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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 196: 113927, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549875

RESUMO

To administer vitamin C (VC) with precision to patients with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we developed an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to assess plasma VC concentrations. 31 patients with COVID-19 and 51 healthy volunteers were enrolled. VC stability was evaluated in blood, plasma, and precipitant-containing stabilizers. A proportion of 7.7 % of VC was degraded in blood at room temperature (RT) (approximately 20-25 °C) at 1.5 h post administration with respect to the proportion degraded at 0.5 h, but without statistical difference. VC was stable in plasma for 0.75 h at RT, 2 h at 4 °C, 5 days at -40 °C, and 4 h in precipitant-containing stabilizer (2 % oxalic acid) at RT. The mean plasma concentration of VC in patients with COVID-19 was 2.00 mg/L (0.5-4.90) (n = 8), which was almost 5-fold lower than that in healthy volunteers (9.23 mg/L (3.09. 35.30)) (n = 51). After high-dose VC treatment, the mean VC concentration increased to 13.46 mg/L (3.93. 34.70) (n = 36), higher than that in healthy volunteers, and was within the normal range (6-20 mg/L). In summary, we developed a simple UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify VC in plasma, and determined the duration for which the sample remained stable. VC levels in patients with COVID-19 were considerably low, and supplementation at 100 mg/kg/day is considered highly essential.

2.
Phytochem Anal ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319431

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Moringa oleifera Lam. is widely cultivated and applied in tropical and subtropical areas. Numerous studies have been focused on the antioxidant capacity of M. oleifera leaves, but its correlated bioactive phytochemicals remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: In order to search for the corresponding chemical compounds from M. oleifera leaves responsible for their antioxidant activity, the correlations between phytochemical fingerprints of 15 batches of M. oleifera leaves and their antioxidant activities were investigated by using chemometric analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen batches of M. oleifera leaves were extracted with 90% ethanol solution, and their phytochemical fingerprints and antioxidant activities were estimated by using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV/ESI-MS/MS), and three detected methods, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Chemometric analysis was then applied to reveal the correlations between their phytochemical fingerprints and corresponding antioxidant capacity. RESULTS: Fifteen M. oleifera leaf extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activities, in which 24 common compounds were identified by LC-MS. Furthermore, the partial least squares (PLS) analysis indicated that compounds 14, 16, 18 and 23 were the main potential effective components in at least two antioxidant tests. They were identified as kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-(6″-malonyl-glucoside), kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin derivative, respectively. CONCLUSION: The correlations between phytochemical fingerprints of M. oleifera leaf extracts and their corresponding antioxidant capacities were revealed by chemometric analysis, which provides an alternative method for screening for potential bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity from M. oleifera leaves.

3.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143025

RESUMO

Marine drugs have long been used and exhibit unique advantages in clinical practices. Among the marine drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the protein-ligand interactions, such as cytarabine-DNA polymerase, vidarabine-adenylyl cyclase, and eribulin-tubulin complexes, are the important mechanisms of action for their efficacy. However, the complex and multi-targeted components in marine medicinal resources, their bio-active chemical basis, and mechanisms of action have posed huge challenges in the discovery and development of marine drugs so far, which need to be systematically investigated in-depth. Molecular docking could effectively predict the binding mode and binding energy of the protein-ligand complexes and has become a major method of computer-aided drug design (CADD), hence this powerful tool has been widely used in many aspects of the research on marine drugs. This review introduces the basic principles and software of the molecular docking and further summarizes the applications of this method in marine drug discovery and design, including the early virtual screening in the drug discovery stage, drug target discovery, potential mechanisms of action, and the prediction of drug metabolism. In addition, this review would also discuss and prospect the problems of molecular docking, in order to provide more theoretical basis for clinical practices and new marine drug research and development.

4.
Cytokine ; : 155365, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246770

RESUMO

The hyper-inflammatory response is thought to be a major cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with COVID-19. Although multiple cytokines are reportedly associated with disease severity, the key mediators of SARS-CoV-2 induced cytokine storm and their predictive values have not been fully elucidated. The present study analyzed maximal and early (within 10 days after disease onset) concentrations of 12-plex cytokines in plasma. We found consistently elevated plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-5 in patients who were deceased compared with those who had mild/moderate or severe disease. The early plasma concentrations of IFN-a and IL-2 positively correlated with the length of the disease course. Moreover, correlation network analysis showed that IL-6, IL-8, and IL-5 located at the center of an inter-correlated cytokine network. These findings suggested that IL-8, IL-6, IL-5 might play central roles in cytokine storms associated with COVID-19 and that the early detection of multiple plasma cytokines might help to predict the prognosis of this disease.

