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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061390

RESUMO

Cancer-induced pain (CIP) is a kind of chronic pain that occurs during cancer progression over time. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown, and clinical treatment remains challenging. LncRNAs have been reported to play critical roles in various biological processes, including chronic pain. The aim of our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs participate in the development of CIP by regulating the expression levels of some molecules related to pain modulation. The CIP model was established by injecting Walker 256 mammary gland tumor cells into the tibial canal of rats. In this study, we found that lncRNA-NONRATT021203.2 was increased in the CIP rats and that lncRNA-NONRATT021203.2-siRNA could relieve hyperalgesia in these rats. For elucidation of the underlying mechanism, we showed that lncRNA-NONRATT021203.2 could target C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9), which was increased in the CIP rats, and that CXCL9-siRNA could relieve hyperalgesia. At the same time, silencing lncRNA-NONRATT021203.2 expression decreased the mRNA and protein levels of CXCL9. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that CXCL9 was mainly expressed in the CGRP-positive and IB4-positive DRG neurons. Further research showed that lncRNA-NONRATT021203.2 and CXCL9 were colocalized in the DRG neurons. Our data suggested that lncRNA-NONRATT021203.2 participated in the CIP in rats and likely mediates the upregulation of CXCL9. The present study provided us with a new potential target for the clinical treatment of cancer-induced pain.

2.
J Control Release ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061623

RESUMO

Chelating Cu from tumors has been verified as an effective and promising strategy for cancer therapy through antiangiogenesis. However, systematic removal Cu by injecting with Cu chelators will result unavoidable side effects, since Cu is indispensable to the body. In this work, a micelle targeting to tumors' newborn vessels based on a polypeptide was developed to co-load DOX and Probe X, which can go through an "OFF-to-ON" procedure to report the Cu+-capture events in vivo in a real-time way by giving near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic signal. By co-delivering antiangiogenesis and chemotherapeutic reagents, the tumor can be significantly suppressed, meanwhile with a low systematic toxicity. Hopefully, this work can offer new insights in designing sophisticated antitumor strategy.

3.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 75: 103329, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978868

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of borneol, a traditional Chinese medicine, on photodynamic treatment of acne. Here, we found that borneol significantly decreased the auricular swelling rate and pain threshold of rats. We also showed that borneol noticeably reduced macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration. The number of Th cells was significantly higher in the control PDT group than in the PDT plus borneol treatment group (P < 0.05). The expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8 mRNA and proteins were noticeably lower in the treatment group in comparison to those of the PDT control group, while PDT plus borneol activated the p38-COX-2-PGE2 signaling pathway, increasing expression in the treatment group. Borneol has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on PDT of acne, and enhances the healing of acne by activating p38-COX-2-PGE2 signaling pathway.

4.
Vaccine ; 38(2): 258-270, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629569

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells play a significant role in protection against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever. However, the antigen specificity of these T-cells remains largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system to uncover the antigen specificity of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Here, we expanded these studies to include the evaluation of 12 additional S. Typhi proteins: 4 outer membrane proteins (OmpH, OmpL, OmpR, OmpX), 3 Vi-polysaccharide biosynthesis proteins (TviA, TviB, TviE), 3 cold shock proteins (CspA, CspB, CspC), and 2 conserved hypothetical proteins (Chp 1 and Chp2), all selected based on the bioinformatic analyses of the content of putative T-cell epitopes. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from 15 adult volunteers, obtained before and 42 days after immunization with oral live attenuated Ty21a vaccine, were assessed for their functionality (i.e., production of cytokines and cytotoxic expression markers in response to stimulation with selected antigens) as measured by flow cytometry. Although volunteers differed on their T-cell antigen specificity, we observed T-cell immune responses against all S. Typhi proteins evaluated. These responses included 9 proteins, OmpH, OmpR, TviA, TviE, CspA, CspB, CspC, Chp 1 and Chp 2, which have not been previously reported to elicit T-cell responses. Interestingly, we also observed that, regardless of the protein, the functional patterns of the memory T-cells were different between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In sum, these studies demonstrated the feasibility of using bioinformatic analysis and the E. coli expressing system described here to uncover novel immunogenic T-cell proteins that could serve as potential targets for the production of protein-based vaccines.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2548-2554, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850736

