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1.
Open Med (Wars) ; 16(1): 1591-1596, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722894

RESUMO

We present a rare case of a primary intradural extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PIEES/PNET) in the thoracolumbar spine and review the current literature. We describe the imaging manifestations, pathological features, surgical methods, and patient survival to shed light on the clinical management of this rare tumor. A 32-year-old man experienced progressive low back pain for more than 1 month. An intradural extramedullary tumor from T12 to L2 was detected on magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent a thoracolumbar laminotomy for decompression, complete excision of the intradural extramedullary tumor, and internal fixation with pedicle screws. A histopathological examination confirmed that the tumor was a PIEES/PNET via an immunohistochemical study of the surgically resected tissues. Postoperatively, the patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. No recurrence, metastasis, or failure of internal fixation were noted at a 17-month post-surgery radiographic examination. PIEES/PNET of the thoracolumbar spine is extremely rare. Treatment is difficult because the current literature is sparse and cases are rare. Complete resection combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy effectively reduces recurrence and metastasis.

2.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104641, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical pancreatic disease. Patients with different severity levels have different clinical outcomes. With the advantages of algorithms, machine learning (ML) has gradually emerged in the field of disease prediction, assisting doctors in decision-making. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase databases, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Publication time was limited from inception to 29 May 2021. Studies that have used ML to establish predictive tools for AP were eligible for inclusion. Quality assessment of the included studies was conducted in accordance with the IJMEDI checklist. RESULTS: In this systematic review, 24 of 2,913 articles, with a total of 8,327 patients and 47 models, were included. The studies could be divided into five categories: 10 studies (42%) reported severity prediction; 10 studies (42%), complication prediction; 3 studies (13%), mortality prediction; 2 studies (8%), recurrence prediction; and 2 studies (8%), surgery timing prediction. ML showed great accuracy in several prediction tasks. However, most of the included studies were retrospective in nature, conducted at a single centre, based on database data, and lacked external validation. According to the IJMEDI checklist and our scoring criteria, two studies were considered to be of high quality. Most studies had an obvious bias in the quality of data preparation, validation, and deployment dimensions. CONCLUSION: In the prediction tasks for AP, ML has shown great potential in assisting decision-making. However, the existing studies still have some deficiencies in the process of model construction. Future studies need to optimize the deficiencies and further evaluate the comparability of the ML systems and model performance, so as to consequently develop high-quality ML-based models that can be used in clinical practice.

3.
Neuroimage Clin ; 32: 102873, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749290

RESUMO

Degeneration of the locus coeruleus (LC) is recognized as a critical hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have reported that noradrenaline produced from the LC has critical effects on brain functional organization. However, it is unknown if LC degeneration in PD contributes to cognitive/motor manifestations through modulating brain functional organization. This study enrolled 94 PD patients and 68 healthy controls, and LC integrity was measured using the contrast-to-noise ratio of the LC (CNRLC) calculated from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. We used graph-theory-based network analysis to characterize brain functional organization. The relationships among LC degeneration, network disruption, and cognitive/motor manifestations in PD were assessed. Whether network disruption was a mediator between LC degeneration and cognitive/motor impairments was assessed further. In addition, an independent PD subgroup (n = 35) having functional magnetic resonance scanning before and after levodopa administration was enrolled to evaluate whether LC degeneration-related network deficiencies were independent of dopamine deficiency. We demonstrated that PD patients have significant LC degeneration compared to healthy controls. CNRLC was positively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment score and the nodal efficiency (NE) of several cognitive-related regions. Lower NE of the superior temporal gyrus was a mediator between LC degeneration and cognitive impairment in PD. However, levodopa treatment could not normalize the reduced NE of the superior temporal gyrus (mediator). In conclusion, we provided evidence for the relationship between LC degeneration and extensive network disruption in PD, and highlight the role of network disorganization in LC degeneration-related cognitive impairment.

