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1.
Nutrition ; 102: 111711, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cancer cachexia is a systemic paraneoplastic phenomenon involving multiple organs, including the liver. Total bilirubin (TBIL) is an easily obtained blood biomarker that reflects liver homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum TBIL in patients with cancer cachexia. METHODS: This study included 2282 patients from a multicenter research database who were diagnosed with cancer cachexia between June 2012 and December 2019. The hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The association of serum TBIL with all-cause mortality was modeled with restricted cubic splines. The optimal cutoff value for TBIL was calculated with maximally selected rank statistics. RESULTS: Of the participants, there were 1327 (58.2%) men and 955 (41.8%) women. The mean patient age was 60.4 ± 1.5 y. The 12-mo all-cause mortality rate for patients with cancer cachexia was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.6%-31.3%), resulting in a rate of 209.58 events per 1000 patient-years. An inverted L-shaped association between TBIL and all-cause mortality was observed. The cutoff point for TBIL for the prediction of the time to mortality was <21.7 µmol/L. A high TBIL level but not the direct bilirubin or indirect bilirubin level was identified as an independent prognostic factor (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.32-1.93). For patients with digestive system tumors, a high serum TBIL level (≥21.7 µmol/L) was significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: High TBIL levels are associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients and might be a promising prognostic indicator in patients with cancer cachexia.

2.
Front Oncol ; 12: 890745, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898878

RESUMO

Background: Cachexia is one of the most common complications affecting lung cancer patients that seriously affects their quality-of-life and survival time. This study aimed to analyze the predictors and prognostic factors of lung cancer cachexia as well as to develop a convenient and accurate clinical prediction tool for oncologists. Methods: In this multicenter cohort study, 4022 patients with lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly categorized into training and verification sets (7:3 ratio). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors of cachexia in patients with lung cancer. Cox regression analysis was applied to determine independent prognostic factors in the patients with lung cancer cachexia. Meanwhile, two nomograms were established and evaluated by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: Stage, serum albumin, ALI, anemia, and surgery were independent risk factors for cachexia in patients with lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer cachexia have a shorter survival time. Sex, stage, serum albumin, ALI, KPS score, and surgery served as independent prognostic factors for patients with lung cancer cachexia. The area under the curves (AUCs) of diagnostic nomogram in the training and validation sets were 0.702 and 0.688, respectively, the AUCs of prognostic nomogram in the training set for 1-, 3-, and 5-year were 0.70, 0.72, and 0.75, respectively, while in the validation set the AUCs were 0.71, 0.75, and 0.79, respectively. The calibration curves and DCA of the two nomograms were consistent and the clinical benefit rate was high. Conclusion: Cachexia brings an additional economic burden and worsens the prognosis of lung cancer patients. The two nomograms can accurately screen and predict the probability of occurrence of cachexia in lung cancer and the prognosis of patients with lung cancer cachexia, and guide clinical work.

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 905266, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795140

RESUMO

Background: Systemic inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) are closely related in patients with cancer. However, there is no relevant indicator that combines inflammation and IR to predict patient prognosis. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a novel inflammation- and IR-related marker in patients with cancer. Methods: The total cohort of this study included 5221 patients with cancer, and the training and validation cohorts were randomized in a 7:3 ratio. C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting triglyceride glucose (TyG) were used to reflect patients' inflammation and IR status, respectively. The CRP-TyG index (CTI) was composed of CRP and TyG. The concordance (C)-index, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, and calibration curve reflected the prognostic predictive power of CTI. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses predicted the prognostic value of CTI in patients with cancer. Results: The C-indices of CTI in patients with cancer were 0.636, 0.617, and 0.631 in the total, training, and validation cohorts, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year ROC and calibration curves showed that CTI had a good predictive ability of survival in patients with cancer. Meanwhile, patients with high CTI had a worse prognosis compared to patients with low CTI (total cohort: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.33-1.59; training cohort: HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.22-1.52; validation cohort: HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.47-2.04]. Conclusion: The CTI is a useful prognostic indicator of poor prognosis and a promising tool for treatment strategy decision-making in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores , Glucose , Humanos , Inflamação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Triglicerídeos
4.
Front Nutr ; 9: 893753, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866083

