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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150326, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543795

RESUMO

This study investigated the degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on zerovalent iron-laden biochar (BC-ZVI) prepared by carbothermal reduction. Results show that over 99% PFOA can be removed by BC-ZVI in hydrothermal conditions under 240 °C within 6 h. The maximum defluorination rate of 63.2% was achieved after 192 h, and this outcome was significantly better than biochar (BC) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) alone. The short-chain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and perfluoroheptanal were detected in the liquid phase after degradation, suggesting that the degradation of PFOAs by BC-ZVI followed the Kobel decarboxylation process. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses strongly suggested that carbothermal reduction could avoid the agglomeration of ZVI loaded onto biochar, which helped make the PFOA degradation more efficient. The frontier molecular orbital theory calculated by density functional theory revealed there were two possibilities for ZVI loading on BC (edged or internal loading), while the edge loaded ZVI had a greater tendency to provide electrons for the defluorination of PFOA than internally loaded ZVI.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126062, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601025

RESUMO

This study evaluated the performance of spent coffee biochar (SCBC)/granular activated carbon (GAC) activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and peroxydisulfate (PDS) for urea degradation in reclaimed water used for ultrapure water production. Results showed that catalyst and oxidant wielded a great influence on urea removal. Of them, the GAC-PMS system could completely remove urea at the least oxidant (1 g/L) and catalyst dosage (0.2 g/L). GAC activating PMS mainly depended on graphite C structure and minor oxygen functional groups. However, the amounts of urea removed by 600BC-PMS and 900BC-PMS were 57% and 70%, respectively. In the PDS system, the urea removal through GAC-PDS could reach 90%, which mainly depends on the graphite C structure of GAC. Using the same conditions, the urea removal of 900BC-PDS was similar to GAC-PDS, so it has some potential as an alternative to commercial GAC.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150187, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517328

RESUMO

Monitoring agricultural soil organic carbon (SOC) has played an essential role in sustainable agricultural management. Precise and robust prediction of SOC greatly contributes to carbon neutrality in the agricultural industry. To create more knowledge regarding the ability of remote sensing to monitor carbon soil, this research devises a state-of-the-art low cost machine learning model for quantifying agricultural soil carbon using active and ensemble-based decision tree learning combined with multi-sensor data fusion at a national and world scale. This work explores the use of Sentinel-1 (S1) C-band dual polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Sentinel-2 (S2) multispectral data, and an innovative machine learning (ML) approach using an integration of active learning for land-use mapping and advanced Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) for robustness of the SOC estimates. The collected soil samples from a field survey in Western Australia were used for the model validation. The indicators including the coefficient of determination (R2) and root - mean - square - error (RMSE) were applied to evaluate the model's performance. A numerous features computed from optical and SAR data fusion were employed to build and test the proposed model performance. The effectiveness of the proposed machine learning model was assessed by comparing with the two well-known algorithms such as Random Forests (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict agricultural SOC. Results suggest that a combination of S1 and S2 sensors could effectively estimate SOC in farming areas by using ML techniques. Satisfactory accuracy of the proposed XGBoost with optimal features was achieved the highest performance (R2 = 0.870; RMSE = 1.818 tonC/ha) which outperformed RF and SVM. Thus, multi-sensor data fusion combined with the XGBoost lead to the best prediction results for agricultural SOC at 10 m spatial resolution. In short, this new approach could significantly contribute to various agricultural SOC retrieval studies globally.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Inteligência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Radar
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131622, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303903

RESUMO

The widespread use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)-related products such as aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) has led to increasing contamination of groundwater systems. The concentration of PFASs in AFFF-impacted groundwater can be several orders of magnitude higher than the drinking water standard. There is a need for a sustainable and effective sorbent to remove PFASs from groundwater. This work aims to investigate the sorption of PFASs in groundwater by biochar column. The specific objectives are to understand the influences of PFASs properties and groundwater chemistry to PFASs sorption by biochar. The PFASs-spiked Milli-Q water (including 19 PFASs) and four aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF)-impacted groundwater were used. The partitioning coefficients (log Kd) of long chain PFASs ranged from 0.77 to 4.63 while for short chain PFASs they remained below 0.68. For long chain PFASs (C ≥ 7), log Kd increased by 0.5 and 0.8 for each CF2 moiety of PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was the most influential factor in PFASs sorption over pH, salinity, and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA). DOM contained hydrophobic compounds and metal ions which can form DOM-PFASs complexes to provide more sorption sites for PFASs. The finding is useful for executing PFASs remediation by biochar filtration column, especially legacy long chain PFASs, for groundwater remediation.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132459, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619254

