Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 129
Filtrar
1.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) made improvements for staging pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) in its 8th Edition; however, multicenter studies were not included. METHODS: We collected multicenter datasets (n = 1,086, between 2004 and 2018) to validate the value of AJCC 8 and other coexisting staging systems through univariate and multivariate analysis for well-differentiated (G1/G2) pNETs. RESULTS: Compared to other coexisting staging systems, AJCC 7 only included 12 (1.1%) patients with stage III tumors. Patients with European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) stage IIB disease had a higher risk of death than patients with stage IIIA (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.376 vs. 4.322). For the modified ENETS staging system, patients with stage IIB disease had a higher risk of death than patients with stage III (HR: 6.078 vs. 5.341). According to AJCC 8, the proportions of patients with stage I, II, III, and IV were 25.7%, 40.3%, 23.6%, and 10.4%, respectively. As the stage advanced, the median survival time decreased (NA, 144.7, 100.8, 72.0 months, respectively), and the risk of death increased (HR: II = 3.145, III = 5.925, and IV = 8.762). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that AJCC 8 had a more reasonable proportional distribution and the risk of death was better correlated with disease stage.

2.
Mol Ecol ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626522

RESUMO

Microbial generalists and specialists coexist in the soil environment while having distinctive impacts on microbial community dynamics. In microbial ecology, the underlying mechanisms as to why a species is a generalist or a specialist remain ambiguous. Herein, we collected soils across a national scale and identified bacterial generalists and specialists according to niche breadth at the species level (OTU level), and the single-nucleotide differences in each species were measured to investigate intraspecific variation (at zero-radius OTU level). Compared with that of the specialists, the intraspecific variation of the generalists was much higher, which ensured their wider niche breadth and lower variability. The higher asynchrony and different niche preferences of conspecific individuals and the higher dormancy potential within the generalists further contributed to their stability in varying environments. Besides, generalists were less controlled by environmental filtering, which was indicated by the stronger signature of stochastic processes in their assembly, and had higher diversification and transition rates that allowed them to adapt to environmental changes to a greater extent than specialists. Overall, this study provides a new comprehensive understanding of the rules of assembly and the evolutionary roles of bacterial generalists and specialists. It also highlights the importance of intraspecific variation and the dormancy potential in the stability of species.

3.
Lab Chip ; 21(22): 4390-4400, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704106

RESUMO

In the chemical and biological fields, the creation of concentration gradient microenvironments is an important approach for many applications, such as crystal growth and drug screening. Although many concentration gradient generators have been demonstrated, current generators can hardly produce ultra-long linear concentration gradients. In this paper, we propose a concentration-gradient flow/droplet generator which consists of a microfluidic flow switch, a cavity array for stage-by-stage concentration dilution, and an optional T-junction for droplet formation. The generator can realize an ultra-long continuously-varying concentration gradient along the flow direction. Generation of a 38 mm concentration gradient was demonstrated. The length can be further extended by enlarging the capacity of the cavities and increasing the number of the stages. The concentration gradient showed high linearity in the range of 10% to 90%. Moreover, cyclic generation of a concentration gradient flow and droplets with different concentrations was realized by the generator. In a demonstration of drug screening, the generator was employed to produce paclitaxel in different concentrations. A negative correlation between the 4T1 cell viability and the paclitaxel concentration was observed after the treatment. We envision that the concentration gradient generator will be a promising candidate for various drug screening applications.


Assuntos
Microfluídica
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1019, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465850

RESUMO

Despite the uniform mortality in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), clinical disease heterogeneity exists with limited genomic differences. A highly aggressive tumor subtype termed 'basal-like' was identified to show worse outcomes and higher inflammatory responses. Here, we focus on the microbial effect in PDAC progression and present a comprehensive analysis of the tumor microbiome in different PDAC subtypes with resectable tumors using metagenomic sequencing. We found distinctive microbial communities in basal-like tumors and identified an increasing abundance of Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Sphingopyxis to be highly associated with carcinogenesis. Functional characterization of microbial genes suggested the potential to induce pathogen-related inflammation. Host-microbiota interplay analysis provided new insights into the tumorigenic role of specific microbiome compositions and demonstrated the influence of host genetics in shaping the tumor microbiome. Taken together, these findings indicated that the tumor microbiome is closely related to PDAC oncogenesis and the induction of inflammation. Additionally, our data revealed the microbial basis of PDAC heterogeneity and proved the predictive value of the microbiome, which will contribute to the intervention and treatment of disease.