RESUMO

Background: Elderly patients with cancer face the challenge of systemic inflammation, which can lead to a poor prognosis. Existing inflammatory indices cannot fully reflect the immune-inflammatory status of patients. This study aimed to develop a new scoring system to predict the survival of elderly patients with cancer using inflammatory indices, namely, the systemic inflammation prognostic score (SIPS). Materials and Methods: This prospective multicenter study included a total of 1,767 patients with cancer, with a mean age of 70.97 ± 5.49 years, of whom 1,170 (66.2%) were men. We performed the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression to screen inflammatory indicators to include in constructing SIPS. Prognostic analysis of SIPS was performed using univariate and multivariate survival analyzes. The prognostic value of SIPS and its components were compared using the prognostic receiver operating characteristic curve and concordance index. The population was divided into the training cohort and the validation cohort in a 7:3 ratio and a SIPS prognostic analysis was performed. Results: The LASSO regression selected C-reactive protein (CRP) (≤ 9.81, "0"; > 9.81, "1"), geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) (≤ 93.85, "1"; 93.85, "0"), advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) (≤ 23.49, "1"; > 23.49, "0"), and lymphocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) (≤ 2523.81, "1"; > 2523.81, "0") to develop SIPS. Patients were divided into the three groups based on the total SIPS: low-risk (0), moderate-risk (1-2), and high-risk (3-4). On the multivariate survival analysis, patients in the moderate-risk [P < 0.001, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.47-2.17] and high-risk groups (P < 0.001, HR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.98-2.92) showed a worse prognosis than those in the low-risk group. The total cohort, training cohort, and validation cohort all showed that SIPS had better survival prediction than CRP, GNRI, ALI, and LCR. The HRs were 2.81 times higher in patients in the high-risk group with malnutrition than in patients in the low-risk group without malnutrition. Conclusion: SIPS was an independent prognostic indicator in elderly patients with cancer. Malnutrition in the high-risk group increased the mortality risk.

5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 184: 105133, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715027

RESUMO

The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (FAA) is responsible for considerable losses in grain production, and chemical control is the most effective strategy. However, frequent insecticide application can lead to the development of resistance. In insects, cytochrome P450 plays a crucial role in insecticide metabolism. CYP6K2 is related to FAA resistance to chlorantraniliprole. However, the regulatory mechanism of CYP6K2 expression is poorly understood. In this study, a conserved target of isolated miRNA-190-5p was located in the 3' UTR of CYP6K2 in FAA. A luciferase reporter analysis showed that in FAA, miRNA-190-5p can combine with the 3'UTR of CYP6K2 to suppress its expression. Injected miRNA-190-5p agomir significantly reduced CYP6K2 abundance by 54.6% and reduced tolerance to chlorantraniliprole in FAA larvae, whereas injected miRNA-190-5p antagomir significantly increased CYP6K2 abundance by 1.77-fold and thus improved chlorantraniliprole tolerance in FAA larvae. These results provide a basis for further research on the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of CYP6K2 and will facilitate further study on the function of miRNAs in regulating tolerance to chlorantraniliprole in FAA.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , MicroRNAs , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , MicroRNAs/genética , Spodoptera , ortoaminobenzoatos
6.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 700, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) are often associated with poor prognosis in cancer. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of surrogate systemic inflammation and IR indices in patients with cancer. METHODS: This multicenter prospective study included 5,221 patients with cancer, with a mean age of 59.41±11.15 years, of whom 3,061 (58.6%) were male. The surrogate IR indices included low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LHR) ratio, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/ HDL-c) ratio, triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) ratio, and fasting triglyceride glucose (TyG). Prognostic receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and C-indices were used to select a better surrogate IR index in patients with cancer. The prognostic value of the indicators was evaluated using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. RESULTS: In this study, the median survival time of patients was 44.5 (40.5-51.4) months, and the overall mortality in the 12-month period was 1,115 (53.7%), with 196 mortality events per 1,000 patient-years of patients' follow-up. The prognostic ROC curve and C-index suggested that the prognostic value of LHR was better than that of the other IR indices. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) were higher in patients with high C-reactive protein (CRP) (HR, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-1.65) and high LHR (HR, 1.20; 95% CI: 1.06-1.37), respectively. The mortality rate of patients with both high CRP and LHR was 1.75-fold higher than that of patients with both low CRP and LHR. CONCLUSION: Both CRP and LHR showed good survival predictions in patients with cancer. CRP combined with LHR can improve the predictive power of patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Neoplasias , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa , HDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Triglicerídeos
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9216, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654952