4.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 7783-7796, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785936

RESUMO

Background: Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved important process for the turnover of intracellular substances in eukaryotes and is closely related to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study is to identify and validate potential autophagy-related genes (ARGs) of AF through bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation. Methods: We downloaded two data sets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, GSE14975 and GSE31821. After merging the data of the two microarrays, adjusting the batch effect, and integrating the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with ARGs to obtain differentially expressed autophagy-related genes (DEARGs). Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were carried out based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Use the STRING database to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Finally, mRNA expression levels of DEARGs were validated in right atrial tissue samples from AF patients and non-AF controls by qRT-PCR. Results: Through bioinformatics analysis, we finally identified 11 DEARGs (CDKN1A, CXCR4, DIRAS3, HSP90AB1, ITGA3, PRKCD, TP53INP2, DAPK2, IFNG, PTK6, and TNFSF10) in AF using [log2 (fold change)] > 0.5 and P < 0.05. In the pathway enrichment analysis, the most significantly enriched pathway was the autophagy pathway. The results of validation showed that the expression levels of CXCR4, DAPK2, and TNFSF10 corroborating with our computational findings, and the results were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that these 11 potential crucial ARGs, especially CXCR4, DAPK2, and TNFSF10, may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in AF, which will help the personalized treatment of AF patients.

5.
Waste Manag Res ; : 734242X211057014, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753362

RESUMO

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes (GMs) play a crucial role in preventing the leakage and migration of pollutants. GM service life and ageing properties are the main concerns for the choice of materials. However, it is not clear how the mechanical properties and anti-fouling performance of geomembranes change with ageing time. To solve this problem, a HDPE GM was selected for testing under exposed air condition. The tests included oxidation induction time (OIT), melt flow index (MFI), tensile properties and diffusivity under four temperature conditions for 1½ years. The test results showed that the GM has higher OIT degradation rates. Stage I - depletion of antioxidants occurred at only 10 years for the GM, which was approximately 1/4 that of the GM-GSE. The GM engineering properties index showed the same changes as those of the GM-GSE. However, MI rapidly decreased with the incubation time. The molecular weight degradation of the GM was approximately 57% and far greater than that of GM-GSE after 15 months, but the tensile properties of the two GMs showed little change. The diffusion coefficient Di of GM increases gradually with the increase of temperature in methane and trichloromethane. Under the same conditions, the diffusion coefficient Di of the GM in methane is significantly higher than that in trichloromethane, indicating that the GM has better barrier to trichloromethane.

6.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 7735-7745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675669

RESUMO

Purpose: The accurate differentiation between benign and malignant biliary stricture is significant but challenging. Tissue diagnosis of biliary stricture by endoscopy sampling can provide excellent specificity but insufficient sensitivity. For patients with suspected malignant biliary stricture (MBS) but non-malignant was reported in endoscopy tissue samples, we constructed a nomogram to predict malignancy and improve the overall diagnostic performance. Patients and Methods: 232 patients with suspected MBS and underwent endoscopy tissue sampling from January 2017 to December 2019 were included, among which 123 patients' endoscopy tissue samples were classified as non-malignant (including atypical, negative for malignancy, and nondiagnostic). Demographics, serum markers, radiological and sampling results of these 123 patients were collected to construct a nomogram using multivariate analysis. Results: The nomogram was developed based on bilirubin, CA19-9, radiological result, and atypical sampling results and provided an AUC of 0.863 (95% CI 0.795-0.930) for predicting MBS. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of endoscopy tissue diagnosis were 100.00%, 59.90%, and 68.53%, respectively. With the nomogram added, the overall diagnosis specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy were 95.24%, 89.20%, and 90.23%, respectively. Conclusion: The nomogram can predict malignancy in patients whose endoscopy tissue diagnoses were non-malignant. The overall diagnostic performance was improved with the nomogram added.

7.
Front Surg ; 8: 731673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692762

RESUMO

Background: It is common for patients with gastric cancer to develop distant metastases in the liver, lung, bone, and brain. Although the thyroid also has an abundant blood supply, gastric cancer metastasis to the thyroid is uncommon. Due to the rarity of such metastasis, its clinical features are not well understood. Here, we present the case of a patient with gastric cancer metastasis to the thyroid treated at our hospital. Case Summary: We report the case of a 63-year-old female with a mass in the anterior neck and mild hoarseness for 6 months. The patient underwent proximal subtotal gastrectomy for Siewert III oesophagogastric junction cancer 6 years ago. Subsequently, she received 8 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Her condition was stable until mild hoarseness developed for no apparent reason 6 months prior to presenting at our clinic. Both ultrasonography and computed tomography confirmed a heterogeneous mass in the right lobe of the thyroid gland. Blood thyroid function tests and tumor marker expression levels were normal. Thyroid malignancy was suspected, and the patient underwent a right thyroidectomy. During the surgery, a tumor was found that had invaded the right recurrent laryngeal nerve and trachea. H&E staining and immunohistochemistry results suggested that the cancer cells originated from gastric cancer. The patient was diagnosed with thyroid metastasis of gastric cancer. She refused further treatment and died within 6 months. Conclusion: Metastasis of gastric cancer to the thyroid is rare and is associated with a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemical diagnosis is essential for a conclusive diagnosis. For patients with a history of malignant tumors, the possibility of metastatic thyroid nodules should be ruled out when diagnosing thyroid nodules.