5.
Front Med ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017040

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by a newly discovered ß Coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). How long the adaptive immunity triggered by SARS-CoV-2 can last is of critical clinical relevance in assessing the probability of second infection and efficacy of vaccination. Here we examined, using ELISA, the IgG antibodies in serum specimens collected from 17 COVID-19 patients at 6-7 months after diagnosis and the results were compared to those from cases investigated 2 weeks to 2 months post-infection. All samples were positive for IgGs against the S- and N-proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Notably, 14 samples available at 6-7 months post-infection all showed significant neutralizing activities in a pseudovirus assay, with no difference in blocking the cell-entry of the 614D and 614G variants of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, in 10 blood samples from cases at 6-7 months post-infection used for memory T-cell tests, we found that interferon γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ cells were increased upon SARS-CoV-2 antigen stimulation. Together, these results indicate that durable anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity is common in convalescent population, and vaccines developed from 614D variant may offer protection from the currently predominant 614D variant of SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872157

RESUMO

Plukenetia huayllabambana is an edible plant traditionally used to cure wounds and various infections. The present work assessed, for the first time, the antibacterial efficacy of solvent fractions from P. huayllabambana fruits. The crude methanol extract was obtained applying ultrasound-assisted extraction, followed by partitioning through successive depletion among solvents of increasing polarity to yield fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined following antibacterial testing, using the broth microdilution technique against a panel of drug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Possible modes of action of the most active fraction were also investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify phytocompounds that may account for the recorded activities. Methanol, n-hexane (PH-n-Hex), and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited 100% of studied bacteria, with the recorded MIC ranging from 0.125-1 mg/mL. PH-n-Hex appeared as the most active partition, exerting a bacteriostatic effect. PH-n-Hex probably acts by interfering with bacterial biofilm formation, proton pumps, and bacterial cell membrane integrity. The GC-MS analysis of PH-n-Hex led to the identification of 11 potentially bioactive components, including fatty acids, phytosterol, and diterpene alcohol as major ones. P. huayllabambana can be considered as a plant of pharmacological value-a source of potent anti-infective drug entities.

7.
Anal Chem ; 92(20): 14113-14121, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962342

RESUMO

Recently, nanoluminophores with the potential-resolved multicolor electrochemiluminescence (PRMCECL) property have emerged and shown promising applications in sensitive, selective, and accurate bioassays, bioimaging, and multicolor emitting devices. However, only limited PRMCECL nanoluminophores and their applications in ratiometric biosensors eliminating proportional errors have been reported. Herein, a novel PRMCECL nanoluminophore was synthesized by encapsulating CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs) into MOF-5 (CdSQDs@MOF-5). Using K2S2O8 as a coreactant, two electrochemiluminescence (ECL) peaks, ECL-1 centered at 685 nm and ECL-2 centered at 475 nm, were observed at -1.4 and -1.8 V, respectively. Related ECL mechanisms have been proposed. Based on the potential-resolved ECL signals, a label-free differential ECL immunosensor for the determination of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was established by assembly of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), CdSQDs@MOF-5, and cTnI antibody-functionalized silver nanoparticles on the surface of the fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode subsequently. In the presence of cTnI, cTnI was captured by the sensing interface, leading to an increase in ECL-1 and ECL-2 intensity. cTnI could be determined in the range of 0.01-1000 pg/mL with a detection limit of 5.01 fg/mL using the intensity difference between ECL-1 and ECL-2. This work provides a new family member of PRMCECL nanoluminophores. The proposed label-free differential ECL immunosensor provides a new strategy based on potential-resolved ECL signals, which could effectively eliminate the additive error and show better sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy for the detection of cTnI than the single-signal strategy and ratiometric strategy.

8.
Front Chem ; 8: 718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974282

RESUMO

The research in endogenous biomolecules from a single cell has grown rapidly in recent years since it is critical for dissecting and scrutinizing the complexity of heterogeneous tissues, especially under pathological conditions, and it is also of key importance to understand the biological processes and cellular responses to various perturbations without the limitation of population averaging. Although conventional techniques, such as micromanipulation or cell sorting methods, are already used along with subsequent molecular examinations, it remains a big challenge to develop new approaches to manipulate and directly extract small quantities of cytosol from single living cells. In this sense, nanostructure or nanomaterial may play a critical role in overcoming these challenges in cellular manipulation and extraction of very small quantities of cells, and provide a powerful alternative to conventional techniques. Since the nanostructures or nanomaterial could build channels between intracellular and extracellular components across cell membrane, through which cytosol could be pumped out and transferred to downstream analyses. In this review, we will first brief the traditional methods for single cell analyses, and then shift our focus to some most promising methods for single-cell sampling with nanostructures, such as glass nanopipette, nanostraw, carbon nanotube probes and other nanomaterial. In this context, particular attentions will be paid to their principles, preparations, operations, superiorities and drawbacks, and meanwhile the great potential of nano-materials for single-cell sampling will also be highlighted and prospected.

