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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125930, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492860

RESUMO

The pollution of heavy metals and organic compounds has received increased attention in recent years. In the current study, a novel biochar-based iron oxide composite (FeYBC) was successfully synthesized using pomelo peel and ferric chloride solution through one-step process at moderate temperature. Results clearly demonstrate that FeYBC exhibited more efficient removal of Cr(VI) and/or phenol compared with the pristine biochar, and the maximum adsorption amounts of Cr(VI) and phenol by FeYBC could reach 24.37 and 39.32 mg g-1, respectively. A series of characterization data suggests that several iron oxides such as Fe2O3, Fe0, FeOOH and Fe3O4 were formed on the FeYBC surface as well as oxygen-containing groups. Thermodynamics study indicates that Cr(VI) and phenol adsorption by FeYBC were endothermic and exothermic processes, respectively. Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second order models could better explain the Cr(VI) and phenol adsorption behaviors over FeYBC. The Cr(VI) adsorption might be primarily achieved through the ion exchange and surface complexation and reduction, whereas the π-π interaction and electron donor-acceptor complex mainly contributed to phenol adsorption. The findings indicate that the biochar-based iron oxide composites material was an efficient adsorbent for the remediation of industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) and phenol.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo , Compostos Férricos , Cinética , Fenol , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Res ; 202: 111636, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245733

RESUMO

The aromatic arsenical roxarsone (ROX) has been used as feed additive for decades worldwide. The past or present application of animal manure containing ROX in paddy fields results in arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain. However, the degradation and transformation mechanisms of ROX in paddy soil which determine As bioavailability and uptake by rice are still unclear. The current study investigated the variation of As speciation and soil enzyme activities in ROX-treated soils under flooded and non-flooded conditions for six months. Our results showed that 70.2% of ROX persisted in non-flooded paddy soils after 180 d while ROX degraded completely within 7 d in flooded soils. The rapid degradation of ROX under flooded conditions owed to the enhanced biotic transformation that was caused by the low Eh and the predominant presence of Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp. ROX was not only transformed to As(III) and As(V) in non-flooded soils but also to 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid and methyl arsenicals in flooded soils. The degradation products significantly inhibited soil enzyme activities for 7-30 d, but the inhibition effects disappeared after 90 d due to the sorption of transformed As products to amorphous Fe oxides. This study provides new insights into the flooding effect on ROX fate in paddy fields, which is important for the management of animal waste and risk control on polluted sites.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Roxarsona , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Arsênio/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água
3.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111518, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113397

RESUMO

Nowadays, nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been extensively applied for the decontamination of various pollutants, but passivation of nZVI severely affects its reactivity in use. In this study, ultrasound (US)-assisted catalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by an acid mine drainage based nZVI (AMD-nZVI) coupling with FeS2 system was systematically examined. Results show that the presence of FeS2 and US induced a synergistic enhancement of Cr(VI) removal by AMD-nZVI. Nearly 98% of Cr(VI) removal was achieved by AMD-nZVI/FeS2/US process within 60 min under optimal reaction conditions. Several coexisting substances with lower concentration including Pb(II), Ni(II), bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-diclorophenol (2,4-DCP) could be effectively removed in simultaneous manner with Cr(VI) removal. The inhibitory order of water matrix species on Cr(VI) removal was NO3- > PO43- > HCO3- > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Cl-, and a serious suppression effect was induced by humic acid (HA). Addition of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) could enhance Cr(VI) removal rate. An enhanced reaction mechanism was proposed, which involved the regeneration of more Fe2+ and H+ by AMD-nZVI/FeS2/US process, leading to the reduction of Cr(VI) by AMD-nZVI and FeS2 into Cr(III) species inculding Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3. This study well demonstrates that AMD-nZVI/FeS2/US process is considered as a potential candidate for the remediation of Cr(VI) in real wasterwater.


Assuntos
Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos , Adsorção , Cromo/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128287, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297231

RESUMO

The applicability of sludge biochar catalyst (SBC) coupling with ultrasound (US) irradiation for the simultaneous removal of Pb(II) and phenol was firstly investigated in this study. Results indicate that Pb(II) removal of SBC/US process was superior to that of SBC without US. The inhibitory order of the coexisting anions on Pb(II) removal was PO43- > HCO3- > NO3- > F- > SO42- > Cl-. Also, several coexisting metals ions inculding Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cu(II) could be removed in a simultaneous manner with Pb(II). A high removal performance of Pb(II) by SBC/US process and its synergism with phenol oxidation had been successfully achieved. The simultaneous removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and phenol were high up to 95% within 60 min at optimum reaction conditions. Four kinds of Pb species inculding Pb0, PbCO3, PbO and Pb(OH)2 were formed during the reaction, whereas five kinds of transformation compounds of phenol such as 1,4-benzoquinone, acetic acid, formic acid, maleic acid and propionic acid were detected. Both HO and O2- contributed to the oxidation of phenol by SBC/US process, but HO was dominant radical. A reaction mechanism for the synergistic removal of Pb(II) and phenol by SBC/US process involving in four stages-namely adsorption, precipitation, reduction and Fenton-like oxidation processes was proposed. This study demonstrates that SBC/US process could be considered as a potential candidate for the remediation of real wastewaters containing Pb(II) and phenol.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo , Fenol , Fenóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21084-21097, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266614