8.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 750558, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692771

RESUMO

Background: To determine the respiratory outcomes in patients following COVID-19-related hospitalization. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Results: Forced vital capacity (FVC, % of predicted): 0-3 months post discharge: 96.1, 95% CI [82.1-110.0]; 3-6 months post discharge: 99.9, 95% CI [84.8, 115.0]; >6 months post discharge: 97.4, 95% CI [76.8-118.0]. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO, % of predicted): 0-3 months post discharge: 83.9, 95% CI [68.9-98.9]; 3-6 months post discharge: 91.2, 95% CI [74.8-107.7]; >6 months post discharge: 97.3, 95% CI [76.7-117.9]. Percentage of patients with FVC less than 80% of predicted: 0-3 months post discharge: 10%, 95% CI [6-14%]; 3-6 months post discharge: 10%, 95% CI [2-18%]; >6 months post discharge: 13%, 95% CI [8-18%]. Percentage of patients with DLCO less than 80% of predicted: 0-3 months post discharge: 48%, 95% CI [41-56%]; 3-6 months post discharge: 33%, 95% CI [23-44%]; >6 months post discharge: 43%, 95% CI [22-65%]. Conclusion: The meta-analysis confirms a high prevalence of persistent lung diffusion impairment in patients following COVID-19-related hospitalization. Routine respiratory follow-up is thus strongly recommended.

9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 747497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708093

RESUMO

Background: Extracorporeal cardiac shock waves (ECSW) have great potential in the treatment of coronary heart disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a class of pluripotent progenitor cells derived from bone marrow or peripheral blood, which have the capacity to migrate to ischemic myocardium and differentiate into mature endothelial cells and play an important role in neovascularization and endothelial repair. In this study, we investigated whether ECSW therapy can improve EPCs dysfunction and apoptosis induced by hypoxia and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: EPCs were separated from ApoE gene knockout rat bone marrow and identified using flow cytometry and fluorescence staining. EPCs were used to produce in vitro hypoxia-injury models which were then divided into six groups: Control, Hypoxia, Hypoxia + ECSW, Hypoxia + LY294002 + ECSW, Hypoxia + MK-2206 + ECSW, and Hypoxia + L-NAME + ECSW. EPCs from the Control, Hypoxia, and Hypoxia + ECSW groups were used in mRNA sequencing reactions. mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed using qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis were measured using CCK-8, flow cytometry, gelatin, transwell, and tube formation, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured using an NO assay kit. Results: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were enriched in cancer signaling, PI3K-Akt signaling, and Rap1 signaling pathways. We selected differentially expressed genes in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and verified them using a series of experiments. The results showed that ECSW therapy (500 shots at 0.09 mJ/mm2) significantly improved proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tube formation abilities of EPCs following hypoxic injury, accompanied by upregulation of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-eNOS, Bcl-2 protein and NO, PI3K, and Akt mRNA expression, and downregulation of Bax and Caspase3 protein expression. All these effects of ECSW were eliminated using inhibitors specific to PI3K (LY294002), Akt (MK-2206), and eNOS (L-NAME). Conclusion: ECSW exerted a strong repaired effect on EPCs suffering inhibited hypoxia injury by inhibiting cell apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis, mainly through activating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, which provide new evidence for ECSW therapy in CHD.