RESUMO

Bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts feature high activity in CO2 hydrogenation. However, the primary surface intermediates during reaction are still elusive, making the understanding of the reaction mechanism inadequate. Herein, taking advantage of near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS), we focused on the mechanistic exploration of CO2 hydrogenation on the Ni/Cu(100) model catalyst under millibar pressures. We show that CO2 dissociates into CO and atomic oxygen on the Ni/Cu(100) surface and gives rise to the formation of chemisorbed O and nickel oxide (NiO). The CO3* species is formed through the reaction of CO2 with surface oxygen during CO2 activation. With the presence of H2, the conversion of adsorbed CO3* into the formate intermediate, HCOO*, is unambiguously demonstrated by the C 1s and O 1s core-level spectra as well as ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on these observations, we conclude that the CO2 hydrogenation route via CO2 dissociation, the formation of CO3*, the conversion of CO3* to formate, and the ensuing hydrogenation of formate to methanol on the Ni-Cu catalyst are feasible.

6.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(2): 364-375, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880982

RESUMO

We recently reported that the p28 auxiliary replication protein encoded by turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is also responsible for eliciting superinfection exclusion (SIE) against superinfecting TCV. However, it remains unresolved whether the replication function of p28 could be separated from its ability to elicit SIE. Here, we report the identification of two single amino acid mutations that decouple these two functions. Using an Agrobacterium infiltration-based delivery system, we transiently expressed a series of p28 deletion and point mutants, and tested their ability to elicit SIE against a cointroduced TCV replicon. We found that substituting alanine (A) for valine (V) and phenylalanine (F) at p28 positions 181 and 182, respectively, modestly compromised SIE in transiently expressed p28 derivatives. Upon incorporation into TCV replicons, V181A and F182A decoupled TCV replication and SIE diametrically. Although V181A impaired SIE without detectably compromising replication, F182A abolished TCV replication but had no effect on SIE once the replication of the defective replicon was restored through complementation. Both mutations diminished accumulation of p28 protein, suggesting that p28 must reach a concentration threshold in order to elicit a strong SIE. Importantly, the severe reduction of F182A protein levels correlated with a dramatic loss in the number of intracellular p28 foci formed by p28-p28 interactions. Together, these findings not only decouple the replication and SIE functions of p28 but also unveil a concentration dependence for p28 coalescence and SIE elicitation. These data further highlight the role of p28 multimerization in driving the exclusion of secondary TCV infections.

7.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(4): 2179, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671950

RESUMO

Noise reduction performance of a compact active sound radiation control system is significantly affected by locations of the error microphones which are required to be installed near the primary source. In this paper, near-field error sensing for multi-channel active radiation control systems in free field is investigated, and it is found that the optimal locations of error sensors for minimizing the sum of squared sound pressure are between the primary source and the secondary sources distributed uniformly on a sphere surface surrounding the primary source. Both simulation and experiment results show that the optimal locations of error microphones are independent of the type of primary source when there are sufficient secondary sources. These optimal locations remain unchanged at low frequencies and move toward secondary sources when the secondary source number increases. Therefore, for active radiation control applications in low frequency range, a compact multi-channel system can be developed by locating error microphones between the primary source and secondary sources.

8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(21): 1901430, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728288