RESUMO

A series of environmental protective policies have been taken recently in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) to alleviate water pollution; however, their influence on the reduction of heavy metals in estuarine water has not been known. This study selected Guangzhou as a representative city in the PRE and collected estuarine water monthly from 2008 to 2017 to track the variation of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Se. During the last decade, the high time-resolved record showed that the concentration of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in estuarine water reduced by 39.5%, 91.0%, 86.2%, 74.6%, and 97.3%, respectively. However, the concentration of As kept in a stable range (1.89-2.69 µg L-1) and Se (0.17-0.65 µg L-1) increased slightly. The principal component analysis (PCA) and absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) results suggested that the upstream industrial effluents were major sources for Hg (45.5-92.7%), Pb (47.3-100%), Cd (42.0-90.6%), Cu (85.5-100%), and Zn (100%) and the geogenic source was major origin for As (84.6-98.3%) and Se (0-67.5%). The risk quotient of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn to aquatic organisms largely decreased from 0.03, 0.59, 0.03, 2.06, and 0.26 in 2008 to 0.02, 0.05, 0.006, 0.52, and 0.007 in 2017, respectively. The effective control of heavy metal pollution in the study area can be primarily due to the relocation of hundreds of polluting factories during the last decade.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Medição de Risco , Rios , Água , Qualidade da Água
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(8): 3489-3500, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854754

RESUMO

Trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water sources have significant harmful effects on human health. Water and sediment samples from water source regions of three water treatment plants in Guangzhou were collected and the distributions of 16 kinds of PAHs were analyzed. The human risk of PAHs in the water samples was also evaluated using the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The results showed that PAHs in the samples from the three water source regions did not exceed the corresponding standard limit for water quality, and the content of ΣPAHs in suspended solids and sediments was below the medium level. The non-carcinogenic risks (HQ and HI) of PAHs in the water samples were less than 1, and the non-carcinogenic risk was negligible. In addition, Riskingest, Riskdermal, and RiskT for the waters were all in range of 5.53×10-7 to 5.34×10-6, indicating that a carcinogen risk was possible but acceptable. The results of the isomer ratio method indicated that the PAHs in the water sources of the three water plants had a mixed input of pollution, including petroleum discharge, petroleum combustion, and incomplete combustion of wood, coal, and biomass. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the water and sediment samples was positively correlated with the accumulation and enrichment of low-ring PAHs, and there was a significant positive correlation between PAHs and similar molecules in the sediments. The ΣPAHs in the water and sediment samples were also strongly correlated.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Analyst ; 143(18): 4436-4441, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151540

RESUMO

In this article, a carbon cloth composite electrode modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared by a facile in situ electrodeposition method and applied to the detection of mercury ions in water. With the optimized electrochemical detection conditions and methods, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.6 µg L-1 with the linearity ranging from 2 to 200 µg L-1 by the SWSV detection method, and the electrode showed good repeatability after many cycles. Based on this detection method, a continuous flow electrochemical detection system was constructed and applied to the detection of Hg ions in environmental water samples. The standard addition experimental results of two real water samples with an addition level of 10 and 50 µg L-1 showed that the recoveries were between 92.4% and 108.9% with RSDs from 2.01% to 3.22%. These results showed the same performance as that of the ZAAS mercury detection method (recovery: 94-102.4%, RSD 2.09-5.4%). Compared with other electrode materials, a shorter detection time, a wider linear range and high stability with a similar LOD can be achieved by a continuous flow detection method by using the composite electrode. The established continuous flow electrochemical detection system would have promising application in online and real-time detection of heavy metals in environmental water.

8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 37(8): 3007-3016, 2016 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964726