RESUMO

Soluble nitrogen is highly mobile in soil and susceptible to leaching. It is important to identify nitrogen transport pathways so that the sources can be efficiently targeted in environment management. This study quantified the contribution of direct runoff and baseflow to nitrate + nitrite loading by separating flow and nitrate + nitrite concentration measurements into two periods depending on whether only baseflow was present or not using baseflow separation methods. When both direct runoff and baseflow were present in streamflow, their nitrate + nitrite concentrations were assumed based on the hydrological reasoning that baseflow does not change rapidly, and streamflow mostly consists of direct runoff within a rainfall event. For this study, we obtained and investigated daily flow and nitrate + nitrite concentration observations made at the outlets of 22 watersheds located in the Western Lake Erie area. Results showed that baseflow was responsible for 26 to 77% of the nitrate + nitrite loads. The relative nitrate + nitrite load contributions of direct runoff and baseflow substantially varied with the sizes of drainage areas and agricultural land uses. Increases in drainage areas tend to prolong the travel time of surface runoff and thus help its reinfiltration into soil, which then could increase the baseflow contribution. In addition, the artificial drainage networks common in the agricultural fields of the study areas would promote the drainage of nutrient-laden excess water from soils. Such findings suggest the need for environmental management customized considering nitrogen transport pathways.


Assuntos
Lagos , Nitrogênio , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos , Solo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight or obese cancer patients are more likely to develop a proinflammatory status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the nutrition-inflammation marker can provide additional prognostic information on top of well-established Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) in overweight or obese patients with cancer. METHODS: A total of 1667 overweight or obese cancer patients were enrolled in this study. We assessed the prediction accuracy of 10 nutrition-inflammation markers by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and elucidated their association with overall survival by the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox model. RESULTS: In this analysis, the majority of patients had a good performance status (ECOG-PS score ≤1; 88.3%). Both the area under ROC curves and the C-index of the lymphocyte-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) demonstrated that LCR was the most significant nutrition-inflammation marker correlated with survival. In patients with good ECOG-PS, a low LCR was significantly associated with poorer prognosisand enhanced the predictive ability of one-year mortality. For specific tumor types, a low LCR was an independent prognostic factor for lung cancer, upper gastrointestinal cancer, and colorectal cancer, and it tended to be a significant predictor for breast cancer. In addition, those patients with a combined low LCR and poorer ECOG-PS (ECOG-PS score >1) showed the worst prognosis. CONCLUSION: The LCR is more strongly associated with overall survival than other nutrition-inflammation markers, and it is able to further detect patients with worse prognosis on top of ECOG-PS in overweight or obese patients with cancer.

