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1.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; : 1-19, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126549

RESUMO

With 60% of all primate species now threatened with extinction and many species only persisting in small populations in forest fragments, conservation action is urgently needed. But what type of action? Here we argue that restoration of primate habitat will be an essential component of strategies aimed at conserving primates and preventing the extinctions that may occur before the end of the century and propose that primates can act as flagship species for restoration efforts. To do this we gathered a team of academics from around the world with experience in restoration so that we could provide examples of why primate restoration ecology is needed, outline how primates can act as flagship species for restoration efforts of tropical forest, review what little is known about how primate populations respond to restoration efforts, and make specific recommendations of the next steps needed to make restoration of primate populations successful. We set four priorities: (1) academics must effectively communicate both the value of primates and the need for restoration; (2) more research is needed on how primates contribute to forest restoration; (3) more effort must be put into Masters and PhD level training for tropical country nationals; and finally (4) more emphasis is needed to monitor the responses of regenerating forest and primate populations where restoration efforts are initiated. We are optimistic that populations of many threatened species can recover, and extinctions can be prevented, but only if concerted large-scale efforts are made soon and if these efforts include primate habitat restoration.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 480, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949226

RESUMO

Collective decision-making is important for coordination and synchronization of the activities among group-living animals and the mechanisms guiding such procedure involve a great variety of characteristics of behavior and motivation. This study provides some evidence investigating collective movement initiation in a multi-level social band of the golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) located in the Mts. Qinling, China. We collect 1223 datum records relevant to decision initiation from six OMUs. The results indicate that collective movement initiation could be divided into two continual but relatively independent processes: decisions on moving direction and movement implementation. In both processes, adult individuals are more likely to initiate the decision-making, while other adults vote on initiator's preference, with a threshold, a supporting number required for a success. Thus, voting behavior and quorum fulfillment contribute to a successful decision-making. Adult individuals play important role in making decisions for moving direction and implementation. For a successful collective movement initiation, the individuals being more central in grooming network initiate decisions more frequently than the others, and attract voters more easily. Furthermore, following the initiation, at least four positive voters are required for a direction decision and at least three positive voters are needed for the decision on movement implementation, which could be considered as the threshold of quorum numbers required for a successful decision. This study has provided some very interesting information and scientific evidence in understanding social structure and behaviors of the nonhuman primates with a social structure very similar to humans'. Thus, some results can directly be referred to the comprehension of human social structure and behavior.

3.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912988

RESUMO

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) providing high energy and power densities as well as long cycle life are in high demand for various applications. Benefitting from its high theoretical specific charge capacity of ≈4200 mAh g-1 and natural abundance, Si is nowadays considered as one of the most promising anode candidates for high-energy-density LIBs. However, its huge volume change during cycling prevents its widespread commercialization. Si/C-based electrodes, fabricated through top-down mechanical-milling technique and etching, could be particularly promising since they can adequately accommodate the Si volume expansion, buffer the mechanical stress, and ameliorate the interface/surface stability. In this Review, the current progresses in the top-down synthesis of Si/C anode materials for LIBs from inexpensive Si sources via the combination of low-cost, simple, scalable, and efficient ball-milling and etching processes are summarized. Various Si precursors as well as etching routes are highlighted in this Review. This review would be a guide for fabricating high-performance Si-based anodes.

4.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 79-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305022

RESUMO

Following significant developments in technology, alternative devices have been applied in fieldwork for animal and plant surveys. Thermal-image acquisition cameras installed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used in animal surveys in the wilderness. This article demonstrates an example of how UAVs can be used in high mountainous regions, presenting a case study on the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey with a detection rate of 65.19% for positive individual identification. It also presents a model that can prospectively predict population size for a given animal species, which is based on combined initial work using UAVs and traditional surveys on the ground. A great potential advantage of UAVs is significantly shortening survey procedures, particularly for areas with high mountains and plateaus, such as the Himalayas, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Hengduan Mountains, the Yunnan-Gui Plateau and Qinling Mountains in China, where carrying out a traditional survey is extremely difficult, so that species and population surveys, particularly for critically endangered animals, are largely absent. This lack of data has impacted the management of endangered animals as well as the formulation and amendment of conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Colobinae/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Aeronaves , Animais , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1916): 20192047, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797732