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute over 50% of the number of cells within the tumor, playing a major role in tumor progression and invasion. Remodeling the tumor immune microenvironment by modulating TAM polarization has been emerging as a new and promising therapeutic strategy. However, the high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix lead to insufficient penetration of nanosized therapies. To overcome this dilemma, an acid-triggered size-changeable nanoparticle (aptamer/acid sensitive linker crosslinked DGL/zoledronic acid, i.e., Apt@(DGL-ZA) n NPs) with effective tumor distribution, extravasation, and penetration is designed. Dendrigraft poly-L-lysines (DGLs) which can induce tumor autophagy as mimics of natural abnormal proteins are crosslinked via a mild-acid-responsive linker (1,6-bis(4-formylbenzoyloxy) hexane). Long circulation property and tumor penetration are achieved simultaneously by catching DGLs in neutral pH while releasing them in the tumor's pH, like dandelion seeds in midair. The macrophage conditioning agent zoledronic acid (ZA) is loaded on DGLs by the charge attraction. A Tenascin-C targeting aptamer (GBI-10) is modified onto (DGL-ZA) n NPs for a tumor-homing effect. Apt@(DGL-ZA) n NPs show both enhanced penetration in in vitro 3D triple negative breast cancer spheroids and in vivo tumor tissues. Effective macrophage regulation, enhanced tumor autophagy, and excellent in vivo antitumor efficacy are achieved, suggesting this tactic as a significant antitumor strategy.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 48(46): 17210-17216, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728458

RESUMO

As a class of anionic oxoclusters of early transition metals in their highest oxidation states, polyoxometalates (POMs) show considerable structural versatility and unique chemical and physical properties, making them promising multifunctional materials. In this study, a Keggin-type POM has been achieved, with a formula of [(H2O)0.3@K6(H2O)12]H4.45[PV7.45Mo4.55O40]·11H2O (1), and its microcrystals and nanocrystals have been obtained, respectively. This POM was characterized by elemental analysis for C, H and N, ICP-MS, TG, PXRD, SEM, X-band EPR and XPS techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that 1 shows a rare extended structure with a high-connected three-dimensional (3D) all inorganic network of a Keggin-type POM, built from {Mo4.55V7.45PO40}10.45- polyoxoanions and {(H2O)0.3@K6(H2O)12}6+ clusters with CsCl-type crystal structure. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, 1 shows the highest ratio of vanadium to molybdenum among Keggin-type POMs reported thus far. Most interestingly, 1 exhibits intrinsic proton conduction below the freezing point of water, with a proton conductivity of 6.90 × 10-7 S cm-1 at 249 K and further reaching 3.36 × 10-6 S cm-1 at 272 K and Ea = 0.44 eV at 249-272 K.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17364, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analyisis to evaluate the efficacy of maintenance dexamethasone against acute or delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetic risk chemotherapy regimen. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. Data comparing maintenance dexamethasone with single-dose dexamethasone during the acute, delayed, and overall phase of CINV were extracted. Overall risk ratio (RR) was used to estimate the efficacy and adverse effects. RESULTS: Nine studies were included. In delayed phase, maintenance dexamethasone has similar efficacy to single-dose dexamethasone for no emetic episodes (RR, 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.14), complete response (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11), complete control (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.98-1.16), and total control (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.91-1.23). In overall phase, maintenance dexamethasone has similar efficacy to single-dose dexamethasone for no emetic episodes (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.11), complete response (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.95 -1.09), complete control (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94-1.13), total control (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90-1.23), and no rescue medication (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97-1.19). Maintenance dexamethasone was only superior to single-dose dexamethasone for no rescue medication during delayed phase (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.21, P = .034). The incidence of hiccup was observed higher in maintenance dexamethasone group (RR = 3.16, 95% CI, 1.12-8.92). CONCLUSION: The single-dose dexamethasone regimen offers high and similar overall control of symptoms as the maintenance dexamethasone regimen in this population. Multiple-day dexamethasone was suitable for patients who used rescue medication during the delayed phase.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
11.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(8): 911-915, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) and endoscopic stricturotomy with needle knife (NKSt) in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)-relevant strictures. 
 Methods: From July 2015 to September 2018, 14 patients undergoing double balloon-enteroscopy at the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled. There was a total of 16 lesions. Endoscopic intervention was performed for 16 times. EBD was done for 11 times, and 5 stricturotomies were carried out. Regular follow-up and examinations were done to observe whether there was remission or recurrence of clinical symptoms and replacement surgery.
 Results: All 14 patients were successfully treated by endoscopy, and the success rate was 100%. Postoperative clinical symptoms were alleviated, and serious complications, such as perforation or hemorrhaging, did not occur. Obstructive symptoms were effectively alleviated at a median follow-up of 26.1 months (5.9-35.3 months) and 8.3 months (1.6-17.8 months) for patients with balloon dilatation and stricturotomy, respectively. Two patients presented with symptoms of obstruction. These were given conservative symptomatic treatment without surgical intervention.
 Conclusion: Enteroscopic treatments (EBD and NKSt) are safe and effective for intestinal strictures, and can prolong the time before surgical intervention is needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Constrição Patológica , Enteroscopia de Duplo Balão , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Opt Express ; 27(18): 25789-25801, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510444

