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1.
Protein Pept Lett ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diosmetin (DIOS) is the aglycone of the flavonoid glycoside, diosmin, derived naturally from the leaves of the legume, Olea europaea, and Acacia farnesiana. It has potent anticancer activity against multiple forms of cancers. However, the role of DIOS in renal carcinoma and its mechanism of action remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of DIOS on cell viability and apoptosis in renal carcinoma cells and explore the possible mechanism of action. METHODS: Cell viability, cytotoxicity, caspase activity, apoptosis, and expression of apoptotic related proteins were analyzed in renal carcinoma ACHN cells. RESULTS: The results showed that DIOS inhibited the cell viability, and induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in ACHN cells. Furthermore, DIOS increased expression of p53 mRNA and proteins, and downregulated phosphorylation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein B kinase (PI3K/AKT). In addition, it was observed that the anticancer effect of DIOS was significantly enhanced by the p53 activator, but inhibited by the p53 inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that DIOS induced apoptosis in renal carcinoma ACHN cells by reducing AKT phosphorylation through p53 upregulation.

2.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225145

RESUMO

Pneumothorax (PTX) represents accumulation of the air in the pleural space. A large or tension pneumothorax can collapse the lung and cause hemodynamic compromise, a life-threatening disorder. Traditionally, neonatal pneumothorax diagnosis has been based on clinical images, auscultation, transillumination, and chest X-ray findings. This approach may potentially lead to a delay in both diagnosis and treatment. The use of lung US in diagnosis of PTX together with US-guided thoracentesis results in earlier and more precise management. The recommendations presented in this publication are aimed at improving the application of lung US in guiding neonatal PTX diagnosis and management.

3.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 237-239, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224353

RESUMO

Monocrotaline (MCT) belongs to the category of Pyrrolizdine Alkaloids (PAs), which is one of important hepatotoxic alkaloid in Crotalaria Lin. Apoptosis is one mechanism of toxic responses induced by MCT. However, the underlying mechanism of liver apoptosis caused by MCT through Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress continues to be incompletely understood. In this study, we describe the role of ER stress in MCT induced hepatotoxicity in rats. 24 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal saline group, 45 mg/kg MCT group and 90 mg/kg MCT group. After 48 h of saline/MCT administration, the livers were collected for analysis of ER stress-related proteins by Western blotting. The expression of GRP78, p-IRE1α, ATF6 and caspase-12 showed a dose-dependent increase. PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP pathway is one of the major ER stress pathways which is required for cell survival. Therefore, through analyzing the effects of MCT on this pathway, we found the protein levels of p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP were increase obviously. All these results indicate that MCT induces ER stress in rat liver. The PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP pathway is involved in the regulation of MCT-induced ER stress in the liver of rat.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(4): 219, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249776

RESUMO

DNA damage results in mutations and plays critical roles in cancer development, progression, and treatment. Targeting DNA damage response in cancers by inhibiting poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) offers an important therapeutic strategy. However, the failure of PARP inhibitors to markedly benefit patients suggests the necessity for developing new strategies to improve their efficacy. Here, we show that the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) complex members significantly correlates with mutations (as proxies of DNA damages), and that the combination of CDK4/6 and PARP inhibitors shows synergy in both RB-proficient and RB-deficient breast cancer cells. As PARPs constitute sensors of DNA damage and are broadly involved in multiple DNA repair pathways, we hypothesized that the combined inhibition of PARPs and DNA repair (or repair-related) pathways critical for cancer (DRPCC) should show synergy. To identify druggable candidate DRPCC(s), we analyzed the correlation between the genome-wide expression of individual genes and the mutations for 27 different cancer types, assessing 7146 exomes and over 1,500,000 somatic mutations. Pathway enrichment analyses of the top-ranked genes correlated with mutations indicated "cell cycle pathway" as the top candidate DRPCC. Additionally, among functional cell-cycle complexes, the CDK4/6 complex showed the most significant negative correlation with mutations, also suggesting that combined CDK4/6 and PARP inhibition might exhibit synergy. Furthermore, combination treatment showed synergy in not only RB-proficient but also RB-deficient breast cancer cells in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic strategy to improve the efficacy of PARP and CDK4/6 inhibitors in cancer treatment.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1209-1212, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237467