RESUMO

The distribution characteristics and pollution degrees of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in surface sediments from Zhelin Bay south of China and the ecological risk of OCPs and integrated ecological risk at the samples stations in sediments were evaluated by risk quotient (RQ) and sediment quality guideline of NOAA. The possible sources of HCHs and DDTs in sediments were preliminarily studied, and the correlation between OCPs and sediment characteristic parameters was discussed. The concentrations of DDTs in surface sediments were found to be higher than those of other OCPs, especially p,p'-DDD, and the concentrations of DDTs were higher than the limited values of Chinese Marine sediment quality criteria. The total concentration of 20 OCPs in surface sediments ranged from 14.14 to 306.88 ng·g-1, with a mean concentration of 78.37 ng·g-1, and the highest total concentration was at site 8(S8). There were inevitable adverse biological effects and high ecological risk of p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, high integrated ecological risk at S8 and S10. The possible sources of HCHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay were mainly from the application of Lindane pesticides. At S1,S2,S10,S11 there was input of DDT into mariculture area of Zhelin Bay, and at the other sites the sources of DDT were from the early residue in sediments or the long-term weathering sediments of using pesticides. There was a very significant positive correlation between HCHs, endosulfan, chlordane and dieldrin in sediments, while there was a negative relation between the above OCPs and TOC, which indicated that the presence of TOC could promote their biodegradation. There was a significant positive correlation between p, p'-DDD and Ca, which revealed that DDT used in the early period was deposited with biological carbonate. Increasing size of sediment particles discouraged the accumulation and enrichment of OCPs in sediments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Baías , China , DDT , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Medição de Risco
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 36(9): 3447-56, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26717709

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the pollution degree and human health risk of heavy metals in soil and air samples around electroplating factories. Soil, air and waste gas samples were collected to measure 8 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in two electroplating factories, located in Baiyun district of Guangzhou city. Geoaccumulation index and USEPA Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) were respectively carried out. Results showed that concentrations of Hg and Pb in waste gas and Cr in air samples were higher than limits of the corresponding quality standards, and concentrations of Cd, Hg and Zn in soil samples reached the moderate pollution level. The HQ and HI of exposure by heavy metals in air and soil samples were both lower than 1, indicating that there was no non-carcinogen risk. CRAs and CRCr in soil samples were beyond the maximum acceptable level of carcinogen risk (10(-4)), and the contribution rate of CRCr to TCR was over 81%. CRCr, CRNi and TCR in air samples were in range of 10(-6) - 10(-4), indicating there was possibly carcinogen risk but was acceptable risk. CR values for children were higher than adults in soils, but were higher for adults in air samples. Correlation analysis revealed that concentrations of heavy metals in soils were significantly correlated with these in waste gas samples, and PCA data showed pollution sources of Cd, Hg and Zn in soils were different from other metals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Galvanoplastia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 35(2): 684-91, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24812965

RESUMO

Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/química , Esgotos/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Medição de Risco
11.
J Sep Sci ; 33(13): 1933-45, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20512808

RESUMO

A method based on accelerated solvent extraction combined with rapid-resolution LC-MS for efficient extraction, rapid separation, online identification and accurate determination of the saikosaponins (SSs) in Radix bupleuri (RB) was developed. The RB samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction using 70% aqueous ethanol v/v as solvent, at a temperature of 120 degrees C and pressure of 100 bar, with 10 min of static extraction time and three extraction cycles. Rapid-resolution LC separation was performed by using a C(18) column at gradient elution of water (containing 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile, and the major constituents were well separated within 20 min. A TOF-MS and an IT-MS were used for online identification of the major constituents, and 27 SSs were identified or tentatively identified. Five major bioactive SSs (SSa, SSc, SSd, 6''-O-acetyl-SSa and 6''-O-acetyl-SSd) with obvious peak areas and good resolution were chosen as benchmark substances, and a triple quadrupole MS operating in multiple-reaction monitoring mode was used for their quantitative analysis. A total of 16 RB samples from different regions of China were analyzed. The results indicated that the method was rapid, efficient, accurate and suitable for use in the quality control of RB.


Assuntos
Bupleurum/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Etanol/química , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Saponinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Conformação Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/química , Estereoisomerismo
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 30(10): 3060-6, 2009 Oct 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19968131

RESUMO

The adsorption behavior of exogenous thorium on soil was studied to evaluate the contaminated risk on soil. The adsorption capacity, equilibrium time, distribution coefficient and desorption ability were investigated by the experiments of static adsorption. The strong adsorption ability of exogenous thorium on soil samples was observed by high adsorption ratio (> 92%) and low desorption ratio (< 5%) in equilibrium, and the biggest distribution coefficient was over 10(4). The adsorption capacity and equilibrium time were related to soil properties. According to the results of adsorption, Freundlich equation (r > or = 0.9167) and Elovich equation (R2 > or = 0.8980) were primely fit for describing the thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption of exogenous thorium on soil samples, respectively, which indicated that the adsorption was belonged to the nonlinear adsorption, and was affected by the diffusion of thorium on soil surface and in mineral interbed. Sequential extraction procedure was employed to evaluate the bound fractions of exogenous thorium adsorbed on soil samples. Based on the extracted results of thorium fractions, exogenous thorium was presented in the labile nonresidual fractions (over 58%) at the low initial concentration (10(-7) - 10(-6) mol x L(-1)), and nonresidual fractions enhanced with the increase of the initial amount, meanwhile more exogenous throium was transferred to the stable residual fractions.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Metais Terras Raras , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/química , Tório/química , Adsorção , Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tório/metabolismo
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