RESUMO

The demand for ultrapure water (UPW) in the semiconductor industry has increased in recent years, while the idea to use reclaimed water instead of tap water for UPW production has also attracted more attention. However, since urea concentration in reclaimed water is higher than that in tap water, UPW production has not been efficient. To resolve this problem, this study aims to develop a new spent coffee grounds based biochar (SCG-BC)/persulfate catalytic system as a pretreatment unit. The objective is to enhance urea removal from reclaimed water so that UPW production is more effective. In this study, the biochar used was prepared from spent coffee grounds with detailed characterization. Results strongly suggested that the urea removed by SCG-BC/persulfate catalytic system was very encouraging (up to 73%). The best possible dosages for SCG-BC and persulfate for urea removal were 0.2 and 2.0 g L-1, respectively. Furthermore, this system could remove urea effectively in a wide range of pH (3-10). Moreover, the characterizations of SCG-BC (graphite C, defective edges and functional groups, i.e. -OH, CO, carboxyl C-O) helped to activate persulfate in the catalytic process. OH• and SO4• - were all involved in this process, while the SO4• - was the main radical for urea degradation.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt A): 126197, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710608

RESUMO

Sludge from wastewater treatment plants can act as a repository and crucial environmental provider of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Over the past few years, people's knowledge regarding the occurrence and removal of ARGs in sludge has broadened remarkably with advancements in molecular biological techniques. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion were found to effectively achieve sludge reduction and ARGs removal. This review summarized advanced detection and removal techniques of ARGs, in the last decade, in the sludge digestion field. The fate of ARGs due to different sludge digestion strategies (i.e., anaerobic and aerobic digestion under mesophilic or thermophilic conditions, and in combination with relevant pretreatment technologies (e.g., thermal hydrolysis pretreatment, microwave pretreatment and alkaline pretreatment) and additives (e.g., ferric chloride and zero-valent iron) were systematically summarized and compared in this review. To date, this is the first review that provides a comprehensive assessment of the state-of-the-art technologies and future recommendations.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 125930, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547711

RESUMO

This study designed a Dynamic-Osmotic membrane bioreactor/nanofiltration (OsMBR/NF) system for municipal wastewater treatment and reuse. Results indicated that a continuously rotating FO module with 60 RPM in Dynamic-OsMBR system could enhance shear stress and reduce cake layer of foulants, leading to higher flux (50%) compared to Traditional-OsMBR during a 40-operation day. A negligible specific reverse salt flux (0.059 G/L) and a water flux of 2.86 LMH were recorded when a mixture of 0.1 M EDTA-2Na/0.1 M Na2CO3/0.9 mM Triton114 functioned as draw solution (DS). It was found that the Dynamic-OsMBR/NF hybrid system could effectively remove pollutants (∼98% COD, ∼99% PO43-P, ∼93% NH4+-N, > 99% suspended solids) from wastewater. In short, this developed system can be considered a breakthrough technology as it successfully minimizes membrane fouling by shear force, and achieves high water quality for reuse by two membrane- barriers.

9.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 7297-7313, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569893

RESUMO

Increase in anthropogenic activities due to rapid industrialization had caused an elevation in heavy metal contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These pollutants have detrimental effects on human and environmental health. The majority of these pollutants are carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and are very poisonous even at very low concentrations. Contamination caused by heavy metals has become a global concern for which the traditional treatment approaches lack in providing a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution. Therefore, the use of microorganisms and plants to reduce the free available heavy metal present in the environment has become the most acceptable method by researchers. Also, in microbial- and phyto-remediation the redox reaction shifts the valence which makes these metals less toxic. In addition to this, the use of biochar as a remediation tool has provided a sustainable solution that needs further investigations toward its implementation on a larger scale. Enzymes secreted by microbes and whole microbial cell are considered an eco-efficient biocatalyst for mitigation of heavy metals from contaminated sites. To the best of our knowledge there is very less literature available covering remediation of heavy metals aspect along with the sensors used for detection of heavy metals. Systematic management should be implemented to overcome the technical and practical limitations in the use of these bioremediation techniques. The knowledge gaps have been identified in terms of its limitation and possible future directions have been discussed.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149344, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340086