5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519710

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fat fixation is a key step in filling tear trough depression with inferior eyelid orbital septum fat. The ideal position for inferior eyelid fat fixation is to cross the tear trough ligament causing tear trough depression and the orbicularis retaining ligament, with the distal end fixed at the farthest end of the dissected lacuna deep down the inferior orbicularis oculi muscle. Traditional suturing is difficult in the deep narrow lacunae, but a buried guide needle can be used to suture and fix the fat in the deepest lacuna. In this study, 264 patients who underwent tear trough filling using a buried guide needle to fix the released inferior eyelid orbital septum fat from 2017 to 2020 were followed up. The preoperative and postoperative imaging findings were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the operation and postoperative complications. The inferior eyelid bulging, loose skin, and tear trough depression significantly improved than that before the operation. None of the patients had any severe complications, such as inferior eyelid ectropion, lagophthalmos, scar hyperplasia, and diplopia, in the long term (6 months) postoperatively. Five patients showed mild eyelid-eyeball separation and recovered in 1 month. Four patients had diplopia, and 3 patients had chemosis; all recovered in 7 days. The tear trough depression was not corrected completely in 2 patients. The operation showed satisfactory results in the improvement of tear trough depression in addition to alleviation of inferior eyelid bulging and loose inferior eyelid skin that is caused by the traditional inferior eyelid pouch removal.

6.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(9): e520, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from chronic pancreatitis (CP) is clinically challenging due to a lack of minimally invasive diagnosis methods. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) derived from small extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the blood have been reported as a promising diagnosis biomarker for various types of cancer. However, blood small EV miRNA signatures and their diagnostic value to differentiate between PDAC and CP remain to be determined. METHODS: In this study, 107 patients with PDAC or CP were recruited, and 90 patients were finally enrolled for a training cohort (n = 48) and test cohort (n = 42). Small RNA sequencing was used to assess the expression of blood small EV miRNAs in these patients. RESULTS: The linear model from the differentially expressed blood small EV miR-95-3p divided by miR-26b-5p showed an average sensitivity of 84.1% and an average specificity of 96.6% to identify PDAC from CP in the training cohort and the test cohort, respectively. When the model was combined with serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), the average sensitivity increased to 96.5%, and the average specificity remained at 96.4% of both cohorts, which demonstrated the best performance of all the published biomarkers for distinguishing between PDAC and CP. The causal analysis performed using the Bayesian network demonstrated that miR-95-3p was associated with a "consequence" of "cancer" and miR-26b-5p as a "cause" of "pancreatitis." A subgroup analysis revealed that blood small EV miR-335-5p/miR-340-5p could predict metastases in both cohorts and was associated with an overall survival (p = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that blood small EV miR-95-3p/miR-26b-5p and its combination with serum levels of CA19-9 could separate PDAC from CP, and miR-335-5p/miR-340-5p was identified to associate with PDAC metastasis and poor prognosis. These results suggested the potentiality of blood small EV miRNAs as differential diagnosis and metastases biomarkers of PDAC.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 717989, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368001

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic cancer is a life-threatening malignant disease with significant diversity among geographic regions and races leading to distinct carcinogenesis and prognosis. Previous studies mainly focused on Western patients, while the genomic landscape of Oriental patients, especially Chinese, remained less investigated. Methods: A total of 408 pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled. A panel containing 436 cancer-related genes was used to detect genetic alterations in tumor samples. Results: We profiled the genomic alteration landscape of pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), periampullary carcinoma (PVC), and solid-pseudopapillary tumor (SPT). Comparison with a public database revealed specific gene mutations in Oriental PDAC patients including higher mutation rates of DNA damage repair-related genes. Analysis of mutational signatures showed potential heterogenous carcinogenic factors caused by diabetes mellitus. KRAS mutation, especially KRAS G12D mutation, was associated with poor survival, while patients not harboring the 17 significant copy number variations (CNVs) had a better prognosis. We further identified multiple correlations between clinicopathologic variables and genetic mutations, as well as CNVs. Finally, by network-based stratification, three classes of PDAC patients were robustly clustered. Among these, class 1 (characterized by the Fanconi anemia pathway) achieved the best outcome, while class 2 (involved in the platinum drug resistance pathway) suffered from the worst prognosis. Conclusions: In this study, we reported for the first time the genetic alteration landscape of Oriental PDAC patients identifying many Oriental-specific alterations. The relationship between genetic alterations and clinicopathological factors as well as prognosis demonstrated important genomic impact on tumor biology. This study will help to optimize clinical treatment of Oriental PDAC patients and improve their survival.