RESUMO

We propose a protocol to protect the quantum states and entanglements from finite-temperature thermal noise via quantum gates. Compared to the common protocols protecting the quantum states and entanglements by using weak measurements and their reversals, no time-consuming weak measurements are needed in the present protocol and consequently, it is much faster. We also discuss the possible implementation of the protocol in cavity QED system.

14.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 9(4): 832-842, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384542

RESUMO

Oncogenic microRNAs are essential components in regulating the gene expression of cancer cells. Especially miR21, which is a major player involved of tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers. The delivery of anti-miR21 sequences has significant potential for cancer treatment. Nevertheless, since anti-miR21 sequences are extremely unstable and they need to obtain certain concentration to function, it is intensely difficult to build an effective delivery system for them. The purpose of this work is to construct a self-assembled glutathione (GSH)-responsive system with tumor accumulation capacity for effective anti-miR21 delivery and cancer therapy. A novel drug delivery nanosphere carrying millions of anti-miR21 sequences was developed through the rolling circle transcription (RCT) method. GSH-responsive cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (pOEI) was synthesized to protect the nanosphere from degradation by Dicer or other RNase in normal cells and optimize the pompon-like nanoparticle to suitable size. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a targeting molecule, which is a substrate of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1) and highly expressed on malignant tumor cells, was connected to pOEI through PEG, and then the polymer was used for contracting a RNA nanospheres into nanopompons. The anti-miR21 nanopompons showed its potential for effective cancer therapy.

15.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 82(5): e13180, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397035

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Systemic immuno-inflammatory response caused by maternal immune imbalance is central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE). We hypothesized that changes in the number of decidual mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) may be associated with maternal immune imbalance. We aimed to evaluate the expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in patients with PE and its influence on the migration behavior of dMSCs, to further clarify the pathogenesis of PE. METHOD OF STUDY: Fourteen women with PE and 11 controls were included. DMSCs were extracted from decidual tissue by type II collagenase digestion and adherence. ELISA and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to measure serum and tissue levels of CXCL12. Q-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect CXCR4 expression on dMSCs, whereas transwell assay was used to measure the migration ability of dMSCs. RESULTS: Decidual mesenchymal stem cells from women with PE showed higher expressions of CXCR4 and HIF-1α than the dMSCs of controls did. Tissues from women with PE showed the highest CXCL12 levels in the decidua, followed by the placenta and umbilical cord, whereas tissues from controls showed the highest CXCL2 levels in the umbilical cord, followed by the placenta and decidua. dMSCs from women with PE showed possibly higher migration ability than that of dMSCs from controls, under the induction of CXCL12, whereas dMSCs showed a decreasing trend in hypoxic than in normoxic environment. CONCLUSION: Decidual mesenchymal stem cells from women with PE can migrate to the decidua layer with the concentration gradient of CXCL12, which may play a role in the occurrence and development of PE.