RESUMO

Simiao Yong'an Decoction is composed of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scrophulariae Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome, which was chosen as one of the 100 classic prescriptions in Catalogue of Ancient Classics Prescription(the first batch). Through tracing to the source, It was found that the Simiao Yong'an Decoction(but not named) originated from the Shi Shi Mi Lu, and was later cited by books such as Ancient and Modern Book Integration-Full Record of Medical Department and New Edition of Useful Prescriptions. Literature shows that this prescription was not named until first reported in the Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Arterial Embolism Gangrene in 1956 by a journalist LYU Min. This article recorded that SHIJIA Baoshan, a monk from Hebei Province, used self-named "Simiao Yong'an Decoction" to treat local arterial embolic gangrene. After comparison, there was two difference between ancient books and SHIJIA Baoshan's records. Firstly, according to ancient books, the composition and dosage of Simiao Yong'an Decoction is Lonicerae Japonicae Flos 90 g, Scrophulariae Radix 90 g, Angelicae Sinensis Radix 60 g, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome 30 g", and the ratio is 3∶3∶2∶1. By SHIJIA Baoshan's record, the composition and dosage are: Lonicerae Japonicae Flos 66 g, Scrophulariae Radix 132 g, Angelicae Sinensis Radix 99 g, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome 33 g, and the ratio changed to 2∶4∶3∶1. Secondly, ancient books show that patients can be healed after taking seven or ten days of the previous prescription, however, it would take 3 or 4 months, even 7 months in SHIJIA Baoshan's records. It can be considered that the previous prescription should be used at the beginning of gangrene, while the modified Simiao Yong'an Decoction by SHIJIA Baoshan is widely used in the middle and late stages of gangrene, even the critical condition, that is the reason for longer treatment and larger dosage. Nowadays, Simiao Yong'an Decoction is not limited to the treatment of gangrene and bulla in clinic. Relevant studies have confirmed that Simiao Yong'an Decoction has the effects such as anti-inflammatory, plaque stabilization, lipid-lowering, vascular protection, improvement of hemorheology, anticoagulation, inhibition of thrombosis and fibrinolysis, etc. In the follow-up, we should carry out the analysis of the compatibility of this four medicines, and redefine the scope of its clinical application under the theory of traditional Chinese medicine.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159381

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed at investigating the specific roles of laminarin from seaweed (Laminaria japonica) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its potential mechanisms related to senescence marker protein-30 (SMP-30). Materials and Methods: Human HCC cell lines, including Bel-7404 and HepG2, were incubated with different concentrations of laminarin (0, 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 mg/mL). The cell viability and apoptosis rates were detected by WST-8 cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Hepa 1-6 tumor-bearing mice were injected with different concentrations of laminarin (400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg·d), and tumor volume and weight were measured. The expression of SMP-30 was detected in laminarin-treated Bel-7404 and HepG2 HCC cells and LO2 normal liver cells by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results: The treatment with laminarin (48 h) significantly decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis rates of Bel-7404 and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The injection of laminarin also significantly decreased the tumor volumes (beginning on the 10th day) and tumor weights (30 d post-injection) of mice in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the treatment with laminarin (35 mg/mL for 48 h) significantly upregulated SMP-30 in Bel-7404 and HepG2 cells but not in LO2 cells. Conclusion: Laminarin inhibited the proliferation of Bel-7404 and HepG2 cells and inhibited the growth of tumors in Hepa 1-6 tumor-bearing mice by upregulating SMP-30.

7.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(2): 99-104, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning on the expression of liver protein kinase 1 (LKB1), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK2) in cardiomyocytes of rats with acute myocardial ischemia (AMI), so as to explore its mechanisms underlying cardioprotective effect. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-operation, model and EA pretreatment groups (n=10 rats per group). The AMI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending branch of coronary artery. Before modeling, EA preconditioning (2 Hz/15 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral "Neiguan"(PC6) for 30 min, once daily for 14 days. Histopathological changes of myocardium was observed by microscope after H.E. staining. The level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum was detected by ELISA. The expression of autophagy-associated proteins and mRNAs as LKB1, AMPKa1, AMPKa2 and PFK2 were detected by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the sham-operation group, serum LDH content, and expression levels of myocardial AMPKa2 and PFK2 proteins and mRNAs were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01), and those of LKB1 and AMPKa1 proteins and mRNAs were increased in the model group (P<0.05). Following the intervention, serum LDH were apparently down-regulated (P<0.01), and expression levels of myocardial LKB1, AMPKa1 and PFK2 proteins and mRNAs were apparently up-regulated (P<0.01), but that of AMPKa2 protein and mRNA was remarkably down-regulated in the EA group (P<0.01). H.E. staining showed cell swelling, disordered arrangement of myocardial fibers with obvious rupture, interstitial bleeding and inflammatory infiltration, which was relatively milder in the EA preconditioning group. CONCLUSION: EA pretreatment can trigger LKB1/AMPK/PFK2 signaling pathway in AMI rats, which may contribute to its cardioprotective effect against ischemic myocardial injury by activating autophagy of cardiomyocytes. .