RESUMO

Research is a highly competitive profession where evaluation plays a central role; journals are ranked and individuals are evaluated based on their publication number, the number of times they are cited and their h-index. Yet such evaluations are often done in inappropriate ways that are damaging to individual careers, particularly for young scholars, and to the profession. Furthermore, as with all indices, people can play games to better their scores. This has resulted in the incentive structure of science increasingly mimicking economic principles, but rather than a monetary gain, the incentive is a higher score. To ensure a diversity of cultural perspectives and individual experiences, we gathered a team of academics in the fields of ecology and evolution from around the world and at different career stages. We first examine how authorship, h-index of individuals and journal impact factors are being used and abused. Second, we speculate on the consequences of the continued use of these metrics with the hope of sparking discussions that will help our fields move in a positive direction. We would like to see changes in the incentive systems, rewarding quality research and guaranteeing transparency. Senior faculty should establish the ethical standards, mentoring practices and institutional evaluation criteria to create the needed changes.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17785, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689850

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular imaging is the gold standard for diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. Rupture of intracranial aneurysm is rare in cerebrovascular angiography, especially in unruptured intracranial aneurysm. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 74-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for sudden onset of left eyelid ptosis for 1 day with no obvious inducement. The patient had a history of hypertension. Physical examination revealed that she had clear consciousness and normal speech, but the left eyelid drooped. The left pupil diameter was 5 mm and light reflex was absent. The left eyeball could not move, and the right eye examinations were normal. The limb muscle strength and muscle tension were normal. DIAGNOSIS: Bilateral internal carotid artery posterior communicating aneurysm, severe stenosis of the origin of left carotid artery, and right oculomotor nerve palsy. INTERVENTIONS: After the hospital, the aneurysm ruptured and hemorrhaged during radiography, and the patient improved after immediate rescue and treatment. On the third day after angiography, the patient's the condition gradually stabilized. Under the general anesthesia, left carotid artery stenosis stent implantation and left posterior communicating artery aneurysm stent assisted coil embolization were performed successfully. On the second day after embolization, the patient's head computed tomography (CT) showed subarachnoid hemorrhage with hydrocephalus. The patient underwent external ventricular drainage. A month later, the patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt. OUTCOMES: Six months later, the patient visited our hospital for a follow-up, and she was clear-headed, aphasia, right limb hemiplegia with muscle strength grade II, left side autonomous activities, and the GOS score was 2 points. Head CT showed the ventricles were normal. CONCLUSIONS: Acute oculomotor palsy may be a risk factor for rupture of ipsilateral unruptured aneurysms, but more basic research and clinical trial evidence of intracranial aneurysms are needed to confirm this.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/etiologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/etiologia
7.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 203-207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774321

RESUMO

Objective: Intracranial aneurysm is a kind of severe intracranial disease mainly responsible for subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the rupture of intracranial aneurysm results in a mortality rate of 30%-40%. For the first time in the world, this study aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol in Chinese elderly patients with intracranial aneurysm. Methods: In this study, 300 elderly patients with intracranial aneurysm were recruited and divided into two groups as follows: ERAS group (n=150, ERAS protocol) and control group (n=150, conventional management). Results: Age of whole cohort was 65 (64-67) years with 140 males (46.7). There was no difference between two groups in baseline features of patients, such as age, sex, medical histories, percentages of aneurysmal location, aneurysmal number >1 per patient, aneurysmal diameter >5 mm, or lobular aneurysm (P>0.05 for all). There was no occurrence of death in two groups. Compared with those in the control group, patients in the ERAS group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay (P<0.05). Between two groups, patients had not only similar Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) at discharge but also occurrence of readmission at follow-up (P>0.05 for all). Patients in the ERAS group had significantly higher GOS and lower MRS at follow-up (P<0.05 for all). Conclusion: ERAS protocol significantly shortened the length of hospital stay and improved GOS and MRS without any increase in the mortality or readmission in Chinese elderly patients with intracranial aneurysm.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano/reabilitação , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(8): 085003, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184687

RESUMO

A novel pressure-sensitive paint has been developed by mixing phosphor Sr4Al14O25:Eu,Dy with pressure-sensitive luminophore PtTFPP in a polyethylene binder. The phosphor particles served as hosts for PtTFPP molecules while providing excitation light via their bright blue/green luminescence. The unique long afterglow of Sr4Al14O25:Eu,Dy allows the coating to be charged by a light source (UV-LED or even sunlight) in advance, and then the luminescent signals can be collected by using a color camera for pressure measurement (without an external light source). The persistent luminescence and the pressure-sensitive signal correspond to the green and red channels, respectively. The errors due to time-varying persistent luminescence can be removed by taking an intensity ratio between the two channels. The current formulation of this light-charged pressure-sensitive paint (LC-PSP) has been optimized for the maximum signal level. It showed similar pressure sensitivity to typical pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs), and its capability was demonstrated through a nitrogen jet impingement experiment. This light-charged PSP can be truly free of light source during measurement, which greatly simplifies the optical system and avoids errors due to the inconsistent illumination field, and thus provides a solution for PSP applications in facilities with limited optical access.