9.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 19(1): 34, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body water measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) predicts the outcomes of many diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between body water and the prognosis of cancer patients with sarcopenia. METHODS: This study employed 287 cancer patients with sarcopenia underwent BIA from a prospective multicenter study of patients with cancer in China from 2013 to 2020. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality presented as the longest time to follow-up available. Eight indicators of body water [total body water, extracellular water, intracellular water, free fat mass, active cell mass, extracellular water/intracellular water, extracellular water/total body water (ECW/TBW), and intracellular water/total body water] were included in the research. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) = neutrophil (× 109)/lymphocyte (× 109). The discriminatory ability and prediction accuracy of each factor were assessed using the C-index. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The median age was 65 years old, and 138 (48%) patients were men. During a mean follow-up of 46 months, 140 deaths were recorded, resulting in a rate of 204.6 events per 1000 patient-years. ECW/TBW showed the best predictive accuracy (C-index = 0.619) compared to the other indicators [p = 0.004, adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.70 (1.18,2.44)]. In the middle tertile (0.385-0.405), ECW/TBW had a strong independent negative association with patient survival [adjusted HR (95% CI) 2.88 (1.39-5.97), p = 0.004]. Patients who had a high ECW/TBW (ECW/TBW ≥ 0.395) combined with a high NLR had 3.84-fold risk of mortality (p < 0.001, 95% CI 1.99,7.38). CONCLUSIONS: ECW/TBW was better than other indicators in predicting survival of cancer patients with sarcopenia. High ECW/TBW combined with high NLR would further increase the risk of mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Investigation on Nutrition Status and Clinical Outcome of Common Cancers (INSCOC) (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1800020329, URL of registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=31813 ).

10.
Front Nutr ; 9: 871301, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619963

RESUMO

Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is among the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the status of inflammation, nutrition and immune are closely related to overall survival (OS) of patients with NSCLC, but little is known about their interactive and combined roles. Hence, we chose glucose to lymphocyte ratio (GLR) and modified Glasgow Prognosis Score (mGPS) as prognostic factors and assessed the prognostic values of them for patients with NSCLC. Methods: Baseline clinicopathologic and laboratory characteristics of 862 patients with NSCLC were obtained from a multicenter prospective cohort. The Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine prognostic values of the clinical factors. A nomogram was also constructed integrating the clinical factors with clinical significance or independent prognostic values. Concordance index (C-index) was utilized to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the TNM stage and the nomogram. Results: Multivariate analyses demonstrated that GLR [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.029, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.004-1.056, P = 0.023] and mGPS (score of 1: HR = 1.404, 95% CI = 1.143-1.726, P = 0.001; score of 2: HR = 1.515, 95% CI = 1.159-1.980, P = 0.002) were independent prognostic factors for patients with NSCLC. The C-indexes of the TNM stage and the nomogram were 0.642 (95% CI = 0.620-0.663) and 0.694 (95% CI = 0.671-0.717), respectively. Conclusion: GLR and mGPS were independent prognostic factors for patients with NSCLC. Moreover, our constructed nomogram might be superior in predicting prognosis of patients with NSCLC compared with the TNM stage.

11.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419728

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers worldwide. Although clinical reports have indicated the anticancer effects of Chinese herbal medicine, the multiple underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms of action remain to be fully characterized. Chinese medicine (CM) monomers, which are the active components of CM, serve as the material basis of the functional mechanisms of CM. The aim of this review is to summarize the current experimental evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies for the effects of CM monomers in colorectal cancer prevention and treatment, providing some useful references for future research.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The levels of platelet-related inflammation indicators and sarcopenia have been reported to affect the survival of patients with cancer. To evaluate the prognostic influence of platelet count (PLT), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune inflammation index (SII), and SII combined with sarcopenia on the survival of patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: A total of 1133 patients with GC (812 male and 321 female, average age: 59.43 years) were evaluated. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the best cutoff values of PLT, PLR, and SII, and univariate and multivariate Cox risk regression models were used to evaluate whether SII is an independent predictor of overall survival (OS). The prognostic SS (SII-sarcopenia) was established based on SII and sarcopenia. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the prognostic SS was performed. RESULTS: SII had the strongest prognostic effect. The SII and OS of patients with GC were in an inverted U-shape (adjusted HR = 1.07; 95% CI 0.97-1.19; adjusted P = 0.179). In patients with SII > 1800, SII was negatively correlated with OS (adjusted HR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.29-1.12; adjusted P = 0.102), however, there is no statistical difference. Interestingly, a high SS was associated with a poorer prognosis. The higher the SS score was, the worse the OS (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: SII is an independent prognostic indicator of GC, and high SII is related to poor prognosis. A higher SS score had worse survival. Thus, the prognostic SS is a reliable predictor of OS in patients with GC.