9.
J Pharm Anal ; 10(4): 277-290, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923005

RESUMO

The upsurge of multiple drug resistance (MDR) bacteria substantially diminishes the effectiveness of antibiotic arsenal and therefore intensifies the rate of therapeutic failure. The major factor in MDR is efflux pump-mediated resistance. A unique pump can make bacteria withstand a wide range of structurally diverse compounds. Therefore, their inhibition is a promising route to eliminate resistance phenomenon in bacteria. Phytochemicals are excellent alternatives as resistance-modifying agents. They can directly kill bacteria or interact with the crucial events of pathogenicity, thereby decreasing the ability of bacteria to develop resistance. Numerous botanicals display noteworthy efflux pumps inhibitory activities. Edible plants are of growing interest. Likewise, some plant families would be excellent sources of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) including Apocynaceae, Berberidaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, and Zingiberaceae. Easily applicable methods for screening plant-derived EPIs include checkerboard synergy test, berberine uptake assay and ethidium bromide test. In silico high-throughput virtual detection can be evaluated as a criterion of excluding compounds with efflux substrate-like characteristics, thereby improving the selection process and extending the identification of EPIs. To ascertain the efflux activity inhibition, real-time PCR and quantitative mass spectrometry can be applied. This review emphasizes on efflux pumps and their roles in transmitting bacterial resistance and an update plant-derived EPIs and strategies for identification.

10.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930458

RESUMO

Regulatory T cell can protect against severe forms of coronaviral infections attributable to host inflammatory responses. But its role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still unclear. In this study, frequencies of total and multiple subsets of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals were analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometry assay. Plasma concentration of IL-10 was measured using a microsphere-based immunoassay kit. Comparing to healthy controls, the frequencies of total lymphocytes and T cells decreased significantly in both acutely infected COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals. The frequencies of total lymphocytes correlated negatively with the frequencies of CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells correlated with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios positively, while the frequencies of regulatory CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells correlated negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios. Ratios of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells increased significantly in patients beyond age of 45 years. And accordingly, the frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells were also found significantly increased in these patients. Collectively, the results suggest that regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Moreover, the data indicate that NK cells might contribute to the COVID-19 associated lymphopenia.

11.
Life (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948021

RESUMO

Essential oil components of Nelumbo nucifera flowers from cultivated and wild lotus samples were analyzed and compared using three different extraction techniques, i.e., headspace extraction (HE), steam distillation (SD) and solvent extraction (SE), coupled with GC-MS. Forty-two peaks in the GC-MS analysis were identified as essential oil components extracted by the three methods from N. nucifera flower. The major essential oil components extracted by SD method were found to be Z,Z-10,12-hexadecadienal and E-14-hexadecenal with relative contents of 16.3% and 16.7%, respectively, which is different from that of SE method, i.e., n-hexadecanoic acid and Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid accounting for 25.8% and 26.8%, respectively. HE method demonstrated a possibility to be used as an in situ and simplest method for extracting the essential oil components from raw materials. By adding a small amount of glycerinum onto the surface of the air-dried flower sample as a solvent trap in the HE method, the volatility of the essential oil components was found to increase by two times for the first time, which could be further utilized to improve the extraction efficiency and the recovery of the essential oil components from other materials for more applications. In addition, the comparison of essential oil components between cultivated and wild samples showed that they differed only in the chemical contents but not in chemical components. This will be a comprehensive report on the chemical information of the essential oil components of N. nucifera flower and provide guidance for its further exploration as high value-added products in the food and healthcare industries.

12.
Med (N Y) ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838362

RESUMO

Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global public health concern due to relatively easy person-to-person transmission and the current lack of effective antiviral therapy. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Methods: Genome-wide screening was used to establish intraviral and viral-host interactomes. Quantitative proteomics was used to investigate the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proteome signature in COVID-19. Findings: We elucidated 286 host proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2 and >350 host proteins that are significantly perturbed in COVID-19-derived PBMCs. This signature in severe COVID-19 PBMCs reveals a significant upregulation of cellular proteins related to neutrophil activation and blood coagulation, as well as a downregulation of proteins mediating T cell receptor signaling. From the interactome, we further identified that non-structural protein 10 interacts with NF-κB-repressing factor (NKRF) to facilitate interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction, which potentially contributes to IL-8-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils and the overexuberant host inflammatory response observed in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Our study not only presents a systematic examination of SARS-CoV-2-induced perturbation of host targets and cellular networks but it also reveals insights into the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers cytokine storms, representing a powerful resource in the pursuit of therapeutic interventions. Funding: National Key Research and Development Project of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission, Shanghai Municipal Key Clinical Specialty, Innovative Research Team of High-level Local Universities in Shanghai, Interdisciplinary Program of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, SII Challenge Fund for COVID-19 Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large Research Infrastructure of Maintenance and Remolding Project, and Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Technology Talent Program.