9.
Curr Zool ; 64(4): 441-447, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108624

RESUMO

In social mammals, kinship is an important factor that often affects the interactions among individuals within groups. In primates that live in a multilevel society, kinship may affect affiliative patterns between individuals at different scales within the larger group. For this study, we use field observations and molecular methods to reveal the profiles of how kinship affects affiliative behaviors between individuals in a breeding band of wild golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). We use a novel nonparametric test, the partition Mantel test, to measure independently the correlation between kinship and each of three affiliative behaviors. Our results show that more closely related females are more likely to groom each other. Average relatedness between adult females within the same one-male unit (OMU) is higher than that between adult females from different OMUs. We suggest that closely related females may reside in the same OMU in order to attain inclusive fitness benefits, and that kinship plays an important role in maintaining the social structure of this species.

10.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(4): 045006, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716315

RESUMO

The mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor is a newly developed non-invasive technique for stress/strain measurement. However, its application has been mostly restricted to qualitative measurement due to the lack of a well-defined relationship between ML intensity and stress. To achieve accurate stress measurement, an intensity ratio model was proposed in this study to establish a quantitative relationship between the stress condition and its ML intensity in elastic deformation. To verify the proposed model, experiments were carried out on a ML measurement system using resin samples mixed with the sensor material SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+. The ML intensity ratio was found to be dependent on the applied stress and strain rate, and the relationship acquired from the experimental results agreed well with the proposed model. The current study provided a physical explanation for the relationship between ML intensity and its stress condition. The proposed model was applicable in various SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+-based ML measurement in elastic deformation, and could provide a useful reference for quantitative stress measurement using the ML sensor in general.

11.
Am J Primatol ; 80(4): e22755, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635833

RESUMO

There is a great deal of spatial and temporal variation in the availability and nutritional quality of foods eaten by animals, particularly in temperate regions where winter brings lengthy periods of leaf and fruit scarcity. We analyzed the availability, dietary composition, and macronutrients of the foods eaten by the northern-most golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) population in the Qinling Mountains, China to understand food choice in a highly seasonal environment dominated by deciduous trees. During the warm months between April and November, leaves are consumed in proportion to their availability, while during the leaf-scarce months between December and March, bark and leaf/flower buds comprise most of their diet. When leaves dominated their diet, golden snub-nosed monkeys preferentially selected leaves with higher ratios of crude protein to acid detergent fiber. While when leaves were less available, bark and leaf/flower buds that were high in nonstructural carbohydrates and energy, and low in acid detergent fiber were selected. Southern populations of golden snub-nosed monkey can turn to eating lichen, however, the population studied here in this lichen-absent area have adapted to their cool deciduous habitat by instead consuming buds and bark. Carbohydrate and energy rich foods appear to be the critical resources required for the persistence of this species in temperate habitat. The dietary flexibility of these monkeys, both among seasons and populations, likely contributes to their wide distribution over a range of habitats and environments.


Assuntos
Colobinae/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Estações do Ano , Animais , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Árvores
12.
BMC Evol Biol ; 18(1): 29, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining variation in immune genes, such as those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is important for individuals in small, isolated populations to resist pathogens and parasites. The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), an endangered primate endemic to China, has experienced a rapid reduction in numbers and severe population fragmentation over recent years. For this study, we measured the DRB diversity among 122 monkeys from three populations in the Qinling Mountains, and estimated the relative importance of different agents of selection in maintaining variation of DRB genes. RESULTS: We identified a total of 19 DRB sequences, in which five alleles were novel. We found high DRB variation in R. roxellana and three branches of evidence suggesting that balancing selection has contributed to maintaining MHC polymorphism over the long term in this species: i) different patterns of both genetic diversity and population differentiation were detected at MHC and neutral markers; ii) an excess of non-synonymous substitutions compared to synonymous substitutions at antigen binding sites, and maximum-likelihood-based random-site models, showed significant positive selection; and iii) phylogenetic analyses revealed a pattern of trans-species evolution for DRB genes. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of DRB diversity in these R. roxellana populations may reflect strong selection pressure in this species. Patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation, positive selection, as well as trans-species evolution, suggest that pathogen-mediated balancing selection has contributed to maintaining MHC polymorphism in R. roxellana over the long term. This study furthers our understanding of the role pathogen-mediated balancing selection has in maintaining variation in MHC genes in small and fragmented populations of free-ranging vertebrates.


