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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693585

RESUMO

Hybrid manganese halides have attracted widespread attention because of their highly emissive optical properties. To understand the underlying structural factors that dictate the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of these materials, we report five new hybrid manganese bromides with the general formula AmMnBr4 [m = 1 or 2, A = dimethylammonium (DMA), 3-methylpiperidinium (3MP), 3-aminomethylpiperidinium (3AMP), heptamethylenimine (HEP), and trimethylphenylammonium (TMPEA)]. By studying the crystal structures and optical properties of these materials and combining our results with the findings from previously reported analogs, we have found a direct correlation between Mn···Mn distance and the PLQY, where high PLQYs are associated with long Mn···Mn distances. This effect can be viewed as a manifestation of the concentration-quenching effect, except these are in stoichiometric compounds with precise interatomic distances rather than random alloys. To gain better separation of the Mn centers and prevent energy transfer, a bulky singly protonated cation that avoids H-bonding is ideal. We have demonstrated this principle in one of our newly reported material, (TMPEA)2MnBr4, where a PLQY of 70.8% for a powder sample and 98% for a large single crystal sample is achieved. Our study reveals a generalized method for improving PLQYs in hybrid manganese bromides and is readily extended to designing all varieties of highly emissive hybrid materials.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661158

RESUMO

Pencils and papers are ubiquitous in our society and have been widely used for writing and drawing, because they are easy to use, low-cost, widely accessible, and disposable. However, their applications in emerging skin-interfaced health monitoring and interventions are still not well explored. Herein, we report a variety of pencil-paper-based on-skin electronic devices, including biophysical (temperature, biopotential) sensors, sweat biochemical (pH, uric acid, glucose) sensors, thermal stimulators, and humidity energy harvesters. Among these devices, pencil-drawn graphite patterns (or combined with other compounds) serve as conductive traces and sensing electrodes, and office-copy papers work as flexible supporting substrates. The enabled devices can perform real-time, continuous, and high-fidelity monitoring of a range of vital biophysical and biochemical signals from human bodies, including skin temperatures, electrocardiograms, electromyograms, alpha, beta, and theta rhythms, instantaneous heart rates, respiratory rates, and sweat pH, uric acid, and glucose, as well as deliver programmed thermal stimulations. Notably, the qualities of recorded signals are comparable to those measured with conventional methods. Moreover, humidity energy harvesters are prepared by creating a gradient distribution of oxygen-containing groups on office-copy papers between pencil-drawn electrodes. One single-unit device (0.87 cm2) can generate a sustained voltage of up to 480 mV for over 2 h from ambient humidity. Furthermore, a self-powered on-skin iontophoretic transdermal drug-delivery system is developed as an on-skin chemical intervention example. In addition, pencil-paper-based antennas, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) circuits with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and batteries, reconfigurable assembly and biodegradable electronics (based on water-soluble papers) are explored.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492336

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are promising semiconductors with tailorable optical and electronic properties. The choice of A-site cation to support a three-dimensional (3D) perovskite structure AMX3 (where M is a metal and X is a halide) is limited by the geometric Goldschmidt tolerance factor. However, this geometric constraint can be relaxed in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites, providing us an opportunity to understand how various A-site cations modulate the structural properties and thereby the optoelectronic properties. Here, we report the synthesis and structures of single-crystal (BA)2(A)Pb2I7 where BA = butylammonium and A = methylammonium (MA), formamidinium (FA), dimethylammonium (DMA), or guanidinium (GA), with a series of A-site cations varying in size. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the MA, FA, and GA structures crystallize in the same Cmcm space group, while the DMA imposes the Ccmb space group. We observe that as the A-site cation becomes larger, the Pb-I bond continuously elongates, expanding the volume of the perovskite cage, equivalent to exerting "negative pressure" on the perovskite structures. Optical studies and DFT calculations show that the Pb-I bond length elongation reduces the overlap of the Pb s- and I p-orbitals and increases the optical bandgap, while Pb-I-Pb tilting angles play a secondary role. Raman spectra show lattice softening with increasing size of the A-site cation. These structural changes with enlarged A cations result in significant decreases in photoluminescence intensity and lifetime, consistent with a more pronounced nonradiative decay. Transient absorption microscopy results suggest that the PL drop may derive from a higher concentration of traps or phonon-assisted nonradiative recombination. The results highlight that extending the range of Goldschmidt tolerance factors for 2D perovskites is achievable, enabling further tuning of the structure-property relationships in 2D perovskites.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279505