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Isquemia Miocárdica , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Masculino , Miocárdio , Extratos Vegetais , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134242

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate a facile bottom-up strategy to fabricate Pt nanoclusters (Pt NCs) grafted onto three-dimensional graphene foam (3D GF) assisted by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using the electrodeposition method. The homogeneous grafting of Pt NC onto 3D GF is due to the formation of hemimicelles above some CTAB concentration. With the unique nanocluster structure and the high content of Pt0, the Pt NC/3D GF nanohybrid exhibits extremely high activity and shows higher reusability and stability. Apart from the intrinsic oxidase-like activity with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as the substrate, the Pt NC/3D GF nanohybrid can act simultaneously as an effective polyphenol oxidase (PPO) mimic, such as tyrosinase, catechol oxidase, and laccase. More importantly, utilizing intrinsic catechol oxidase-like activity and the oxidase-like activity with TMB as the substrate of the nanohybrid, distinguishing colorimetric determination of dihydroxybenzene isomers (catechol and hydroquinone) is performed. Distinguishing colorimetric analysis of dihydroxybenzene isomers was first developed using nanozymes. The present work provides a simple bottom-up approach for the reasonable fabrication of various nanostructured nanozymes with excellent performance using the electrodeposition method assisted with surfactants.

9.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(1): 67-72, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131942

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the relationship of volumetric changes and endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair(EVAR)for abdominal aortic aneurysms(AAAs). Methods We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and imaging data of 54 patients who had underwent EVAR within 1 month after their aneurysms were detected.All patients received abdominal and pelvic enhanced computed tomography(CTA)for two follow-up visits in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from July 2014 to February 2019.Three-dimensional volumes and maximum diameters on axial CT of the aortic aneurysms were calculated by dedicated semi-automated 3D segmentation software before surgery(V0 and D0),in the 4 th postoperative month(V1and D1),and in the 12 th postoperative month(V2and D2),respectively.The presence or absence of endoleak for each patient with the V1/V0,V2/V0,and V2/V1 were calculated to assess the significance of volume changes with respect to endoleaks and the correlation between volume changes and maximum diameter changes on axial CT images. Results Of the 54 patients,endoleaks were found in 11 patients at the first follow-up visit(4 months after surgery),among whom 8 patients were arranged a second follow-up visit(12 months after surgery),during which endoleaks were found in 5 patients.Fifteen of 43 non-leaked patients underwent a second CTA examination,which revealed endoleak in one case.Patients who did exhibit endoleaks[n =11,V1/V0=1.086(1.033,1.116)]showed significant increases in aneurysm volume when compared with those who did not exhbit endoleaks[n =43,V1/V0=1.019(0.970,1.065)]at the first follow-up visit(Z=-2.695,P=0.007),although no significant difference was found with regard to volume changes between endoleaks(n=6,V2/V0=1.1±0.2,V2/V1=1.0±0.1)and non-endoleaks(n=17,V2/V0=1.0±0.1,V2/V1=1.0±0.1)at the second follow-up visit(t=0.725,P=0.476)as well as between these two follow-up visits(t=-0.021,P=0.984).V0 and D0 were moderately correlated with V1 and D1,respectively(r=0.5,P<0.001)and strongly correlated with V2 and D2,respectively(r=0.8,P<0.001).V1 and D1 were strongly correlated with V2 and D2,respectively(r=0.8,P<0.001). Conclusions The changes of aneurysm volume cannot reliably reflect the occurrence of endoleaks.The change of maximum axial diameter of aneurysm has certain correlation with the changes of aneurysm volume.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Endoleak/patologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Endoleak/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179620