8.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 244, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macromoleculization of nitroxides has been an effective strategy to improve low relaxivities and poor in vivo stability, however, nitroxides-based metal-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) macromolecular contrast agents (mCAs) are still under-performed. These mCAs do not possess a high nitroxides content sufficient for a cumulative effect. Amphiphilic nanostructures in these mCAs are not stable enough for highly efficient protection of nitroxides and do not have adequate molecular flexibility for full contact of the paramagnetic center with the peripheral water molecules. In addition, these mCAs still raise the concerns over biocompatibility and biodegradability due to the presence of macromolecules in these mCAs. RESULTS: Herein, a water-soluble biodegradable nitroxides-based mCA (Linear pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL) was prepared via covalent conjugation of a nitroxides (2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyl-N-oxyl, PROXYL) onto an enzyme-sensitive linear di-block poly[N-(1, 3-dihydroxypropyl) methacrylamide] (pDHPMA). A high content of PROXYL up to 0.111 mmol/g in Linear pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL was achieved and a stable nano-sized self-assembled aggregate in an aqueous environment (ca. 23 nm) was formed. Its longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 0.93 mM- 1 s- 1) was the highest compared to reported nitroxides-based mCAs. The blood retention time of PROXYL from the prepared mCA in vivo was up to ca. 8 h and great accumulation of the mCA was realized in the tumor site due to its passive targeting ability to tumors. Thus, Linear pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL could provide a clearly detectable MRI enhancement at the tumor site of mice via the T1WI SE sequence conventionally used in clinical Gd3+-based contrast agents, although it cannot be compared with DTPA-Gd in the longitudinal relaxivity and the continuous enhancement time at the tumor site of mice. Additionally, it was demonstrated to have great biosafety, hemocompatibility and biocompatibility. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, Linear pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL could be a potential candidate as a substitute of metal-based MRI CAs for clinical application.

9.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 205, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to address the potential toxicity of metal-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs), a concept of non-metallic MRI CAs has emerged. Currently, paramagnetic nitroxides (such as (2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl, PROXYL), (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxide, TEMPO), etc.) are being extensively studied because their good stability and imaging mechanism are similar to metal-based contrast agents (such as Gd3+ chelate-based clinical CAs). However, a lower relaxivity and rapid in vivo metabolism of nitroxides remain to be addressed. Previous studies have demonstrated that the construction of macromolecular nitroxides contrast agents (mORCAs) is a promising solution through macromolecularization of nitroxides (i.e., use of large molecules to carry nitroxides). Macromolecular effects not only increase the stability of nitroxides by limiting their exposure to reductive substances in the body, but also improve the overall 1H water relaxation by increasing the concentration of nitroxides and slowing the molecular rotation speed. RESULTS: Branched pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL with a high molecular weight (MW = 160 kDa) and a nitroxides content (0.059 mmol/g) can form a nanoscale (~ 28 nm) self-assembled aggregate in a water environment and hydrophobic PROXYL can be protected by a hydrophilic outer layer to obtain strong reduction resistance in vivo. Compared with a small molecular CA (3-Carboxy-PROXYL (3-CP)), Branched pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL displays three prominent features: (1) its longitudinal relaxivity (0.50 mM- 1 s- 1) is about three times that of 3-CP (0.17 mM- 1 s- 1); (2) the blood retention time of nitroxides is significantly increased from a few minutes of 3-CP to 6 h; (3) it provides long-term and significant enhancement in MR imaging of the tumor, liver, kidney and cardiovascular system (heart and aortaventralis), and this is the first report on nitroxides-based MRI CAs for imaging the cardiovascular system. CONCLUSIONS: As a safe and efficient candidate metal-free magnetic resonance contrast agent, Branched pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL is expected to be used not only in imaging the tumor, liver and kidney, but also the cardiovascular system, which expands the application scope of these CAs.

