway by targeting CD39 on macrophages can rescue anti-PD1 therapy resistance in HCC.

12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pay-for-performance (P4P) program of diabetes care has demonstrated successful outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the effectiveness of this multidisciplinary care model for psychiatric patients has never been evaluated. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of P4P program of diabetes for psychiatric patients with diabetes. METHODS: This study utilized a retrospective cohort design to examine the effectiveness of P4P program of diabetes care for psychiatric patients with diabetes. The participants' HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c) data of the fourth quarter in 2018 were used as baseline value, while P4P program was not applied yet. HbA1c data of every quarter in 2019 were collected. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used to analyze the change of HbA1c level. RESULTS: The HbA1c level increased slightly in the first quarter, and then decreased gradually since the second quarter. The HbA1c level was significantly lower in the fourth quarter after P4P program intervention (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: P4P program of diabetes care is also effective on psychiatric patients with diabetes, and this multidisciplinary care model could be encouraged and promoted for psychiatric patients with diabetes.

13.
Environ Res ; : 112453, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843726

RESUMO

To explore green technology for wheat straw pretreatment, this study combined the microwave or hydrothermal with ionic liquid ([Bmim][OAc]) on wheat straw followed by rumen fermentation. The optimal conditions of microwave assisted ionic liquids pretreatment (M-I) and hydrothermal assisted ionic liquids pretreatment (H-I) treatment were 360 W and 200 °C, and the corresponding lignin removal rates reached 35.3% and 25.4%, respectively. Rumen fermentation showed that the highest volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield was found in M-I group, followed by H-I group at 234 and 180 mg/g, respectively. As for enzymatic hydrolysis, the saccharification rates at 3 days of M-I (360 W) and H-I (200 °C) were determined to be 393 and 320 mg/g. The optimal ionic liquid dosage was determined to be 30% in consideration of cost and VFA conversion rate. M-I pretreatment plus the rumen fermentation enjoyed the benefit of no enzyme addition and high product recovery, which was worth further investigating.

14.
Innovation (N Y) ; : 100181, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746904

RESUMO

Most COVID-19 convalescents can build effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity, but it remains unclear how long it can maintain and how efficiently it can prevent the reinfection of the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we tested the sera from 248 COVID-19 convalescents around one year post-infection in Wuhan, the earliest known epicenter. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins G (IgG) were well maintained in most patients and potently neutralizes the infection of the original strain and the B.1.1.7 variant. However, varying degrees of immune escape was observed on the other tested variants in a patient-specific manner, with individuals showing remarkably broad neutralization potency. The immune escape can be largely attributed to several critical spike mutations. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can elicit long-lasting immunity but escaped by the emerging variants.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(39): 22760-22767, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608903

RESUMO

Optimizing the efficiency of heat dissipation across an interface is a great challenge with the continuously increasing integration of microelectronic devices. In this work, an effective method in tuning the heat conduction across the Al/graphene/SiO2 interface is reported. It was found that the interfacial thermal conductance of Al/irradiated graphene/SiO2 can be increased by a factor of 3, as compared with that of Al/pristine graphene/SiO2. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that ion irradiation may promote the formation of CO bonds on the irradiated graphene surface, which is beneficial to the enhancement of interfacial thermal conductance. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that in addition to the formed bonds between O atoms and Al atoms, the adsorption strength between Al and irradiated graphene is intensified, which plays a dominant role in enhancing the interfacial thermal conductance of Al/graphene/SiO2.

16.
New Phytol ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657283

RESUMO

The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 type III effector HopAM1 suppresses plant immunity and contains a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain homologous to immunity-related TIR domains of plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors that hydrolyze nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) and activate immunity. In vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to determine if HopAM1 hydrolyzes NAD+ and if the activity is essential for HopAM1's suppression of plant immunity and contribution to virulence. HPLC and LC-MS were utilized to analyze metabolites produced from NAD+ by HopAM1 in vitro and in both yeast and plants. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and in planta inoculation assays were performed to determine HopAM1's intrinsic enzymatic activity and virulence contribution. HopAM1 is catalytically active and hydrolyzes NAD+ to produce nicotinamide and a novel cADPR variant (v2-cADPR). Expression of HopAM1 triggers cell death in yeast and plants dependent on the putative catalytic residue glutamic acid 191 (E191) within the TIR domain. Furthermore, HopAM1's E191 residue is required to suppress both pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity and promote P. syringae virulence. HopAM1 manipulates endogenous NAD+ to produce v2-cADPR and promote pathogenesis. This work suggests that HopAM1's TIR domain possesses different catalytic specificity than other TIR domain-containing NAD+ hydrolases and that pathogens exploit this activity to sabotage NAD+ metabolism for immune suppression and virulence.