RESUMO

Hybrid layered halide perovskites have achieved impressive performance in optoelectronics. New structural types in the two-dimensional (2D) halide system such as the Dion-Jacobson phases have attracted wide research attention due to the short interlayer distance and unique layer orientation that facilitate better charge-transport and higher stability in optoelectronic devices. Here, we report the first solid solution series incorporating both A and A' cations in the 2D Dion-Jacobson family, with the general formula (A')(A)Pb2Br7 ((A' = 3-(aminomethyl)piperidinium (3AMP) and 4-(aminomethyl)piperidinium) (4AMP); A = methylammonium (MA) and formamidinium (FA)). Mixing the spacing A' cations and perovskitizer A cations generates the new (3AMP)a(4AMP)1-a(FA)b(MA)1-bPb2Br7 perovskites. The crystallographically refined crystal structures using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data reveal that the distortion of the inorganic framework is heavily influenced by the degree of A' and A alloying. A rising fraction of 4AMP in the structure, decreases the Pb-Br-Pb angles, making the framework more distorted. On the contrary, higher FA fractions increase the Pb-Br-Pb angles. This structural evolution fine-tunes the optical properties where the larger the Pb-Br-Pb angle, the narrower the band gap. The photoluminescence emission energy mirrors this trend. Raman spectroscopy reveals a highly dynamical lattice similar to MAPbBr3 and consistent with the local distortion environment of the [Pb2Br7] framework. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structures reveal the same trend as the experimental results where (3AMP)(FA)Pb2Br7 has the smallest band gap while (4AMP)(MA)Pb2Br7 has the largest band gap. The structural effects from solely the organic cations in the 2D system highlight the importance of understanding the high sensitivity of the optoelectronic properties on the structural tuning in this broad class of materials.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283025

RESUMO

The optical and light emission properties of tin and lead halide perovskites are remarkable because of the robust room-temperature (RT) performance, broad wavelength tunability, high efficiency, and good quenching resistance to defects. These highly desirable attributes promise to transform current light-emitting devices, phosphors, and lasers. One disadvantage in most of these materials is the sensitivity to moisture. Here, we report a new air-stable one-dimensional (1D) hybrid lead-free halide material (DAO)Sn2I6 (DAO, 1,8-octyldiammonium) that is resistant to water for more than 15 h. The material exhibits a sharp optical absorption edge at 2.70 eV and a strong broad orange light emission centered at 634 nm, with a full width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 142 nm (0.44 eV). The emission has a long photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of 582 ns, while the intensity is constant over a very broad temperature range (145-415 K) with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of at least 20.3% at RT. Above 415 K the material undergoes a structural phase transition from monoclinic (C2/c) to orthorhombic (Ibam) accompanied by a red shift in the band gap and a quench in the photoluminescence emission. Density functional theory calculations support the trend in the optical properties and the 1D electronic nature of the structure, where the calculated carrier effective masses along the inorganic chain are significantly lower than those perpendicular to the chain. Thin films of the compound readily fabricated from solutions exhibit the same optical properties, but with improved PLQY of 36%, for a 60 nm thick film, among the highest reported for lead-free low-dimensional 2D and 1D perovskites and metal halides.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176495