10.
Cancer Lett ; 518: 207-213, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271105

RESUMO

AJCC TNM stage and WHO grade (G) are two widely used staging systems to guide clinical management for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNENs), based on clinical staging and pathological grading information, respectively. We proposed to integrate TNM stage and G grade into one staging system (TNMG) and to evaluate its clinical application as a prognostic indicator for panNENs. Accordingly, 5254 patients diagnosed with panNENs were used to evaluate and to validate the applicability of TNMG to panNENs. The predictive accuracy of TNMG system was compared with that of each separate staging/grading system. We found that TNM stage and G grade were independent risk factors for survival in both the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) and multicenter series. The interaction effect between TNM stage and G grade was significant. Twelve subgroups combining the TNM stage and G grade were proposed in the TNMG stage, which were classified into five stages TNMG. According to the TNMG staging classification in the SEER series, the estimated median survival for stages I, II, III, IV, and V were 203, 174, 112, 61, and 8 months, respectively. The predictive accuracy of TNMG stage was higher than that of TNM stage and G grade used independently. The TNMG stage classification was more accurate in predicting panNEN patient's prognosis than either the TNM stage or G grade.

11.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(10): 3412-3431, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181268

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt is one of the major biotic factors limiting cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) growth and yield. The outcomes of cucumber-Fusarium interactions can be influenced by the form of nitrogen nutrition (nitrate [NO3 - ] or ammonium [NH4 + ]); however, the physiological mechanisms of N-regulated cucumber disease resistance are still largely unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between nitrogen forms and cucumber resistance to Fusarium infection. Our results showed that on Fusarium infection, NO3 - feeding decreased the levels of the fungal toxin, fusaric acid, leaf membrane oxidative, organelle damage and disease-associated loss in photosynthesis. Metabolomic analysis and gas-exchange measurements linked NO3 - mediated plant defence with enhanced leaf photorespiration rates. Cucumber plants sprayed with the photorespiration inhibitor isoniazid were more susceptible to Fusarium and there was a negative correlation between photorespiration rate and leaf membrane injury. However, there were positive correlations between photorespiration rate, NO3 - assimilation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. This provides a potential electron sink or the peroxisomal H2 O2 catalysed by glycolate oxidase. We suggest that the NO3 - nutrition enhanced cucumber resistance against Fusarium infection was associated with photorespiration. Our findings provide a novel insight into a mechanism involving the interaction of photorespiration with nitrogen forms to drive wider defence.

12.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1109-1119, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121563

RESUMO

During inflammation, inflammatory cells are rapidly recruited to sites of infection or injury, where they cross physiological barriers around the infected site and further infiltrate into the tissues. Other cells, such as erythrocytes, endothelial cells and stem cells, also play prominent roles in host defense and tissue repair. In recent years, nanotechnology has been exploited to deliver drugs to sites of inflammation. For example, nanoparticles camouflaged with a cell membrane are a novel drug-delivery platform that can interact with the immune system and that show great potential for treating inflammation. Encapsulating drugs inside plasma membranes derived from various cells involved in inflammatory processes can be effective against inflammation. This review describes the preparation, characterization, and properties of various types of cell membrane-camouflaged biomimetic nanoparticles. It also summarizes preclinical research into their efficacy against inflammation.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Química Farmacêutica , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Tecnologia Farmacêutica
13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 651350, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136388