RESUMO

Sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is considered to be reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can be efficiently removed by sludge treatment processes, e.g., aerobic sludge digestion. However, recent studies report microplastics, which also accumulate in sludge, may serve as carriers for ARGs. In the presence of microplastics, whether ARGs can still be efficiently destroyed by aerobic sludge digestion remains to be urgently investigated. In this study, the fate of ARGs during aerobic digestion was investigated with and without the addition of three prevalent categories of (i.e., polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)). Nine ARGs and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) that represents the horizontal transfer potential of ARGs were tested in this study. Compared with the control, the ARGs removal efficiency decreased by 129.6%, 137.0%, and 227.6% with the presence of PVC, PE, and PET, respectively, although a negligible difference was observed with their solids reduction efficiencies. The abundance of potential bacterial hosts of ARGs and intI1 increased in the reactors with the addition of microplastics, suggesting that microplastics potentially selectively enriched bacterial hosts and promoted the horizontal transfer of ARGs during aerobic sludge digestion. These may have contributed to the deteriorated ARGs removal efficiency. This study demonstrated that microplastics in sludge would decrease the ARGs removal efficiency in aerobic digestion process, potentially leading to more ARGs entering the local environment during sludge disposal or utilization.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Esgotos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Digestão , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Plásticos , Águas Residuárias
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149676, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419905

RESUMO

This study measured the environmental impacts from three same-size wastewater treatment systems, specifically activated sludge, a constructed wetland, and a high rate algal pond. Detailed data inventories were employed using SimaPro 9 software to calculate the entire consequences by ReCiPe 2016 and Greenhouse Gas Protocol method. The environmental outcomes caused by substance emissions and resource extraction are presented in several impact categories at the endpoint level. For a better comparison, the single score tool was applied to aggregate all factors into three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem, and resource shortage. Results showed that concrete and steel are the main contributors to the construction phase, while electricity is responsible for the operation stage. The single score calculation indicates that the proportion of construction activities could be equal to or even higher than the operation stage for a small capacity plant. The total environmental impact of the conventional system was 2.3-fold and 3-fold higher than that of constructed wetland and high rate algal pond, respectively. High rate algal pond has the best environmental performance when generating the least burdens and greenhouse gas emissions of 0.72 kg CO2 equivalent per m3. Constructed wetland produces 5.69 kg CO2, higher than an algal pond but much lower than activated sludge plant, emitting 11.42 kg CO2 per m3.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Purificação da Água , Ecossistema , Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
12.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4697-4718, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334104

RESUMO

In the last two decades, water use has increased at twice the rate of population growth. The freshwater resources are getting polluted by contaminants like heavy metals, pesticides, hydrocarbons, organic waste, pathogens, fertilizers, and emerging pollutants. Globally more than 80% of the wastewater is released into the environment without proper treatment. Rapid industrialization has a dramatic effect on developing countries leading to significant losses to economic and health well-being in terms of toxicological impacts on humans and the environment through air, water, and soil pollution. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove wastewater contaminants. A physical and/or chemical technique alone appears ineffective for recovering useful resources from wastewater containing complex components. There is a requirement for more processes or processes combined with membrane and biological processes to enhance operational efficiency and quality. More processes or those that are combined with biological and membrane-based processes are required to enhance operational efficiencies and quality. This paper intends to provide an exhaustive review of electrochemical technologies including microbial electrochemical technologies. It provides comprehensive information for the recovery of metals, nutrients, sulfur, hydrogen, and heat from industrial effluents. This article aims to give detailed information into the advancements in electrochemical processes to energy use, improve restoration performance, and achieve commercialization. It also covers bottlenecks and perspectives of this research area.