13.
Front Oncol ; 12: 829230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35480120

RESUMO

Background: Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial to the treatment and prognosis of patients. Traditional screening methods have disadvantages. Methods: 231 blood samples were collected from 86 CRC, 56 colorectal adenoma (CRA), and 89 healthy individuals, from which extracellular vesicle long RNAs (exLRs) were isolated and sequenced. An CRC diagnostic signature (d-signature) was established, and prognosis-associated cell components were evaluated. Results: The exLR d-signature for CRC was established based on 17 of the differentially expressed exLRs. The d-signature showed high diagnostic efficiency of CRC and control (CRA and healthy) samples with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.938 in the training cohort, 0.943 in the validation cohort, and 0.947 in an independent cohort. The d-signature could effectively differentiate early-stage (stage I-II) CRC from healthy individuals (AUC 0.990), as well as differentiating CEA-negative CRC from healthy individuals (AUC 0.988). A CRA d-signature was also generated and could differentiate CRA from healthy individuals both in the training (AUC 0.993) and validation (AUC 0.978) cohorts. The enrichment of class-switched memory B-cells, B-cells, naive B-cells, and mast cells showed increasing trends between CRC, CRA, and healthy cohorts. Class-switched memory B-cells, mast cells, and basophils were positively associated with CRC prognosis while natural killer T-cells, naive B-cells, immature dendritic cells, and lymphatic endothelial cells were negatively associated with prognosis. Conclusions: Our study identified that the exLR d-signature could differentiate CRC from CRA and healthy individuals with high efficiency and exLR profiling also has potential in CRA screening and CRC prognosis prediction.

14.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2022 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314565

RESUMO

AIM: Roles of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in endothelial dysfunction remain controversial, and evidence from population-based studies is lacking. The present study aimed to explore the effects of FGF23 on endothelial dysfunction on the basis of both clinical data of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the in vitro research in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: A total of 321 CAD patients were enrolled after coronary angiography, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed using ultrasound equipment. Serum FGF23, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis was determined using the annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium lodide apoptosis detection kit. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing and transwell migration assays. Reactive oxide species levels were determined using fluorescent probes, and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation was assessed via immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Serum FGF23 was significantly increased in CAD patients combined with severe endothelial dysfunction (FMD <2%) compared to those with FMD ≥ 2% (P<0.001). Furthermore, the levels of FGF23 were negatively correlated with NO, whereas positively correlated with ET-1 both in unadjusted analysis and multivariate-adjusted analysis. In HUVECs, FGF23 interfered with the bioavailability of NO via increased oxidative stress. Moreover, FGF23 directly impaired the endothelium by promoting HUVECs apoptosis and attenuating the migration of HUVECs. Additional experiments showed that FGF23 induced endothelial injury through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated FGF23 is clinically associated with endothelial dysfunction in CAD patients, and FGF23 impairs endothelial function through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

15.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 831977, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281298

RESUMO

Microglia are intrinsic immune cells of the central nervous system and play a dual role (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory) in the homeostasis of the nervous system. Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia serves as an important stage of ischemic hypoxic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage disease, neurodegeneration and neurotumor of the nervous system and is present through the whole course of these diseases. Microglial membrane protein or receptor is the basis of mediating microglia to play the inflammatory role and they have been found to be upregulated by recognizing associated ligands or sensing changes in the nervous system microenvironment. They can then allosterically activate the downstream signal transduction and produce a series of complex cascade reactions that can activate microglia, promote microglia chemotactic migration and stimulate the release of proinflammatory factor such as TNF-α, IL-ß to effectively damage the nervous system and cause apoptosis of neurons. In this paper, several representative membrane proteins or receptors present on the surface of microglia are systematically reviewed and information about their structures, functions and specific roles in one or more neurological diseases. And on this basis, some prospects for the treatment of novel coronavirus neurological complications are presented.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 204: 364-372, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149095