13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1958-1964, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815458

RESUMO

Objectives Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Methods Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. Results We found 57.89% (22/38) patients developed secondary infections. The patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or in critical state has a higher chance of secondary infections (P<0.0001). The most common infections were respiratory, blood-stream and urinary infections, and in respiratory infections, the most detected pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (26, 50.00%), following by gram-positive bacteria (14, 26.92%), virus (6, 11.54%), fungi (4, 7.69%), and others (2, 3.85%). Respiratory Infection rate post high flow, tracheal intubation, and tracheotomy were 12.90% (4/31), 30.43% (7/23), and 92.31% (12/13) respectively. Secondary infections would lead to lower discharge rate and higher mortality rate. Conclusion Our study originally illustrated secondary infection proportion in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Culture accompanied with metagenomics sequencing increased pathogen diagnostic rate. Secondary infections risks increased after receiving invasive respiratory ventilations and intravascular devices, and would lead to a lower discharge rate and a higher mortality rate.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/patologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fungemia/patologia , Micoses/patologia , Infecções Oportunistas/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Urinárias/patologia , Idoso , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bacteriemia/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Fungemia/microbiologia , Fungemia/mortalidade , Fungemia/virologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patogenicidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Micoses/virologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/mortalidade , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/mortalidade , Infecções Urinárias/virologia
14.
Food Chem ; 333: 127478, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663752

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) leaves have long been consumed as both nutritive vegetable and popular folk medicine for hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in Kenya communities. In the current study, in vitro inhibition by M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE, 90% (v/v) ethanol) of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase was demonstrated, followed by determination of the effects of MOLE on both glucose consumption and lipid levels (TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C) in 3T3-L1 cells. Potential ligands in MOLE were fast screened using affinity ultrafiltration LC-MS, and 14 and 10 components displayed certain binding affinity to α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, respectively. Docking studies revealed the binding energies and hydrogen bonds between potential ligands and enzymes. This study suggests that M. oleifera leaves may be a promising natural source for the prevention and treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia as well as a functional food or other product for health care in the near future.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
15.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 13(4)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225055

RESUMO

Rhamnus prinoides L'Herit (R. prinoides) has long been widely consumed as folk medicine in Kenya and other Africa countries. Previous studies indicated that polyphenols were abundant in genus Rhamnus and exhibited outstanding antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, there are very few studies on such pharmacological activities and the polyphenol profile of this plant up to now. In the present study, the antioxidant activities of the crude R. prinoides extracts (CRE) and the semi-purified R. prinoides extracts (SPRE) of polyphenol enriched fractions were evaluated to show the strong radical scavenging effects against 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) (0.510 ± 0.046 and 0.204 ± 0.005, mg/mL), and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) (0.596 ± 0.005 and 0.096 ± 0.004, mg/mL), respectively. Later, the SPRE with higher contents of polyphenols and flavonoids displayed obvious anti-inflammatory activities through reducing the NO production at the dosage of 11.11 - 100 µg/mL, and the COX-2 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value at 20.61 ± 0.13 µg/mL. Meanwhile, the HPLC-UV/ESI-MS/MS analysis of polyphenol profile of R. prinoides revealed that flavonoids and their glycosides were the major ingredients, and potentially responsible for its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. For the first time, the present study comprehensively demonstrated the chemical profile of R. prinoides, as well as noteworthy antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which confirmed that R. prinoides is a good natural source of polyphenols and flavonoids, and provided valuable information on this medicinal plant as folk medicine and with good potential for future healthcare practice.