RESUMO

Transgenic corn and cotton produce crystalline (Cry) proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are toxic to lepidopteran larvae. Helicoverpa zea, a key pest of corn and cotton in the U.S., has evolved widespread resistance to these proteins produced in Bt corn and cotton. While the genomic targets of Cry selection and the mutations that produce resistant phenotypes are known in other lepidopteran species, little is known about how selection by Cry proteins shape the genome of H. zea We scanned the genomes of Cry1Ac-selected and unselected H. zea lines, and identified twelve genes on five scaffolds that differed between lines, including cadherin-86C (cad-86C), a gene from a family that is involved in Cry1A resistance in other lepidopterans. Although this gene was expressed in the H. zea larval midgut, the protein it encodes has only 17 to 22% identity with cadherin proteins from other species previously reported to be involved in Bt resistance. An analysis of midgut-expressed cDNAs showed significant between-line differences in the frequencies of putative nonsynonymous substitutions (both SNPs and indels). Our results indicate that cad-86C is a likely target of Cry1Ac selection in H. zea. It remains unclear, however, whether genomic changes at this locus directly disrupt midgut binding of Cry1Ac and cause Bt resistance, or indirectly enhance fitness of H. zea in the presence of Cry1Ac by some other mechanism. Future work should investigate phenotypic effects of these nonsynonymous substitutions and their impact on fitness of H. zea larvae that ingest Cry1Ac.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134625

RESUMO

In living systems, highly efficient biological micromotors are fascinating and crucial to the maintenance and regulation of normal functions. Inspired by this, solid colloid motors with controlled movements were recently developed for diverse applications. However, to meet the requirements of more elaborate functionalities, the development of droplet-based micromotors, which feature with appealing advantages such as deformability, encapsulation capability, and biocompatibility, is demanding. Herein, responsive Janus droplets with intrinsic magnetic anisotropy were fabricated, taking advantage of the traditional one-step vortex mixing that guarantees large-scale production. Furthermore, the size range of the droplets can be easily extended continuously from hundreds of micrometers down to tens of nanometers. What is more appealing, directed in situ group motions that include alignment, rotation, and transfer of the Janus droplets prepared were successfully realized and precisely controlled by using an external magnetic field. These collective motions induced excellent performances in pollutant adsorption and separation, switchable conductivities, and the size grading. Such scalable, simple, and controllable strategy can expand the application of Janus emulsions to complicated fields of microreactors, microsensors, and environmental regulation.

12.
Injury ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Internal fixation (IF) with cannulated screws is the most widely accepted operation method for nondisplaced femoral neck fractures (FNFs) in elderly patients. However, there were higher rate of reoperation, severe complications and poorer functional outcomes reported in these patients treated with IF. The purpose of this research is to compare the prognosis, complications, reoperation and mortality of bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA) with IF of cannulated screws in elderly patients. METHODS: All elderly patients (>75 years of age) with nondisplaced FNFs from January 2010 to December 2015 at our institution were included in this study. Patients treated with HA and IF with cannulated screws were compared. Outcome measures included the surgical complications, perioperative parameters, hip joint function, reoperation and mortality. RESULTS: The blood loss of HA group (150.0 ± 55.1 mL) was statistically more than IF group (40.5 ± 15.7 mL, p = 0.001). However, the blood transfusion rate was similar between two groups (p = 0.102). At the last follow-up, there were total 14 (34.1%) severe surgical complications in the IF group, compared to 9 (10.1%) in the HA group (P = 0.001). No difference was detected between two groups with respect to the HHS and VAS at the last follow-up. Compared with the HA group, the IF group had much more reoperation in the follow up period (p = 0.001). There was no statistically differences of mortality rate between HA group (39.3%, 35/89) and IF group (34.1%, 14/41) (p=0.571). CONCLUSIONS: As a treatment option for nondisplaced intracapsular FNFs in elderly patients, HA showed the merits of a less surgical complications and less reoperations, while IF demonstrated a shorter surgical time and less intraoperative blood loss. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in the hip joint function and mortality rate in midterm follow-up. Further evaluation with a longer follow-up is recommended to strengthen these findings.