RESUMO

Recent research studies on interrogation of the tumor microbiome (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) have yielded important insights into the role of microbes in carcinogenesis, therapeutic responses, and resistance. Once thought to be a sterile organ, a number of studies have showed the presence of microbes within this organ in PDAC status. A microbiome-pancreas axis for PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) carcinogenesis is proposed. However, the microbial composition of localized PDAC tissue is still unclear. The associations between microbiome and PDAC reported in previous studies were detected in an indirect way, which mostly used samples from stool, oral saliva, and intestinal samples. This study integrated 582 samples derived from PDAC tissues across four datasets and presented a landscape of tumor microbiome at the genus level in PDAC based on remining of RNA-Seq data. On average, there are hundreds of genera distributed in the PDAC tissue, and dozens of core microbiota were identified by PDAC tissue. The pan-microbiome of PDAC tissue was also estimated, which might surpass 2,500 genera. In addition, sampling sites (stroma vs. epithelium) and tissue source (human tissue vs. PDX) were found to have great effects on the microbial composition of PDAC tissue, but not the traditional risk factors (sex and age). It is the first study to systematically focus on exploring the microbial composition of PDAC tissue and is helpful to have a deep understanding of tumor microbiome. The identified specific taxa might be potential biomarkers for follow-up research studies.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 612, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study aimed to investigate the potential benefit of more than 4 courses of S1 adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after surgery. METHOD: Data were retrospectively collected from consecutive patients who underwent S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy following curative pancreatectomy between January 2016 and December 2018. Four-courses and > 4 courses cohorts were compared for overall survival (OS) as a primary outcome, and relapse-free survival (RFS) and adverse event incidence as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Four-courses and > 4 courses cohorts comprised 99 patients and 64 ones, respectively. TNM stage (stage II vs. I: HR, 2.125; 95% CI, 1.164-4.213; P = 0.015), duration of S-1 administration (4 vs. > 4 courses: HR, 3.113; 95% CI, 1.531-6.327; P = 0.002) and tumor grade (G3 vs. G1/2: HR, 3.887; 95% CI, 1.922-7.861; P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors. Under the condition of patients' survival time beyond 8 months, the OS of patients in > 4 courses cohort was significantly prolonged compared with that of 4 courses cohort (4 vs. > 4 courses: HR, 2.284; 95% CI, 1.197-4.358; P = 0.012), especially for patients in TNM stageII (4 vs. > 4 courses: HR, 2.906; 95% CI, 1.275-6.623; P = 0.011).RFS and adverse events incidence did not signifcantly difer between both cohorts. CONCLUSION: Prolonged duration of S-1 intake is beneficial to prognosis of patients with PDAC resection.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Tegafur/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Ácido Oxônico/efeitos adversos , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tegafur/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(18): 4076-4081, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978036

RESUMO

A novel, green and efficient method is developed for the synthesis of methylene bridged bis(indolyl)methanes in good to excellent yields. The reaction employs methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the methylene source and selectfluor as an oxidizing agent. The scope and versatility of the methods have been successfully demonstrated with 48 examples. The metal-free transformation process is suitable for scale-up production. A selectfluor-promoted oxidative reaction mechanism is proposed based on the results of the experimental studies.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(16): 19312-19323, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871259

RESUMO

With diverse selectivity, higher permeance, and good antifouling property, loose polyamide nanofiltration (NF) membranes can be potentially deployed in various bioseparation applications. However, the loose NF membrane with a low crosslinking degree generally suffers from the alkali-induced pore swelling during chemical cleaning, resulting in degradation of separation performance with time. In this work, we conceive a novel strategy to tailor the separating layer through alkaline post-etching following the interfacial polymerization process, where piperazine and tannic acid (TA) were used as water-phase monomers, and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and ferric acetylacetonate were employed as organic monomers in n-hexane. Thereinto, the polyester network formed by TA and TMC was selectively etched by alkaline treatment, thus obtaining a loose NF membrane, whose structure and performance could be facilely tailored by controlling the TA ratio and the etching pH. As a result, the well-designed loose NF membrane exhibited higher flux, better selectivity, and more stable separation performance in a long-term filtration of diluted cane molasses. Interestingly, the obtained loose NF membrane showed excellent antiswelling ability during alkaline cleaning because of network locking induced by Fe3+ chelation, decrease in the carboxyl proportion (more hydroxyl generation due to the ester bond hydrolysis), and enhanced interface interaction between the separation layer and the sublayer attributed to catechol adhesion effect. Therefore, such a "selective-etching-induced reinforcing" strategy could endow the polyamide NF membrane with both loose and antiswelling separation layer in a reliable and scalable way, which provides a new perspective for preparing highly selective and stable NF membrane for resource recovery.