RESUMO

Large organic A cations cannot stabilize the 3D perovskite AMX3 structure because they cannot be accommodated in the cubo-octhedral cage (do not follow the Goldschmidt tolerance factor rule), and they generally template low-dimensional structures. Here we report that the large dication aminomethylpyridinium (AMPY) can template novel 3D structures which resemble conventional perovskites. They have the formula (xAMPY)M2I6 (x = 3 or 4, M = Sn2+ or Pb2+) which is double of the AMX3 formula. However, because of the steric requirement of the Goldschmidt tolerance factor rule, it is impossible for (xAMPY)M2I6 to form proper perovskite structures. Instead, a combination of corner-sharing and edge-sharing connectivity is adopted in these compounds leading to the new 3D structures. DFT calculations reveal that the compounds are indirect band gap semiconductors with direct band gaps presenting at slightly higher energies and dispersive electronic bands. The indirect band gaps of the Sn and Pb compounds are ∼1.7 and 2.0 eV, respectively, which is slightly higher than the corresponding AMI3 3D perovskites. The Raman spectra for the compounds are diffuse, with a broad rising central peak at very low frequencies around 0 cm-1, a feature that is characteristic of dynamical lattices, high anharmonicity, and dissipative vibrations very similar to the 3D AMX3 perovskites. Devices of (3AMPY)Pb2I6 crystals exhibit clear photoresponse under ambient light without applied bias, reflecting a high carrier mobility (µ) and long carrier lifetime (τ). The devices also exhibit sizable X-ray generated photocurrent with a high µτ product of ∼1.2 × 10-4 cm2 /V and an X-ray sensitivity of 207 µC·Gy-1·cm-2.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 151, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919343

RESUMO

State-of-the-art halide perovskite solar cells have bandgaps larger than 1.45 eV, which restricts their potential for realizing the Shockley-Queisser limit. Previous search for low-bandgap (1.2 to 1.4 eV) halide perovskites has resulted in several candidates, but all are hybrid organic-inorganic compositions, raising potential concern regarding device stability. Here we show the promise of an inorganic low-bandgap (1.38 eV) CsPb0.6Sn0.4I3 perovskite stabilized via interface functionalization. Device efficiency up to 13.37% is demonstrated. The device shows high operational stability under one-sun-intensity illumination, with T80 and T70 lifetimes of 653 h and 1045 h, respectively (T80 and T70 represent efficiency decays to 80% and 70% of the initial value, respectively), and long-term shelf stability under nitrogen atmosphere. Controlled exposure of the device to ambient atmosphere during a long-term (1000 h) test does not degrade the efficiency. These findings point to a promising direction for achieving low-bandgap perovskite solar cells with high stability.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 205-213, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871158

RESUMO

In addition to mechanical compliance, achieving the full potential of on-skin electronics needs the introduction of other features. For example, substantial progress has been achieved in creating biodegradable, self-healing, or breathable, on-skin electronics. However, the research of making on-skin electronics with passive-cooling capabilities, which can reduce energy consumption and improve user comfort, is still rare. Herein, we report the development of multifunctional on-skin electronics, which can passively cool human bodies without needing any energy consumption. This property is inherited from multiscale porous polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS) supporting substrates. The multiscale pores of SEBS substrates, with characteristic sizes ranging from around 0.2 to 7 µm, can effectively backscatter sunlight to minimize heat absorption but are too small to reflect human-body midinfrared radiation to retain heat dissipation, thereby delivering around 6 °C cooling effects under a solar intensity of 840 W⋅m-2 Other desired properties, rooted in multiscale porous SEBS substrates, include high breathability and outstanding waterproofing. The proof-of-concept bioelectronic devices include electrophysiological sensors, temperature sensors, hydration sensors, pressure sensors, and electrical stimulators, which are made via spray printing of silver nanowires on multiscale porous SEBS substrates. The devices show comparable electrical performances with conventional, rigid, nonporous ones. Also, their applications in cuffless blood pressure measurement, interactive virtual reality, and human-machine interface are demonstrated. Notably, the enabled on-skin devices are dissolvable in several organic solvents and can be recycled to reduce electronic waste and manufacturing cost. Such on-skin electronics can serve as the basis for future multifunctional smart textiles with passive-cooling functionalities.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6525-6535, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596102

RESUMO

To go beyond the PC60 surfactant structure, the double-layer micelle morphology in water motivates exploration of altered protocols to produce new morphologies. Furthermore, the low photoluminescence quantum yield of aqueous fullerene-based particles encourages high fluorescence to create a light-emitting display. With this in mind, we established new hybrid n-type nanospheres with carbon quantum dot (CQD)-embedded PC60-PC61BM particles, processed using two different protocols. The homogenizer-assisted PC60-CQD-PC61BM resulted in a watermelon-shaped spherical particle, whereas a circular morphology with randomly embedded CQDs was observed in the microwave-treated hybrids. More surprisingly, the watermelon-shaped colloid induced efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the CQD and C60 molecules of PC61BM, and the FRET-mediated emission signature diminished gradually as the stripe patterns collapsed. This phenomenon allowed different fluorescent colors in the colloidal printing film. We thereby provided the new carrier dynamics of the particle photonic activities of the developed aqueous PC60-based colloids with the possibility of ecological utilization.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(32): 12880-12890, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313919