16.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(1): 61-67, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, controlled study aimed to evaluate the effects of flaxseed supplementation on functional constipation and quality of life in adult men and women in China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: 90 subjects with functional constipation diagnosed by the Rome IV criteria were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 50 g/day flaxseed flour with meals (n=60) or 15 mL/day of a lactulose solution on an empty stomach (n=30) every morning for 4 weeks. Wexner constipation scores, stool consistency according to the Bristol Stool Form Scale, and bowel habits (frequency of bowel movements/week, the time spent on defecation) were the primary outcomes. The change in Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score was the secondary outcome. RESULTS: After 4 weeks, the bowel habits in both groups were significantly improved. The median Wexner constipation score decreased from 14 to 6.5 in the flaxseed group (p<0.001) and from 15 to 9 in the lactulose group (p<0.001). The median defecation frequency per week increased significantly (2 to 7 for flaxseed and 2 to 6 for lactulose, p<0.001 for both groups). The Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score decreased significantly (-1.34 and -0.66 for flaxseed and lactulose, respectively; p<0.001 for both groups). CONCLUSIONS: Flaxseed flour is somewhat more effective at increasing defecation frequency than lactulose, improving bowel movements and promoting life quality of subjects with chronic functional constipation in the Chinese population.

17.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 13(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235626

RESUMO

Many species belonging to the genus Echinops are widely used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases and cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antiproliferative properties of Echinops lanceolatus Mattf. (Asteraceae). The activity of the methanolic extract and subsequent partition fractions was investigated against drug-resistant bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and human tumor cell lines using broth microdilution and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, respectively. Our findings revealed weak to moderate antibacterial activities of tested extracts, with the recorded minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 256 to 1024 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction (EL-EA) was found to be the most effective. Likewise, that fraction displayed strong antiproliferative potential with recorded IC50 of 8.27 µg/mL and 28.27 µg/mL on A549 and HeLa cells, respectively. An analysis based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) of the EL-EA fraction allowed the identification of 32 compounds, of which quinic acid and derivatives, cinnamic acid derivatives, dihydrokaempferol, naringenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-d-glucoside, naringin, apigenin, rhoifolin, coniferyl aldehyde, and secoisolariciresinol are well-known compounds of biological importance. This study is first to report on the biological activity and phytochemical profile of E. lanceolatus. We provide a baseline to consider E. lanceolatus as a valuable source of anti-infective and antiproliferative agents.

18.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 30: 101748, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294558

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important representative pathogen which causes clinically relevant infections in diabetic ulceration. We report our investigations on the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) on diabetic murine infected wound models induced with a MRSA SA325 strain. A solution of 10 % 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was placed into the wounds followed by delivery of 25 J/cm2 (635 nm). The ALA-PDT treated wounds healed earlier as compared to others (P < 0.5). A significant reduction of bacterial counts (2.05 logs) was detected in wounds after ALA-PDT on Day 2 (P < 0.5). Additionally, histological analysis revealed that wounds treated with ALA-PDT exhibited a more complete re-epithelialization, blood micro-vessels, collagen-volume fraction and considerable decrease in inflammatory cells infiltration. Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated considerable reduction of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), earlier expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), increase of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and Ki-67 in the ALA-PDT group (P < 0.5). These data imply that the therapeutic effect of ALA-PDT revealed an accelerated diabetic wound closure rate, together with reduced hyperinflammatory response and elevated growth factors.

19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1621: 461024, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178862

RESUMO

Screening for anti-anaerobic drug candidates is still challenging although the anaerobic bacteria are important sources for human infections, because the method for anti-anaerobic activity testing is not readily available with low-cost and -expertise. We report a novel method for the determination of the anti-anaerobic activity of drug candidates by automated headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Anaerobic bacteria were inoculated in an anaerobic atmosphere or rapidly using sterile syringe in an air-tight manner, and incubated with and without drugs for 48 h. The metabolic acidities of the cultured media were used as an indicator of cell activities and measured as end-products in place by HS-GC after being completely converted to CO2 with sodium bicarbonate. The present method is precise (relative standard deviation is below 5%) and validated by excellent agreements with a reference method on the determinations of the inhibition rates (root-mean-square error = 10%, n = 48) and half maximal inhibitory concentrations (R2 = 0.996, n = 8) of both pure drug compounds and plant extracts. Advantageously, the present method is sensitive in response to cell activity, safe with regard to cross contamination, and suitable for routine screening of diversified drug candidates for anti-anaerobic activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Bactérias Anaeróbias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Meios de Cultura
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 771-774, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212918

RESUMO

We report a case of a 63-year-old female patient who developed a recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) with extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (ERKp). In the initial two rounds of phage therapy, phage resistant mutants developed within days. Although ERKp strains were completely resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, the combination of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with the phage cocktail inhibited the emergence of phage resistant mutant in vitro, and the UTI of patient was successfully cured by this combination. Thus, we propose that non-active antibiotic and bacteriophage synergism (NABS) might be an alternative strategy in personalized phage therapy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Klebsiella/terapia , Terapia por Fagos , Infecções Urinárias/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
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