RESUMO

Formic acid is an attractive solvent for the fractionation of lignocellulose for the production of biomaterials and chemicals, while the operation conducted in a batch manner is not conducive to mass transfer in separation process. In this research, eucalyptus was fractionated with formic acid/hydrochloric solution in a flow-through reactor at 95 °C, and the structural characteristics and the composition of fractionated lignin in different stages were investigated. Results showed that the fractionation efficiency was notably improved with a flow-through reactor, as evidenced by the low solid residue yield of 49.5% and the lignin removal rate of 79.4% as compared to the batch manner. During the fractionation process, the dissolution rate of lignin decreased gradually, and the obtained lignin samples showed low molecular weight (<3000), good uniformity (<2), and high thermal stability. The structure analysis showed that ß-O-4, ß-ß, and ß-5 linkages in lignin were degraded to varying degrees with increased time, and the degradation of G units was more severe than S ones.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Lignina , Fracionamento Químico , Eucalyptus/química , Formiatos , Lignina/química
17.
Front Genet ; 13: 762514, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211154

RESUMO

Background: Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is still the main cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Although immunotherapy has made progress in recent years, there is still a need to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment tools. UL-16 binding protein 1 (ULBP1) is a ligand that activates the receptor natural killer cell group 2 receptor D (NKG2D) and plays an important immunomodulatory role. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of ULBP1 in COAD. Methods: We obtained the relevant data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). A total of 438 patients with COAD were included in this study, with a mean age of 67.1 ± 13.03 years old, of which 234 (53.42%) were male. The diagnostic value of COAD tumor tissues and adjacent tissues was analyzed by ROC curve. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis investigated the prognostic value of ULBP1 gene, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) curve was performed to analyze the biological process and enriched enrichment pathway of ULBP1 in COAD. Combination survival analysis investigated the combined prognostic effect of prognostic genes. Results: ULBP1 gene had a high diagnostic value in COAD [AUC (TCGA) = 0.959; AUC (Guangxi) = 0.898]. Up-regulated ULBP1 gene of patients with COAD predicted a worse prognosis compared to those patients with down-regulated ULBP1 gene (Adjusted HR = 1.544, 95% CI = 1.020-2.337, p = 0.040). The GSEA showed that ULBP1 was involved in the apoptotic pathway and biological process of T cell mediated cytotoxicity, regulation of natural killer cell activation, and T cell mediated immunity of COAD. The combination survival analysis showed that the combination of high expression of ULBP1, AARS1, and DDIT3 would increase the 2.2-fold death risk of COAD when compared with those of low expression genes. Conclusion: The immune-related ULBP1 gene had diagnostic and prognostic value in COAD. The combination of ULBP1, AARS1, and DDIT3 genes could improve the prognostic prediction performance in COAD.

18.
ACS Nano ; 16(2): 3221-3230, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143162

RESUMO

Introducing the chiral spacers to two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskites (LHPs) enables them to exhibit circularly polarized photoluminescence (CPPL), which could have applications in chiral-optics and spintronics. Despite that a great deal of effort has been made in this field, the reported polarization degree of CPPL at ambient conditions is still very limited, and the integration of multiple functionalities also remains to be explored. Here we report the structures, CPPL, and piezoelectric energy harvesting properties of chiral 2D LHPs, [R-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethylaminium]2PbI4 (R-[BPEA]2PbI4) and [S-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethylaminium]2PbI4 (S-[BPEA]2PbI4). Our results show that these chiral perovskites are direct bandgap semiconductors and exhibit CPPL centered at ∼513 nm with a maximum degree of polarization of up to 11.0% at room temperature. In addition, the unique configurational arrangement of the chiral spacers is found to be able to reduce the interlayer π-π interactions and consequently result in strong electron-phonon coupling. Furthermore, the intrinsic chirality of both R-[BPEA]2PbI4 and S-[BPEA]2PbI4 enables them to be piezoelectric active, and their composite films can be applied to generate voltages and currents up to ∼0.6 V and ∼1.5 µA under periodic impacting with a strength of 2 N, respectively. This work not only reports a high degree of CPPL but also demonstrates piezoelectric energy harvesting behavior for realizing multifunctionalities in chiral 2D LHPs.