16.
Orthop Surg ; 11(4): 671-678, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and radiological outcome between the modified Broström repair with augmentation using suture tape (MBA) and the modified Broström repair (MB) for patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in Ningbo No. 6 Hospital. The study included 53 patients who underwent surgical treatment from March 2014 to July 2016 and were followed for 2 years. A total of 25 patients underwent modified Broström repair with augmentation using suture tape, and 28 patients were treated with modified Broström repair. Patients were evaluated using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Scale (AOFAS) hindfoot scale, the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) score, range of motion (ROM), and the visual analogue scale (VAS). The talar tilt angle (TTA) and anterior talar translation (ATT) were used to evaluate the mechanical stability. All radiological outcomes were measured by two orthopaedic surgeons, with the measurements repeated 3 days later. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 26.6 ± 17.8 years in the MBA group and 28.1 ± 19.4 years in the MB group, and no statistical difference in preoperative data was found between two groups. There were significant differences before and after the operation within the groups. Both groups achieved satisfactory outcomes, and significant improvements (VAS, FAAM, AOFAS, TTA, and ATT) were observed between the 1-year follow-up and final follow-up (P < 0.05). The MBA group showed significant improvement in the FAAM Sport (87.1 ± 5.4 vs 78.2 ± 12.0, P = 0.001) and total scores (93.1 ± 2.3 vs 90.5 ± 5.1, P = 0.027) at the final follow-up compared with the MB group, and for the other outcomes, there were no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The modified Broström repair with augmentation using suture tap for chronic lateral ankle instability achieves a better outcome; however, further research is necessary.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16906, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441871

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Brain abnormalities have frequently been reported in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders patients, but vertigo as an initial manifestation has rarely been described. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old woman who initially presented with vertigo, then accompanied with other brainstem manifestations and spinal cord involvement. DIAGNOSES: MRI revealed medulla oblongata, cervical and thoracic spinal cord lesions. NMO-IgG antibody was seropositive. Taken her previous medical history and clinical manifestations into consideration, the patient was eventually diagnosed as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. INTERVENTIONS: Before diagnosis, symptomatic treatment and acupuncture were adopted, whereas after diagnosis, steroid, intravenous immunoglobulin, and immunosuppressant were supplemented. OUTCOMES: Her dizziness, nausea and vomiting were gradually relieved by symptomatic treatment and acupuncture before the confirmed diagnosis and immunotherapy. After added treatment with steroid, immunosuppressant, especially intravenous immunoglobulin, diplopia and nystagmus disappeared, and superficial sensation was improving. She was fully recovered six months after admission. LESSONS: Vertigo as a rare prodrome of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders deserves attention. The symptoms and signs were improved by a combined treatment of steroid, immunosuppressant, acupuncture, and particularly intravenous immunoglobulin.


Assuntos
Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico , Vertigem/etiologia , Terapia por Acupuntura , Diplopia/etiologia , Diplopia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/etiologia , Náusea/terapia , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Vertigem/terapia , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/terapia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16571, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374024

RESUMO

RATIONALE: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic autoimmune disease and mixed cryoglobulinemia may be caused by autoimmune diseases. However, so far only 1 case of IgG4-RD complicated with mixed cryoglobulinemia is reported. Our case further confirms the close relationship between these 2 diseases. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old female was admitted because of dry mouth and teeth falling off. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed as IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS) complicated with type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. IgG4-RS was confirmed by elevated serum IgG4 levels and diffuse IgG4 plasmocyte infiltration and storiform fibrosis in the interstitium of labial gland. Type III mixed cryoglobulinemia was confirmed by positive serum cryoglobulins and no monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum and urine. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: After treatment with prednisone and cyclophosphamide, serum cryoglobulins rapidly turned negative with the remission of IgG4-RS. LESSONS: Type III mixed cryoglobulinemia can be caused by IgG4-RS, and the underlying mechanisms need to be further explored.


Assuntos
Crioglobulinemia/complicações , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/complicações , Sialadenite/complicações , Crioglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sialadenite/tratamento farmacológico
19.
20.
Opt Lett ; 44(14): 3486-3489, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305554

RESUMO

We present a theoretical study of high-efficiency four-wave mixing (FWM) sum-frequency generation beyond a pure electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) technique in a five-level atomic system. In our FWM scheme, with the assistance of two Λ-type subsystems utilized to create EIT and Autler-Townes splitting (ATS), a synergetic mechanism of EIT and ATS, or a dual-ATS mechanism is induced. These novel mechanisms can have a significant impact on the FWM process in the optically thick medium, and the FWM efficiency can be several orders of magnitude larger than that obtained from the pure EIT method. This Letter opens up a new perspective for exploring enhanced quantum nonlinear optical phenomena.

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