13.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(5): 545-556, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149414

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy. Many reports have implicated aberrant mitochondrial activity in the progression of CRC, with particular emphasis on the dysregulation of redox signaling and oxidative stress. In this study, we focused on manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD/SOD2), a key antioxidant enzyme, which maintains intracellular redox homeostasis. Current literature presents conflicting mechanisms for how SOD2 influences tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Here, we explored the role of SOD2 in CRC specifically. We found high levels of SOD2 expression in CRC tissues. We carried out a series of experiments to determine whether knockdown of SOD2 expression in CRC cell lines would reverse features of tumorigenesis. We found that reduced SOD2 expression decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion activity in CRC cells. Results from an additional series of experiments on mitochondrial function implicated a dual role for SOD2 in promoting CRC progression. First, proper level of SOD2 helped CRC cells maintain mitochondrial function by disposal of superoxide (O2 .- ). Second, over-expression of SOD2 induced H2 O2 -mediated tumorigenesis by upregulating AMPK and glycolysis. Our results indicate that SOD2 may promote the occurrence and development of CRC by regulating the energy metabolism mediated by AMPK signaling pathways.

14.
Int J Pharm ; 578: 119122, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035259

RESUMO

A facile approach was developed to synthesize an innovative hyaluronic acid-modified carbon dot-doxorubicin nanoparticles drug delivery platform. CD44 targeted HA-modified carbon dots (HA-CDs) were synthesized as carrier by one-step hydrothermal treatment within one hour with citric acid and branch-PEI as core carbon source. HA not only functioned as carbon dot component but also as hydrophilic group and targeting ligand of this system. The as-prepared HA-CDs were then loaded with doxorubicin (HA-CD@p-CBA-DOX) via an acid-cleavable bond, which released drug in a pH-responsive manner. In in vitro experiments, HA-CD@p-CBA-DOX displayed good hemocompatibility and serum stability, while exhibited high cytotoxicity on 4T1 cells. The confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry results demonstrated that DOX-loaded nanoparticles were internalized by 4T1 cells via HA-mediated CD44-targeting effect. The enhanced in vivo tumor accumulation of HA-CD@p-CBA-DOX was testified by live imaging. Compared with free DOX, superior in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of HA-CD@p-CBA-DOX was observed in both heterotopic and orthotopic 4T1 cell tumor models. Furthermore, blood hematology and blood biochemistry analysis demonstrated that HA-CD@p-CBA-DOX did not induce noticeable toxicity, which further confirmed the good biocompatibility of HA-CD@p-CBA-DOX. The formulated HA-CD@p-CBA-DOX provides an alternative strategy for targeted breast cancer therapy.

15.
Cancer ; 126(8): 1668-1682, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although curcumin's effect on head and neck cancer has been studied in vitro and in vivo, to the authors' knowledge its efficacy is limited by poor systemic absorption from oral administration. APG-157 is a botanical drug containing multiple polyphenols, including curcumin, developed under the US Food and Drug Administration's Botanical Drug Development, that delivers the active components to oromucosal tissues near the tumor target. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1 clinical trial was conducted with APG-157 in 13 normal subjects and 12 patients with oral cancer. Two doses, 100 mg or 200 mg, were delivered transorally every hour for 3 hours. Blood and saliva were collected before and 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, and 24 hours after treatment. Electrocardiograms and blood tests did not demonstrate any toxicity. RESULTS: Treatment with APG-157 resulted in circulating concentrations of curcumin and analogs peaking at 3 hours with reduced IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations in the salivary supernatant fluid of patients with cancer. Salivary microbial flora analysis showed a reduction in Bacteroidetes species in cancer subjects. RNA and immunofluorescence analyses of tumor tissues of a subject demonstrated increased expression of genes associated with differentiation and T-cell recruitment to the tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggested that APG-157 could serve as a therapeutic drug in combination with immunotherapy. LAY SUMMARY: Curcumin has been shown to suppress tumor cells because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effectiveness has been limited by poor absorption when delivered orally. Subjects with oral cancer were given oral APG-157, a botanical drug containing multiple polyphenols, including curcumin. Curcumin was found in the blood and in tumor tissues. Inflammatory markers and Bacteroides species were found to be decreased in the saliva, and immune T cells were increased in the tumor tissue. APG-157 is absorbed well, reduces inflammation, and attracts T cells to the tumor, suggesting its potential use in combination with immunotherapy drugs.