Assuntos
Colobinae/genética , Genética Populacional , Cadeias beta de HLA-DR/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Éxons/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Geografia , Funções Verossimilhança , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(8)2017 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820496

RESUMO

Recently, the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique has been regarded as a promising approach to enhance performance of wireless sensor networks with limited energy supply. However, from a green communication perspective, energy efficiency optimization for SWIPT system design has not been investigated in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In this paper, we consider the tradeoffs between energy efficiency and three factors including spectral efficiency, the transmit power and outage target rate for two different modes, i.e., power splitting (PS) and time switching modes (TS), at the receiver. Moreover, we formulate the energy efficiency maximization problem subject to the constraints of minimum Quality of Service (QoS), minimum harvested energy and maximum transmission power as non-convex optimization problem. In particular, we focus on optimizing power control and power allocation policy in PS and TS modes to maximize energy efficiency of data transmission. For PS and TS modes, we propose the corresponding algorithm to characterize a non-convex optimization problem that takes into account the circuit power consumption and the harvested energy. By exploiting nonlinear fractional programming and Lagrangian dual decomposition, we propose suboptimal iterative algorithms to obtain the solutions of non-convex optimization problems. Furthermore, we derive the outage probability and effective throughput from the scenarios that the transmitter does not or partially know the channel state information (CSI) of the receiver. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed optimal iterative algorithm can achieve optimal solutions within a small number of iterations and various tradeoffs between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency, transmit power and outage target rate, respectively.

14.
Am J Primatol ; 78(11): 1137-1148, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383018

RESUMO

Although the evolutionary history of primates in China dates to the Eocene, and includes major radiations of lorisids, hominoids, cercopithecines, and colobines during the Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene, extensive human-induced habitat change and deforestation over the past few centuries has resulted in 22 of 25 extant species listed as threatened or endangered, and two species of gibbons extirpated in the last few years. This commentary briefly reviews factors that have contributed to the decline of primates in China over the past 400 years, and in particular how major social events and economic development in modern China have resulted in unsustainable environmental change. In response, we describe our efforts to develop a strategic scientific, educational and conservation partnership in China, focusing on primates, in which GIS technology will be used to integrate geographical profiles, climatic information, and changes in land use patterns and human and nonhuman primate distributions to highlight issues of immediate concern and to develop priority-based conservation solutions. Our goal is to evaluate how human-induced environmental change has impacted primates over time and to predict the likelihood of primate population extinctions in the near future. This model represents an early warning system that will be widely available to the Chinese government, public, educational institutions, researchers, and NGOs through social media and educational videos in order to arouse public awareness and promote wildlife conservation. We encourage colleagues across a broad range of academic disciplines, political ideologies, and the public to help move this strategy into reality, the sooner the better. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1137-1148, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Primatas , Animais , China , Geografia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
15.
Primates ; 57(4): 489-99, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27209173

RESUMO

Genetic variation plays a significant role in the adaptive potential of the endangered species. The variation at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes can offer valuable information on selective pressure related to natural selection and environmental adaptation, particularly the ability of a host to continuously resist evolving parasites. Thus, the genetic polymorphism on exon 2 of the MHC DPB1 gene in the golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) was specifically analyzed. The results show that the 6 Rhro-DPB1 alleles identified from 87 individuals exhibit positive selection and trans-species polymorphism. The results also imply that although the populations of the species have experienced dramatic reduction and severe habitat fragmentation in recent Chinese history, balancing selection still maintains relatively consistent, with moderate DPB1 polymorphism. Thus, the study provides valuable information and evidence in developing effective strategies and tactics for genetic health and population size expansion of the species. It also offers strong genetic background for further studies on other primate species, particularly those in Rhinopithecus-a further endeavor that would result in fully understanding the MHC genetic information of the Asian colobines.