13.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440020

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient element for crop productivity. Unfortunately, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crop plants gradually decreases with the increase of the N application rate. Nevertheless, little has been known about the molecular mechanisms of differences in NUE among genotypes of wheat. In this study, we used RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the transcriptome profiling of flag leaves at the stage of anthesis in wheat NILs (1Y, high-NUE, and 1W, low-NUE) under normal nitrogen conditions (300 kg N ha-1, corresponding to 1.6 g N pot-1). We identified 7023 DEGs (4738 upregulated and 2285 downregulated) in the comparison between lines 1Y and 1W. The responses of 1Y and 1W to normal N differed in the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Several genes belonging to the GS and GOGAT gene families were upregulated in 1Y compared with 1W, and the enhanced carbon metabolism might lead 1Y to produce more C skeletons, metabolic energy, and reductants for nitrogen metabolism. A subset of transcription factors (TFs) family members, such as ERF, WRKY, NAC, and MYB, were also identified. Collectively, these identified candidate genes provided new information for a further understanding of the genotypic difference in NUE.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148755, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246151

RESUMO

This study investigates the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) for on-line monitoring ammonium (NH4+-N) in municipal wastewater. A double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was established in a continuous mode under different influent ammonium concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 mg L-1. Results indicated that excess ammonium would inhibit the activity of electrogenic bacteria in the anode chamber and consequently affect electricity production. An inversely linear relationship between concentration and voltage generation was obtained with coefficient R2 0.99 and the MFC could detect up to 40 mg L-1 of NH4+-N. Notably, no further decline was observed in voltage output and there was in fact a further increase in ammonia concentration (>40 mg L-1). The stability and high accuracy of ammonium-based MFC biosensors exposed competitive results compared to traditional analytical tools, confirming the biosensor's reliability. Furthermore, pH 7.0; R 1000 Ω and HRT of 24 h are the best possible conditions for the MFC biosensor for monitoring ammonium. The simplicity in design and operation makes the biosensor more realistic for practical application.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Nitrogênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Águas Residuárias
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148598, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328983

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of CaO2 pretreatment on sulfonamide antibiotics (SMs) remediation by Chlorella sp. Results showed that a CaO2 dose ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 g/g biomass was the best and led to higher SMs removal efficacy 5-10% higher than the control. The contributions made by cometabolism and CaO2 in SMs remediation were very similar. Bioassimilation could remove 24% of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), and accounted for 38% of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) remediation. Pretreatment by CaO2 wielded a positive effect on microalgae. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) level of the CaO2 pretreatment microalgae was three times higher when subjected to non-pretreatment. For the long-term, pretreatment microalgae removed SMs 10-20% more than the non-pretreatment microalgae. Protein fractions of EPS in continuous operation produced up to 90 mg/L for cometabolism. For bioassimilation, SMX intensity of the pretreatment samples was 160-fold less than the non-treatment one. It indicated the CaO2 pretreatment has enhanced the biochemical function of the intracellular environment of microalgae. Peroxidase enzyme involved positively in the cometabolism and degradation of SMs to several metabolites including ring cleavage, hydroxylation and pterin-related conjugation.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Antibacterianos , Peróxidos , Sulfonamidas
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 335: 125278, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015565

RESUMO

Resistant pollutants like oil, grease, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and plastics in wastewater are difficult to be degraded by traditional activated sludge methods. These pollutants are prevalent, posing a great threat to aquatic environments and organisms since they are toxic, resistant to natural biodegradation, and create other serious problems. As a high-efficiency biocatalyst, enzymes are proposed for the treatment of these resistant pollutants. This review focused on the roles and applications of enzymes in wastewater treatment. It discusses the influence of enzyme types and their sources, enzymatic processes in resistant pollutants remediation, identification and ecotoxicity assay of enzymatic transformation products, and typically employed enzymatic wastewater treatment systems. Perspectives on the major challenges and feasible future research directions of enzyme-based wastewater treatment are also proposed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147254, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933770

RESUMO

The recent and vigorous developments in semiconductor technology strictly request better quality and large quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) for their production. It is crucial to secure a large amount of raw water for the future development of UPW production. Using reclaimed water as alternative raw water source to produce UPW is therefore considered the feasible trend and solution for sustainable use of water resources towards a common future practice in UPW production. The challenge of using reclaimed water is due to its higher content of organic pollutants, especially small molecule organic pollutants such as urea, which are difficult to remove through traditional UPW production process. Consequently, improving the existing UPW production process to meet the water standard desired in the semiconductor industry is essential. This paper reviewed the current traditional processes for removing organic matters in UPW production, including ion-exchange (IX) adsorption, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The potential problems in the actual UPW production process were identified when using reclaimed water as raw water source. A new strategy of applying the advanced oxidation process (AOPs) to UPW production as a supplementary unit to guarantee UPW quality was proposed. Its feasibility and research focus were then analyzed and discussed in obtaining a new solution for a future development of the UPW production process.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 646175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868346