17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 740, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mollusca, a phylum of highly rich species, possess vivid shell colours, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. DNA methylation, one of the most common epigenetic modifications in eukaryotes, is believed to play a vital role in various biological processes. However, analysis of the effects of DNA methylation on shell colouration has rarely been performed in molluscs, limiting the current knowledge of the molecular mechanism of shell colour formation. RESULTS: In the present study, to reveal the role of epigenetic regulation in shell colouration, WGBS, the "gold standard" of DNA methylation analysis, was first performed on the mantle tissues of Yesso scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) with different shell colours (brown and white), and DNA methylomes at single-base resolution were generated. About 3% of cytosines were methylated in the genome of the Yesso scallop. A slight increase in mCG percentage and methylation level was found in brown scallops. Sequence preference of nearby methylated cytosines differed between high and low methylation level sites and between the brown- and white-shelled scallops. DNA methylation levels varied among the different genomic regions; all the detected regions in the brown group exhibited higher methylation levels than the white group. A total of 41,175 DMRs (differentially methylated regions) were detected between brown and white scallops. GO functions and pathways associated with the biosynthesis of melanin and porphyrins were significantly enriched for DMRs, among which several key shell colour-related genes were identified. Further, different correlations between mRNA expression levels and DNA methylation status were found in these genes, suggesting that DNA methylation regulates shell colouration in the Yesso scallop. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides genome-wide DNA methylation landscapes of Yesso scallops with different shell colours, offering new insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanism underlying shell colour.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Pectinidae , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Genoma , Pectinidae/genética , Sulfitos
18.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679694

RESUMO

Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (WU) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, in Africa. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) activities of WU against A549 cells and to reveal potential molecular mechanisms. The cytotoxicity of various WU extracts was evaluated with HeLa (cervical cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer), HT-29 (colorectal cancer), and A549 (non-small cell lung cancer) cells by means of Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Therein, the dimethyl carbonate extract of WU (WUD) was tested with the most potent anti-proliferative activity against the four cancer cell lines, and its effects on cell viability, cell cycle progression, DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression levels of G0/G1-related proteins in A549 cells were further examined. First, it was found that WUD inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, WUD induced G0/G1 phase arrest and modulated the expression of G0/G1 phase-associated proteins Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and P27 in A549 cells. Furthermore, WUD increased the protein abundance of P27 by inhibiting FOXO3A/SKP2 axis-mediated protein degradation and also significantly induced the γH2AX expression and intracellular ROS generation of A549 cells. It was also found that the inhibitory effect of WUD on the proliferation and G0/G1 cell cycle progression of A549 cells could be attenuated by NAC, a ROS scavenger. On the other hand, phytochemical analysis of WUD with UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS indicated 10 sesquiterpenoid compounds. In conclusion, WUD exhibited remarkable anti-proliferative effects on A549 cells by improving the intracellular ROS level and by subsequently modulating the cell proliferation and G0/G1 cell cycle progression of A549 cells. These findings proved the good therapeutic potential of WU for the treatment of NSCLC.

19.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683104

RESUMO

Microglia, the primary immunocompetent cells of the brain, are suggested to play a role in the development of drug addiction. Previous studies have identified the microglia-derived pro-inflammatory factor IL1ß can promote the progression of cocaine addiction. Additionally, the activation status of microglia and "two-hit hypothesis" have been proposed in the field of drug addiction to explain how early life stress (ELS) could significantly increase the incidence of drug addiction in later life. However, the mechanisms underlying microglia prime and full activation and their roles in drug addiction remain greatly unexplored. Here, we employed CX3CR1-GFP mice (CX3CR1 functional deficiency, CX3CR1-/-) to explore whether primed microglia could potentiate cocaine-mediated behavioral changes and the possible underlying mechanisms. CX3CR1-/- mice revealed higher hyperlocomotion activity and conditional place preference than wild-type (WT) mice did under cocaine administration. In parallel, CX3CR1-/- mice showed higher activity of NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome than WT mice. Interestingly, CX3CR1 deficiency itself could prime NLRP3 signaling by increasing the expression of NLPR3 and affect lysosome biogenesis under basal conditions. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the functional status of microglia could have an impact on cocaine-mediated reward effects, and NLRP3 inflammasome activity was associated with this phenomenon. This study was consistent with the two-hit hypothesis and provided solid evidence to support the involvement of microglia in drug addiction. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome may represent a novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating or blocking the development of drug addiction.

20.
Life (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685469

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated autophagy, glial activation status, and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the brains of mice after 5 days of sleep fragmentation (SF). Three different brain regions including the striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex were selected for examination based on roles in sleep regulation and sensitivity to sleep disruption. For autophagy, we monitored the levels of various autophagic induction markers including beclin1, LC3II, and p62 as well as the levels of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 and 2 (LAMP1/2) and the transcription factor EB (TFEB) which are critical for lysosome function and autophagy maturation stage. For the status of microglia and astrocytes, we determined the levels of Iba1 and GFAP in these brain regions. We also measured the levels of CRF and its cognate receptors 1 and 2 (CRFR1/2). Our results showed that 5 days of SF dysregulated autophagy in the striatum and hippocampus but not in the frontal cortex. Additionally, 5 days of SF activated microglia in the striatum but not in the hippocampus or frontal cortex. In the striatum, CRFR2 but not CRFR1 was significantly increased in SF-experienced mice. CRF did not alter its mRNA levels in any of the three brain regions assessed. Our findings revealed that autophagy processes are sensitive to short-term SF in a region-specific manner and suggest that autophagy dysregulation may be a primary initiator for brain changes and functional impairments in the context of sleep disturbances and disorders.

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