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites have extraordinary optoelectronic properties and structural tunability. Among them, the Dion-Jacobson phases with the inorganic layers stacking exactly on top of each other are less explored. Herein, we present the new series of 2D Dion-Jacobson halide perovskites, which adopt the general formula of A'An-1PbnI3n+1 (A' = 4-(aminomethyl)pyridinium (4AMPY), A = methylammonium (MA), n = 1-4). By modifying the position of the CH2NH3+ group from 4AMPY to 3AMPY (3AMPY = 3-(aminomethyl)pyridinium), the stacking of the inorganic layers changes from exactly eclipsed to slightly offset. The perovskite octahedra tilts are also different between the two series, with the 3AMPY series exhibiting smaller bandgaps than the 4AMPY series. Compared to the aliphatic cation of the same size (AMP = (aminomethyl)piperidinium), the aromatic spacers increase the rigidity of the cation, reduce the interlayer spacing, and decrease the dielectric mismatch between inorganic layer and the organic spacer, showing the indirect but powerful influence of the organic cations on the structure and consequently on the optical properties of the perovskite materials. All A'An-1PbnI3n+1 compounds exhibit strong photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. Preliminary solar cell devices based on the n = 4 perovskites as absorbers of both series exhibit promising performances, with a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.20% for (3AMPY)(MA)3Pb4I13-based devices, which is higher than the (4AMPY)(MA)3Pb4I13 and the corresponding aliphatic analogue (3AMP)(MA)3Pb4I13-based ones.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(30): 11811-11815, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305995

RESUMO

The engineering of biological pathways with man-made materials provides inspiring blueprints for sustainable fuel production. Here, we leverage a top-down cellular engineering strategy to develop a new semi-artificial photosynthetic paradigm for carbon dioxide reduction via enveloping Halobacterium purple membrane-derived vesicles over Pd-deposited hollow porous TiO2 nanoparticles. In this biohybrid, the membrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin, not only retains its native biological function of pumping protons but also acts as a photosensitizer that injects light-excited electrons into the conduction band of TiO2. As such, the electrons trapped on Pd cocatalysts and the protons accumulated inside the cytomimetic architecture act in concert to reduce CO2 via proton-coupled multielectron transfer processes. This study provides an alternative toolkit for developing robust semi-artificial photosynthetic systems for solar energy conversion.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(27): 13239-13248, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217291

RESUMO

Recently developed methods in mechanically guided assembly provide deterministic access to wide-ranging classes of complex, 3D structures in high-performance functional materials, with characteristic length scales that can range from nanometers to centimeters. These processes exploit stress relaxation in prestretched elastomeric platforms to affect transformation of 2D precursors into 3D shapes by in- and out-of-plane translational displacements. This paper introduces a scheme for introducing local twisting deformations into this process, thereby providing access to 3D mesostructures that have strong, local levels of chirality and other previously inaccessible geometrical features. Here, elastomeric assembly platforms segmented into interconnected, rotatable units generate in-plane torques imposed through bonding sites at engineered locations across the 2D precursors during the process of stress relaxation. Nearly 2 dozen examples illustrate the ideas through a diverse variety of 3D structures, including those with designs inspired by the ancient arts of origami/kirigami and with layouts that can morph into different shapes. A mechanically tunable, multilayered chiral 3D metamaterial configured for operation in the terahertz regime serves as an application example guided by finite-element analysis and electromagnetic modeling.