10.
Theranostics ; 11(19): 9605-9622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646389

RESUMO

Rationale: Recurrent and metastatic cancers often undergo a period of dormancy, which is closely associated with cellular quiescence, a state whereby cells exit the cell cycle and are reversibly arrested in G0 phase. Curative cancer treatment thus requires therapies that either sustain the dormant state of quiescent cancer cells, or preferentially, eliminate them. However, the mechanisms responsible for the survival of quiescent cancer cells remain obscure. Methods: Dual genome-editing was carried out using a CRISPR/Cas9-based system to label endogenous p27 and Ki67 with the green and red fluorescent proteins EGFP and mCherry, respectively, in melanoma cells. Analysis of transcriptomes of isolated EGFP-p27highmCherry-Ki67low quiescent cells was conducted at bulk and single cell levels using RNA-sequencing. The extracellular acidification rate and oxygen consumption rate were measured to define metabolic phenotypes. SiRNA and inducible shRNA knockdown, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were employed to elucidate mechanisms of the metabolic switch in quiescent cells. Results: Dual labelling of endogenous p27 and Ki67 with differentiable fluorescent probes allowed for visualization, isolation, and analysis of viable p27highKi67low quiescent cells. Paradoxically, the proto-oncoprotein c-Myc, which commonly drives malignant cell cycle progression, was expressed at relatively high levels in p27highKi67low quiescent cells and supported their survival through promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In this context, c-Myc selectively transactivated genes encoding OXPHOS enzymes, including subunits of isocitric dehydrogenase 3 (IDH3), whereas its binding to cell cycle progression gene promoters was decreased in quiescent cells. Silencing of c-Myc or the catalytic subunit of IDH3, IDH3α, preferentially killed quiescent cells, recapitulating the effect of treatment with OXPHOS inhibitors. Conclusion: These results establish a rigorous experimental system for investigating cellular quiescence, uncover the high selectivity of c-Myc in activating OXPHOS genes in quiescent cells, and propose OXPHOS targeting as a potential therapeutic avenue to counter cancer cells in quiescence.

11.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661797

RESUMO

Gut microbiota homeostasis in the organism and insomnia have been reported to influence each other. In the study, a method of 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry was adopted to evaluate the effects of Lilium brownie (LB) on intestinal flora and metabolic profiles of serum, hypothalamus and hippocampus in insomnia rat induced by p­chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). It was observed that the imbalance in the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota induced by PCPA was restored after LB intervention. Among these, the Porphyromonadaceae, Lactobacillus and Escherichia were significantly adjusted at the genus level by PCPA and LB, respectively. It was also found that the most of metabolic phenotypes in serum, hypothalamus and hippocampus perturbed by PCPA were regulated towards normal after LB intervention, especially 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan of the hypothalamus involving in 5-HT metabolism. Moreover, the arachidonic acid metabolism in serum, hypothalamus and hippocampus, and the serotonergic synapse in hypothalamus and hippocampus were the most fundamentally and significantly affected pathways after LB intervention. The results of correlation analysis showed that several floras including Pseudoruegeria have an outstanding contribution to the change of differential metabolites. In brief, the results confirm that gut microbiota is significantly returned to normal and may interact with the corresponding metabolites to relieve insomnia under LB intervention.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48988-48996, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623128

RESUMO

Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are of particular interest in high-performance photothermal conversion, yet there remains a huge challenge in their practical application in smart textiles for healthcare, energy, and personal protection. Herein, we controllably prepared MoS2 hollow nanospheres with a high photothermal conversion efficiency of 36% via a microemulsion-hydrothermal method, which was further applied to construct photothermal fibers for personal thermal management after a hot-blast dip-drying process. Because of the prominent photothermal effect, the temperature of the photothermal fibers sharply increases from the room temperature value of 25.0 to 55.5 °C in 60 s under near-infrared illumination with a power density of 500 W/cm2. Furthermore, the photothermal fiber pad demonstrated an obvious temperature enhancement of 38.0 °C from a skin temperature of 22.0 °C after it was irradiated by natural sunlight for 60 s. Significantly, the antibacterial elimination rates of the photothermal fibers for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are ∼99.9 and ∼99.8%, respectively. This strategy affords an avenue toward the practical application of photothermal materials in smart fibers for personal thermoregulation.