RESUMO

Soil salinity is a worldwide issue that affects wheat production. A comprehensive understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms and the selection of reliable screening indices are crucial for breeding salt-tolerant wheat cultivars. In this study, 30 wheat genotypes (obtained from a rapid selection of 96 original varieties) were chosen to investigate the existing screening methods and clarify the salinity tolerance mechanisms in wheat. Ten-day-old seedlings were treated with 150 mM NaCl. Eighteen agronomic and physiological parameters were measured. The results indicated that the effects of salinity on the agronomic and physiological traits were significant. Salinity stress significantly decreased K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio in the whole plant, while the leaf K+/Na+ ratio was the strongest determinant of salinity tolerance and had a significantly positive correlation with salt tolerance. In contrast, salinity stress significantly increased Na+ concentration and relative gene expression (TaHKT1;5, TaSOS1, and TaAKT1-like). The Na+ transporter gene (TaHKT1;5) showed a significantly greater increase in expression than the K+ transporter gene (TaAKT1-like). We concluded that Na+ exclusion rather than K+ retention contributed to an optimal leaf K+/Na+ ratio. Furthermore, the present exploration revealed that, under salt stress, tolerant accessions had higher shoot water content, shoot dry weight and lower stomatal density, leaf sap osmolality, and a significantly negative correlation was observed between salt tolerance and stomatal density. This indicated that changes in stomata density may represent a fundamental mechanism by which a plant may optimize water productivity and maintain growth under saline conditions. Taken together, the leaf K+/Na+ ratio and stomatal density can be used as reliable screening indices for salt tolerance in wheat at the seedling stage.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147135, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894605

RESUMO

This study investigated the environmental burdens concerning the recycling/recovery process of a wastewater treatment plant's construction material waste and biogas. Detailed data inventories of case studies were employed in several scenarios to explore the role of end-of-life treatment methods. The ReCiPe 2016 and the Greenhouse gas Protocol life cycle impact methods were conducted to measure the impact categories. The construction and demolition phases were considered for recycling potential assessment, while the operational phase was examined for assessing the advantages of energy recovery. Metal and concrete recycling show environmental benefits. Increasing the reprocessing rate requires more water consumption but results in: firstly, a decrease of 18.8% in total damage; secondly, reduces problematic mineral scarcity by 3.9%; and thirdly, a shortfall in fossil fuels amounting to 11.6%. Recycling concrete helps to reduce the amount of GHG emissions 1.4-fold. Different biogas treatment methods contribute to various outcomes. Biogas utilization for on-site energy purposes has more advantages than flaring and offsite consumption. Electricity and heat generation originating from biogas can provide 70% of the energy requirement and replace 100% natural gas usage. Biomethane production from biogas requires extreme power and more resources. Meanwhile, producing heat and electricity can offset 102.9 g of fossil CO2, and manufacturing biomethane contributes the equivalent of 101.2 g of fossil fuel-derived CO2. Reducing 10% of recovered electricity creation could rise 19.19% global warming indicator of the wastewater treatment plant.

20.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130290, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773314

RESUMO

Better insight into non-potable reclaimed water and drinking water can produce more reliable risk assessment and help to achieve sustainable water reuse in the long-term. This study illustrates the effectiveness of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) for rapid cross-connection detection. Based on samples collected from three different sites of China, it is identified that the overall fluorescence intensity was 6-31 times of reclaimed to drinking water in water samples at all FRI regions. This is shown to be highly sensitive over conventional water quality parameters. Furthermore, based on parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), humic acid and tryptophan are considered as the main components contributing to fluorescence both in secondary and tertiary effluents. Total fluorescence intensities as well as fluorescence peaks of EEM pairs were investigated. Under different mixing scenarios, it is found that the signal is distinguishable as low as 20% of reclaimed water. This study also offers possibility of exploring portable devices with identified fluorescence peaks in EEM regions for risk prevention and water quality monitoring at end user sites.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , China , Análise Fatorial , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
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