16.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043963

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a complication of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in adults. A correlation between OSAS and elevated blood pressure (BP) is suggested in children but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Our aim was to study the effects of sleep and sleep apnea on BP and sympathetic nervous system activation as measured by serum cortisol and urinary catecholamines. We hypothesized that children with OSAS would have higher BP, urinary catecholamines, and cortisol compared to controls. METHODS: We measured BP during polysomnography in 78 children with suspected sleep-disordered breathing and 18 non-snoring controls. BP was measured during wakefulness and every 30-60 minutes throughout the night. All subjects had 24-hour urinary catecholamine and free cortisol collections 48 hours before polysomnography. RESULTS: BP varied with sleep stage; it was highest during wakefulness and N1, and lowest during non-REM stage 3. Children classified as high AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index) snorers (AHI>5) had a greater prevalence of systolic hypertension (57%) than Low-AHI snorers (22%) and non-snoring controls (22%, p=0.04). The High-AHI snorers also had higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p<.02) as well as blunted nocturnal diastolic BP changes during sleep (p=.02) compared to low-AHI snorers (AHI<5). 24-hour urinary free cortisol and24-hour urinary catecholamines were not associated with BP. CONCLUSIONS: BP in children varies with sleep stage. OSA is associated with systolic hypertension, higher BP during REM sleep as well as elevation of DBP and blunted BP changes with sleep.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047267

RESUMO

The X-linked recessive degenerative disease dystrophinopathy results from variants in the DMD gene. Given the large size and complexity of the DMD gene, molecular diagnosis for all dystrophinopathies remains challenging. Here we identified two cryptic exon retention variants caused by intronic single nucleotide variants in dystrophinopathy patients using combined RNA- and DNA-based methods. As one variant was previously unreported, we explored its likely pathogenic mechanism, via bioinformatic prediction for in silico verification of splicing. Then we constructed a minigene system harboring the variant and used morpholino modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to induce cryptic exon skipping. ASOs treatment corrected the mis-splicing in the mutant minigene system. Our study defines a novel intronic variant that can cause dystrophinopathy, and illustrates a strategy to overcome the aberrant splicing.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122829, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028147

RESUMO

The existence of CO2 in biogas will affect its practicality, so the methanation of CO2 is of great significance. Carrier materials play a key role in bioconversion of CO2 to methane during biogas upgrading. Herein, different materials were used to evaluate the bioconversion process of CO2 to methane, which consisted of black ceramsite (BC) and biochars prepared from corn straw and digestate. The results showed that after adding the carrier materials, the methane production rate increased by more than 20%, and the corn straw biochar (CSB) group even increased by more than 70%. This may be attributed to the large specific surface area and more functional groups in corn straw biochar which was suitable for the immobilization of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (HMs). Therefore, corn straw biochar is a good carrier material for the accelerated bioconversion of CO2 to methane.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Euryarchaeota , Biocombustíveis , Carvão Vegetal , Metano
19.
Fam Community Health ; 43(2): 161-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079972

RESUMO

The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the homeless population is underestimated despite multiple behavioral risks. Data from a sample of 534 homeless adults from downtown Los Angeles were analyzed to examine the prevalence and predictors of HBV infection in this community. The prevalence of HBV was 7 to 10 times higher than in the US general population rate. Opiate dependence, injection and noninjection use, was an independent predictor of HBV exposure. Testing and counseling occurred at significantly lower rates for HBV than for human immunodeficiency virus. Findings emphasize the need to enhance screening and counseling in homeless communities and other populations with opiate use.

20.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimal treatment strategy for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to compare the outcomes of repeat hepatic resection (RHR) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for recurrent HCC. METHOD: From December 2004 to December 2015, 138 patients who underwent RHR and 194 patients who underwent RFA were enrolled. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to establish 1:1 RHR-RFA group matching. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after matching. RESULTS: Before matching, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year postrecurrence survival (PRS) rates were 91.8%, 82.0%, and 72.9% for the RHR group (n = 138) and 94.4%, 75.4%, and 61.7% for the RFA group (n = 194), respectively (P = .380). After matching, the PRS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90.5%, 81.5%, and 71.8% for the RHR group (n = 120) and 91.0%, 61.0%, and 41.7% for the RFA group (n = 120), respectively (P = .002). In the subgroup analysis, the PRS rates for the RHR group were better than those for the RFA group for patients who relapsed within 2 years (P = .004) or patients with primary tumor burden beyond the Milan criteria (P = .004). Multivariate analysis showed that treatment allocation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for PRS. CONCLUSION: Compared with RFA, RHR provided a survival advantage for recurrent HCC, especially for patients who relapsed within 2 years and those with primary tumor burden beyond the Milan criteria.

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