19.
Small ; 18(3): e2103829, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825468

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic piezoelectrics have attracted attention due to their simple synthesis, mechanical flexibility, and designability, which have promising application potential in flexible sensing and self-powered energy harvesting devices. Although some hybrid piezoelectrics are discovered, most of their structures are limited by the perovskite-type and often contain lead. Herein, the synthesis, structure, and piezoelectric properties of a new hybrid lead-free metal halide, (BTMA)2 CoBr4 (BTMA = benzyltrimethylammonium) are reported. The experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that this material simply composed of [CoBr4 ]2- tetrahedra and BTMA+ cations exhibits significant piezoelectricity (d22 = 5.14, d25 = 12.40 pC N-1 ), low Young's and shear moduli (4.11-17.56 GPa; 1.86-7.91 GPa). Moreover, the (BTMA)2 CoBr4 /PDMS (PDMS = polydimethylsiloxane) composite thin films are fabricated and optimized. The 10% (BTMA)2 CoBr4 /PDMS-based flexible devices show attractive performance in energy harvesting with an open-circuit voltage of 19.70 V, short-circuit current of 4.24 µA, and powder density of 11.72 µW cm-2 , catching up with those of piezoelectric ceramic composites. Meanwhile, these film devices show excellent capability in accurately sensing human body motions, such as finger bending and tapping. This work demonstrates that (BTMA)2 CoBr4 and related piezoelectric lead-free halides can be promising molecular materials in modern energy and sensing applications.


Assuntos
Movimento (Física) , Humanos
20.
J Pain ; 23(3): 472-486, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699985

RESUMO

Chronic pain frequently develops after limb injuries, and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. We explored the hypothesis that the autonomic nervous system regulates adaptive immune system activation and nociceptive sensitization in a mouse model of chronic post-traumatic pain with features of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In studies sympathetic signaling was reduced using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or lofexidine, while parasympathetic signaling was augmented by nicotine administration. Hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, skin temperature, and edema were measured at 3 and 7 weeks after fracture. Hypertrophy of regional lymph nodes and IgM deposition in the skin of injured limbs were followed as indices of adaptive immune system activation. Passive transfer of serum from fracture mice to recipient B cell deficient (muMT) mice was used to assess the formation of pain-related autoantibodies. We observed that 6-OHDA or lofexidine reduced fracture-induced hindpaw nociceptive sensitization and unweighting. Nicotine had similar effects. These treatments also prevented IgM deposition, hypertrophy of popliteal lymph nodes, and the development of pronociceptive serum transfer effects. We conclude that inhibiting sympathetic or augmenting parasympathetic signaling inhibits pro-nociceptive immunological changes accompanying limb fracture. These translational results support the use of similar approaches in trials potentially alleviating persistent post-traumatic pain and, possibly, CRPS. PERSPECTIVE: Selective treatments aimed at autonomic nervous system modulation reduce fracture-related nociceptive and functional sequelae. The same treatment strategies limit pain-supporting immune system activation and the production of pro-nociceptive antibodies. Thus, the therapeutic regulation of autonomic activity after limb injury may reduce the incidence of chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa , Fraturas Ósseas , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Dor Crônica/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Hipertrofia/complicações , Imunoglobulina M/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Nicotina , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Oxidopamina/uso terapêutico , Oxidopamina/toxicidade
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