13.
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 70: 353-377, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112459

RESUMO

This article reviews thermal properties of semiconductor and emergent plasmonic nanomaterials, focusing on mechanisms through which hot carriers and phonons are produced and dissipated as well as the related impacts on optoelectronic properties. Elevated equilibrium temperatures, of particular relevance for implementation of nanomaterials in devices, affect absorptive and radiative transitions as well as emission efficiency that can present reversible and irreversible changes with temperature. In noble metal or doped semiconductor/insulator nanomaterials, hot carriers and lattice heating can substantially influence localized surface plasmon resonances and yield large ultrafast changes in transmission or strongly oscillatory coherences. Transient optical and diffraction characterizations enable nonequilibrium investigations of phonon dynamics and cooling such as lattice expansion and crystal phase stability. Timescales of nanoparticle thermalization with surroundings and transport of heat within films of such materials are also discussed.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(19): 9230-9238, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004056

RESUMO

Metal oxide (MO) semiconductor thin films prepared from solution typically require multiple hours of thermal annealing to achieve optimal lattice densification, efficient charge transport, and stable device operation, presenting a major barrier to roll-to-roll manufacturing. Here, we report a highly efficient, cofuel-assisted scalable combustion blade-coating (CBC) process for MO film growth, which involves introducing both a fluorinated fuel and a preannealing step to remove deleterious organic contaminants and promote complete combustion. Ultrafast reaction and metal-oxygen-metal (M-O-M) lattice condensation then occur within 10-60 s at 200-350 °C for representative MO semiconductor [indium oxide (In2O3), indium-zinc oxide (IZO), indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO)] and dielectric [aluminum oxide (Al2O3)] films. Thus, wafer-scale CBC fabrication of IGZO-Al2O3 thin-film transistors (TFTs) (60-s annealing) with field-effect mobilities as high as ∼25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and negligible threshold voltage deterioration in a demanding 4,000-s bias stress test are realized. Combined with polymer dielectrics, the CBC-derived IGZO TFTs on polyimide substrates exhibit high flexibility when bent to a 3-mm radius, with performance bending stability over 1,000 cycles.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 504, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700706

RESUMO

Significant interest exists in lead trihalides that present the perovskite structure owing to their demonstrated potential in photovoltaic, lasing, and display applications. These materials are also notable for their unusual phase behavior often displaying easily accessible phase transitions. In this work, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, performed on perovskite cesium lead bromide nanocrystals, maps the lattice response to controlled excitation fluence. These nanocrystals undergo a reversible, photoinduced orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition which is discernible at fluences greater than 0.34 mJ cm-2 through the loss of orthorhombic features and shifting of high-symmetry peaks. This transition recovers on the timescale of 510 ± 100 ps. A reversible crystalline-to-amorphous transition, observable through loss of Bragg diffraction intensity, occurs at higher fluences (greater than 2.5 mJ cm-2). These results demonstrate that light-driven phase transitions occur in perovskite materials, which will impact optoelectronic applications and enable the manipulation of non-equilibrium phase characteristics of the broad perovskite material class.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(9): 9583-9593, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789701

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskites present a versatile class of solution-processable semiconductors with highly tunable bandgaps that span ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. We explore phase-separated chloride and iodide lead perovskite mixtures as candidate materials for intermediate band applications in future photovoltaics. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal that deposition of precursor solutions across the MAPbCl3/MAPbI3 composition space affords quasi-epitaxial cocrystallized films, in which the two perovskites do not alloy but instead remain phase-segregated. First-principle calculations further support the formation of an epitaxial interface and predict energy offsets in the valence band and conduction band edges that could result in intermediate energy absorption. The charge dynamics of variable mixtures of the relatively narrow bandgap (1.57 eV) MAPbI3 perovskite and wide bandgap (3.02 eV) MAPbCl3 are probed to map charge and energy flow direction and kinetics. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption measurements reveal charge transfer of photoexcited carriers in MAPbCl3 to MAPbI3 in tens of picoseconds. The rate of quenching can be further tuned by replacing MAPbI3 with two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper (BA)2(MA) n-1Pb nI3 n+1 ( n = 3, 2, and 1) perovskites, which also remain phase-separated.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 482, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696817

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are game-changing semiconductors for solar cells and light-emitting devices owing to their defect tolerance and exceptionally long carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. Determining whether the dynamically disordered organic cations with large dipole moment benefit the optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 has been an outstanding challenge. Herein, via transient absorption measurements employing an infrared pump pulse tuned to a methylammonium vibration, we observe slow, nanosecond-long thermal dissipation from the selectively excited organic mode to the inorganic sublattice. The resulting transient electronic signatures, during the period of thermal-nonequilibrium when the induced thermal motions are mostly concentrated on the organic sublattice, reveal that the induced atomic motions of the organic cations do not alter the absorption or the photoluminescence response of CH3NH3PbI3, beyond thermal effects. Our results suggest that the attractive optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 mainly derive from the inorganic lead-halide framework.