13.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 161, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BCMA-specific chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts) have exhibited remarkable efficacy in refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma (RRMM); however, primary resistance and relapse exist with single-target immunotherapy. Bispecific CARs are proposed to mitigate these limitations. METHODS: We constructed a humanized bispecific BM38 CAR targeting BCMA and CD38 and tested the antimyeloma activity of BM38 CAR-Ts in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-three patients with RRMM received infusions of BM38 CAR-Ts in a phase I trial. RESULTS: BM38 CAR-Ts showed stronger in vitro cytotoxicity to heterogeneous MM cells than did T cells expressing an individual BCMA or CD38 CAR. BM38 CAR-Ts also exhibited potent antimyeloma activity in xenograft mouse models. In the phase I trial, cytokine release syndrome occurred in 20 patients (87%) and was mostly grade 1-2 (65%). Neurotoxicity was not observed. Hematologic toxicities were common, including neutropenia in 96% of the patients, leukopenia in 87%, anemia in 43% and thrombocytopenia in 61%. At a median follow-up of 9.0 months (range 0.5 to 18.5), 20 patients (87%) attained a clinical response and minimal residual disease-negativity (≤ 10-4 nucleated cells), with 12 (52%) achieving a stringent complete response. Extramedullary plasmacytoma was eliminated completely in 56% and partially in 33% and of 9 patients. The median progression-free survival was 17.2 months. Two relapsed patients maintained BCMA and CD38 expression on MM cells. Notably, BM38 CAR-Ts cells were detectable in 77.8% of evaluable patients at 9 months and 62.2% at 12 months. CONCLUSION: Bispecific BM38 CAR-Ts were feasible, safe and significantly effective in patient with RRMM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chictr.org.cn ChiCTR1800018143.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia
14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1171, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620988

RESUMO

Grain size is a key component trait of grain weight and yield. Numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified in various bioprocesses, but there is still little known about how metabolism-related QTLs influence grain size and yield. The current study report GS3.1, a QTL that regulates rice grain size via metabolic flux allocation between two branches of phenylpropanoid metabolism. GS3.1 encodes a MATE (multidrug and toxic compounds extrusion) transporter that regulates grain size by directing the transport of p-coumaric acid from the p-coumaric acid biosynthetic metabolon to the flavonoid biosynthetic metabolon. A natural allele of GS3.1 was identified from an African rice with enlarged grains, reduced flavonoid content and increased lignin content in the panicles. Notably, the natural allele of GS3.1 caused no alterations in other tissues and did not affect stress tolerance, revealing an ideal candidate for breeding efforts. This study uncovers insights into the regulation of grain size though metabolic-flux distribution. In this way, it supports a strategy of enhancing crop yield without introducing deleterious side effects on stress tolerance mechanisms.

15.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573373

RESUMO

Heavy-ion irradiation is a powerful mutagen and is widely used for mutation breeding. In this study, using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) techniques, we comprehensively characterized these dynamic changes caused by mutations at three time points (48, 96, and 144 h after irradiation) and the expression profiles of rice seeds irradiated with C ions at two doses. Subsequent WGS analysis revealed that more mutations were detected in response to 40 Gy carbon ion beam (CIB) irradiation than 80 Gy of CIB irradiation at the initial stage (48 h post-irradiation). In the mutants generated from both irradiation doses, single-base substitutions (SBSs) were the most frequent type of mutation induced by CIB irradiation. Among the mutations, the predominant ones were C:T and A:G transitions. CIB irradiation also induced many short InDel mutations. RNA-seq analysis at the three time points showed that the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was highest at 48 h post-irradiation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the DEGs showed that the "replication and repair" pathway was enriched specifically 48 h post-irradiation. These results indicate that the DNA damage response (DDR) and the mechanism of DNA repair tend to quickly start within the initial stage (48 h) after irradiation.

16.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(9): 782-790, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514758

RESUMO

Aeromonas sobria, a Gram-negative bacterium that can colonize both humans and animals, is found in a variety of environments, including water, seafood, meat, and vegetables (Cahill, 1990; Galindo et al., 2004; Song et al., 2019). Aeromonas spp. are conditionally pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture, which can rapidly proliferate, causing disease and even death in fish, especially when the environment is degraded (Neamat-Allah et al., 2020, 2021a, 2021b). In developing countries, Aeromonas spp. have been associated with a wide spectrum of infections in humans, including gastroenteritis, wound infections, septicemia, and lung infections (San Joaquin and Pickett, 1988; Wang et al., 2009; Su et al., 2013). Infections caused by Aeromonas spp. are usually more severe in immunocompromised individuals (Miyamoto et al., 2017). The presence of a plasmid encoding a ß|-lactamase in A. sobria that confers resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics poses a huge challenge to the treatment of diseases caused by this microorganism (Lim and Hong, 2020). Consequently, an in-depth understanding of the interaction between A. sobria and its hosts is urgently required to enable the development of effective strategies for the treatment of A. sobria infections.