Assuntos
Colobinae/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Seleção Genética , Animais , China , Éxons , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Integr Zool ; 11(5): 350-60, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059276

RESUMO

Environmental barriers and habitat fragmentation can restrict gene flow, leading to genetic divergence among animal populations. The golden snub-nosed monkey, Rhinopithecus roxellana, is endemic to China, and ranges across 4 provinces. However, over the past 40 years its populations have become fragmented. We investigated the genetic diversity, demographic history and population structure of R. roxellana in 5 reserves in one of its strongholds, the Qinling Mountain forests of Shaanxi. We collected genetic material from 11 monkey bands (a group of individuals containing multiple 1-male units) with a total of 428 samples genotyped at 20 microsatellite loci. Allelic richness and heterozygosity suggested a relatively high level of intra-band genetic diversity. We found no evidence of any genetic bottleneck in these R. roxellana populations. AMOVA and Bayesian cluster analysis revealed that R. roxellana in the 5 reserves are highly structured and form at least 3 distinct subpopulations. These subpopulations concur with major topographical features in the study area, such as mountain ridges, suggesting that dispersal of R. roxellana may be restricted by geographical barriers.


Assuntos
Colobinae/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Ecossistema , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
17.
Genetics ; 202(1): 247-60, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26500259

RESUMO

Studies of genetics and ecology often require estimates of relatedness coefficients based on genetic marker data. However, with the presence of null alleles, an observed genotype can represent one of several possible true genotypes. This results in biased estimates of relatedness. As the numbers of marker loci are often limited, loci with null alleles cannot be abandoned without substantial loss of statistical power. Here, we show how loci with null alleles can be incorporated into six estimators of relatedness (two novel). We evaluate the performance of various estimators before and after correction for null alleles. If the frequency of a null allele is <0.1, some estimators can be used directly without adjustment; if it is >0.5, the potency of estimation is too low and such a locus should be excluded. We make available a software package entitled PolyRelatedness v1.6, which enables researchers to optimize these estimators to best fit a particular data set.


Assuntos
Alelos , Técnicas Genéticas , Modelos Genéticos , Software , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo
18.
Curr Zool ; 62(1): 33-37, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491888

RESUMO

Since reconciliation was first described more than 20 years ago, a large number of postconflict behaviors have been observed among females in many polygynous primate species. However, few studies have been conducted among males, perhaps due to the rarity with which they maintain friendly relationships with one another and their aggressive competition for resources. Although this is true for many primate males, Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana represent a potential exception as male cooperation has been known to occur. In this study, using postconflict/matched-control(PC-MC) and time-rule methods, we analyzed postconflict behavior among males and the possible occurrence of bystander affiliation or reconciliation. A total of 246 PC-MC pairs among leader males were obtained. On average, each leader male exhibited only 0.04 aggressive behaviors per observation hour, and conciliation among leader males occurred at a low rate (2.03%) relative to other primate species. The occurrence of consolation-affiliation interactions between focal males and group members other than former opponents differed significantly between PCs and MCs, which is the first time this has been confirmed among R. roxellana males. We discuss the results in light of recent theories concerning consolation in primates. The patterns of postconflict contact demonstrated that R. roxellana may be a unique species among colobines.

19.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 86(5): 446-54, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26575480

RESUMO

This study analyzed conflict and postconflict (PC) conciliation between males and females within one-male breeding units in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China. The PC matched-control and time rule methods were used to collect and analyze data recorded from September 2013 to June 2014. The conciliatory tendency among individuals following conflict was 82.07%, and affiliation occurred within a few minutes after the conflict, which was not significantly different between mating and nonmating seasons. The PC conciliation scenarios were different from those reported from captivity. Lumbar hold and grooming were the most common expressions in reconciliation. In addition, bystander affiliation was uniquely found, which may be associated with the more terrestrial locomotion of R. roxellana, compared with other colobines.


Assuntos
Colobinae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , China , Colobinae/psicologia , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Estações do Ano
20.
Integr Zool ; 10(6): 572-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26338071

RESUMO

For ecologists, understanding the reaction of animals to environmental changes is critical. Using networked sensor technology to measure wildlife and environmental parameters can provide accurate, real-time and comprehensive data for monitoring, research and conservation of wildlife. This paper reviews: (i) conventional detection technology; (ii) concepts and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) in animal ecology; and (iii) the advantages and disadvantages of IoT. The current theoretical limits of IoT in animal ecology are also discussed. Although IoT offers a new direction in animal ecological research, it still needs to be further explored and developed as a theoretical system and applied to the appropriate scientific frameworks for understanding animal ecology.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Ecologia/métodos , Internet , Animais , Ecologia/instrumentação , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
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