18.
Nano Lett ; 18(12): 7863-7869, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431280

RESUMO

The transfer of thermal energy from the ligand passivating layer to the inorganic core of colloidal nanocrystals is observed using infrared-pump, electronic-probe (IPEP) spectroscopy. Inorganic nanocrystals are excellent model systems for organic-inorganic hybrid interfaces as they have much larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk solids, which facilitate spectroscopic measurements of weak signals. Such interfaces between disparate materials are challenging to probe by traditional methods. Here, resonant excitation of the hydrocarbon ligand vibrational absorptions results in a transient red-shift of the CdSe nanocrystal excitonic features consistent with heating, as demonstrated by steady-state absorption measurements, which provide a calibration of the pump-induced temperature rise. The time constant associated with heating ranges from 10 to 30 ps depending on the sample morphology, static temperature, input fluence, and environment, all of which are studied in this work. Heat transfer speeds up and the magnitude of nanocrystal heating decreases at higher temperatures. Unlike chemical modulation of electrical conductivity, ligand exchange for several common organic ligands does not dramatically change the interfacial conductivity of the nanocrystal-ligand interface. However, changes in the medium (e.g., solvent) do change the rate of heat outcoupling from the nanocrystal-ligand complex. Although applied here to nanocrystals to measure interfacial heat transfer, IPEP spectroscopy is readily applicable for any heterogeneous system in which one component has spectrally isolated molecular vibrations or lattice phonons.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(12): 127401, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296165

RESUMO

Excitations of free electrons and optical phonons are known to permit access to the negative real part of relative permittivities (ϵ^{'}<0) that yield strong light-matter interactions. However, negative ϵ^{'} arising from excitons has been much less explored. Via development of a dielectric-coating based technique described herein, we report fundamental optical properties of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites (2DHPs), composed of alternating layers of inorganic and organic sublattices. Low members of 2DHPs (N=1 and N=2) exhibit negative ϵ^{'} stemming from the large exciton binding energy and sizable oscillator strength. Furthermore, hyperbolic dispersion (i.e., ϵ^{'} changes sign with directions) occurs in the visible range, which has been previously achieved only with artificial metamaterials. Such naturally occurring, exotic dispersion stems from the extremely anisotropic excitonic behaviors of 2DHPs, and can intrinsically support a large photonic density of states. We suggest that several other van der Waals solids may exhibit similar behaviors arising from excitonic response.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(40): 13078-13088, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212624

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites are under intense investigations because of their astounding physical properties and promises for optoelectronics. Lead bromide and chloride perovskites exhibit intrinsic white-light emission believed to arise from self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we report a series of new structurally diverse hybrid lead bromide perovskites that have broad-band emission at room temperature. They feature Pb/Br structures which vary from 1D face-sharing structures to 3D corner- and edge-sharing structures. Through single-crystal X-ray diffraction and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, we have identified the local distortion level of the octahedral environments of Pb2+ within the structures. The band gaps of these compounds range from 2.92 to 3.50 eV, following the trend of "corner-sharing < edge-sharing < face-sharing". Density functional theory calculations suggest that the electronic structure is highly dependent on the connectivity mode of the PbBr6 octahedra, where the edge- and corner-sharing 1D structure of (2,6-dmpz)3Pb2Br10 exhibits more disperse bands and smaller band gap (2.49 eV) than the face-sharing 1D structure of (hep)PbBr3 (3.10 eV). Using photoemission spectroscopy, we measured the energies of the valence band of these compounds and found them to remain almost constant, while the energy of conduction bands varies. Temperature-dependent PL measurements reveal that the 2D and 3D compounds have narrower PL emission at low temperature (∼5 K), whereas the 1D compounds have both free exciton emission and STE emission. The 1D compound (2,6-dmpz)3Pb2Br10 has the highest photoluminescence quantum yield of 12%, owing to its unique structure that allows efficient charge carrier relaxation and light emission.

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