Assuntos
Filtração/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroxibutiratos/química , Pentanonas/química , Piperazina/química , Polimerização , Taninos/química , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
17.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792742

RESUMO

Rare species are crucial components of the highly diverse soil microbial pool and over-proportionally contribute to the soil functions. However, much remains unknown about their assembling rules. The biogeographic patterns and species aggregations of the rare bacterial biosphere were assessed using 140 soil samples from a gradient of 2000 km across the main tea-producing areas in China. About 96% OTUs with ~40% sequences were classified as rare taxa. The rare bacterial communities were significantly affected by geographical regions and showed distance-decay effects, indicating that the rare bacteria are not cosmopolitan, they displayed a pattern of limited dispersal and were restricted to certain sites. Variation partitioning analysis (VPA) revealed that environmental variation and spatial factors explained 12.5% and 6.4%, respectively, of the variance in rare bacterial community. The Mantel and partial Mantel tests also showed that the environmental factors had stronger (~3 times) impacts than spatial factors. The null model showed that deterministic processes contributed more than stochastic processes in rare bacterial assembly (75% vs. 25%). There is likely an enrichment in ecological functions within the rare biosphere, considering this high contribution of deterministic processes in the assembly. In addition, the assembly of rare taxa was found to be mainly driven by soil pH. Overall, this study revealed that rare bacteria were not cosmopolitan, and their assembly was more driven by deterministic processes. These findings provided a new comprehensive understanding of rare bacterial biogeographic patterns and assembly rules.

18.
Front Oncol ; 11: 609187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767983

RESUMO

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms and represent the most common identifiable precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer. Clinical decision-making of the risk for malignant disease, including high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma, is challenging. Moreover, discordance on the indication for resection exists between the contemporary guidelines. Furthermore, most of the current nomogram models for predicting malignant disease depend on endoscopic ultrasonography to evaluate the precise size of mural nodules. Thus, this study aimed to propose a model to predict malignant disease using variables from a noninvasive examination. We evaluated patients who underwent resection of pathologically confirmed IPMNs between November 2010 and December 2018 and had preoperative clinical data available for review. Based on binary multivariable logistic regression analysis, we devised a nomogram model to predict malignant IPMNs. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the discrimination power of the model. Of the 333 patients who underwent resection of IPMNs, 198 (59.5%) had benign and 135 (40.5%) had malignant IPMNs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that cyst size, cyst location, cyst wall enhancement, multicystic lesion, diameter of main pancreatic duct, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and carcinoembryonic antigen were significantly associated with malignancy. The nomogram, constructed based on these variables, showed excellent discrimination power with an AUC of 0.859 (95% CI: 0.818-0.900, P < 0.001). In conclusion, we have developed a nomogram consisting of a combination of cross-sectional imaging features and blood markers, variables that can readily be obtained by noninvasive examinations during the surveillance period, which can distinguish benign from malignant IPMNs. Nevertheless, external validation is warranted.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 735, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531490

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are essential elements for plant growth and crop yield. Thus, improved N and C utilisation contributes to agricultural productivity and reduces the need for fertilisation. In the present study, we find that overexpression of a single rice gene, Oryza sativa plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase 1 (OSA1), facilitates ammonium absorption and assimilation in roots and enhanced light-induced stomatal opening with higher photosynthesis rate in leaves. As a result, OSA1 overexpression in rice plants causes a 33% increase in grain yield and a 46% increase in N use efficiency overall. As PM H+-ATPase is highly conserved in plants, these findings indicate that the manipulation of PM H+-ATPase could cooperatively improve N and C utilisation, potentially providing a vital tool for food security and sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
20.
New Phytol ; 230(5): 2047-2060, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626176

RESUMO

A host-plant and its associated microbiota depend on one another. However, the assembly process and the functioning of host-associated microbiota are poorly understood. Herein, rice was used as model plant to investigate the assemblage of bacterial microbiota, including those in the seed, root endosphere and rhizosphere. We also assessed the degree to which endosphere and rhizosphere communities were influenced by vertical transmission through seed and identified the core microbes that potentially associated with plant phenotypic properties. Plant microhabitat, rather than subspecies type, was the major driver shaping plant-associated bacterial microbiota. Deterministic processes were primarily responsible for community assembly in all microhabitats. The influence of vertical transmission from seed to root-associated bacterial communities appeared to be quite weak (endosphere) or even absent (rhizosphere). A core microbial community composed of 15 generalist species persisted across different microhabitats and represented key connectors in networks. Host-plant functional traits were linked to the relative abundance of these generalist core microbes and could be predicted from them using machine learning algorithms. Overall, bacterial microbiota is assembled by host-plant interactions in a deterministic-based manner. This study enhances our understanding of the driving mechanisms and associations of microbiota in various plant microhabitats and provides new perspectives to improve plant performance.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Sementes , Microbiologia do Solo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...