17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 723948, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566625

RESUMO

The cholinergic system is critical in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology, which accounts for various clinical symptoms in PD patients. The substantia innominata (SI) provides the main source of cortical cholinergic innervation. Previous studies revealed cholinergic-related dysfunction in PD pathology at early stage. Since PD is a progressive disorder, alterations of cholinergic system function along with the PD progression have yet to be elucidated. Seventy-nine PD patients, including thirty-five early-stage PD patients (PD-E) and forty-four middle-to-late stage PD patients (PD-M), and sixty-four healthy controls (HC) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and clinical assessments. We employed seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis to explore the cholinergic-related functional alterations. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between altered functional connectivity and the severity of motor symptoms in PD patients. Results showed that both PD-E and PD-M groups exhibited decreased functional connectivity between left SI and left frontal inferior opercularis areas and increased functional connectivity between left SI and left cingulum middle area as well as right primary motor and sensory areas when comparing with HC. At advanced stages of PD, functional connectivity in the right primary motor and sensory areas was further increased. These altered functional connectivity were also significantly correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores. In conclusion, this study illustrated that altered cholinergic function plays an important role in the motor disruptions in PD patients both in early stage as well as during the progression of the disease.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 720886, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566645

RESUMO

Shiyiwei Shenqi Tablet (SSTs) has been widely used for treatment of different types of cancer including breast cancer. SST has drawn more and more interest due to the low rate of side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolites in serums of breast cancer patients who received base-line chemotherapy only or combination treatment with SST. An untargeted metabolomics method was developed to investigate the alteration of metabolism in patients' serums using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/Q-exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The patients were separated based on the metabolomics data, and further analyses showed that SST treatment can affect the metabolism of glucose, fatty acid, bile acid and amino acid. In particular, SST treatment significantly reduced some short peptides which are potential tumor neoantigens. This study may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying interaction between SST and base-line chemotherapy in terms of affecting metabolic pathways and thereby changing metabolic products, which might shed new light for clinical medication.

19.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(9): 2914-2923, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589404

RESUMO

Cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (CD-MOF) as a highly porous supramolecular carrier could be one of the solutions to the insolubility of isosteviol (STV). The solubility of STV was lower than 20.00 ng/mL at pH 1.0 and pH 4.5, whilst its solubility increased to 20,074.30 ng/mL at pH 6.8 and 129.58 ng/mL in water with a significant pH-dependence. The in vitro release profiles of STV from STV@CD-MOF (0.5:1) were pH-independent in distinct pH media and closed to be thoroughly released but no such release profiles were observed for STV@CD-MOF (1:1) owing to nanoclusters formation. The bioavailability of STV@CD-MOF (1:1) in rats was 8.67-fold higher than that of STV, and was 1.32- and 1.27-fold higher than that of STV@CD and STV@CD-MOF (0.5:1). Our results indicated that the inclusion mechanism played a primary role when STV in CD-MOF was at a low loading ratio, while the increasement in bioavailability at a high loading ratio, which was attributed to the nanocluster mechanism. This was confirmed by molecular simulation. In conclusion, CD-MOF is a promising system for STV loading, overcoming the insolubility and to improve the bioavailability of this natural compound.

20.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 190, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the oilseed crop Brassica napus (rapeseed), various metabolic processes influence seed oil content, oil quality, and biological yield. However, the role of plastid membrane proteins in these traits has not been explored. RESULTS: Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 520 B. napus accessions identified the chloroplast membrane protein-localized FATTY ACID EXPORTER 1-1 (FAX1-1) as a candidate associated with biological yield. Seed transcript levels of BnaFAX1-1 were higher in a cultivar with high seed oil content relative to a low-oil cultivar. BnaFAX1-1 was localized to the plastid envelope. When expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, BnaFAX1-1 enhanced biological yield (total plant dry matter), seed yield and seed oil content per plant. Likewise, in the field, B. napus BnaFAX1-1 overexpression lines (BnaFAX1-1-OE) displayed significantly enhanced biological yield, seed yield, and seed oil content compared with the wild type. BnaFAX1-1 overexpression also up-regulated gibberellic acid 4 (GA4) biosynthesis, which may contribute to biological yield improvement. Furthermore, oleic acid (C18:1) significantly increased in BnaFAX1-1 overexpression seeds. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the putative fatty acid exporter BnaFAX1-1 may simultaneously improve seed oil content, oil quality and biological yield in B. napus, providing new approaches for future molecular breeding.

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