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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372203

RESUMO

Human tissue plasminogen activator was the first recombinant therapy protein that successfully produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells in 1986 and approved for clinical use. Since then, more and more therapeutic proteins are being manufactured in mammalian cells, and the technologies for recombinant protein production in this expression system have developed rapidly, with the optimization of both upstream and downstream processes. One of the most promising strategies is expression vector cassette optimization based on the expression vector cassette. In this review paper, these approaches and developments are summarized, and the future strategy on the utilizing of expression cassettes for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in mammalian cells is discussed.

3.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 411-415, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425009

RESUMO

We present an unusual case of a patient with bilateral-lung transplantation due to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who subsequently suffered complications with acute myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumopatias/virologia , Transplante de Pulmão , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Masculino , Pandemias , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/virologia
4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 50, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China is the second highest pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) burden country worldwide. However, retreatment of PTB has often developed resistance to at least one of the four first-line anti-TB drugs. The cure rate (approximately 50.0-73.3%) and management of retreatment of PTB in China needs to be improved. Qinbudan decoction has been widely used to treat PTB in China since the 1960s. Previously clinical studies have shown that the Qinbudan tablet (QBDT) promoted sputum-culture negative conversion and lesion absorption. However, powerful evidence from a randomized controlled clinical trial is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of QBDT as an adjunct therapy for retreatment of PTB. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in China. People diagnosed with PTB were enrolled who received previous anti-TB treatment from April 2011 to March 2013. The treatment group received an anti-TB regimen and QBDT, and the control group was administered an anti-TB regimen plus placebo. Anti-TB treatment options included isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin for 2 months (2HRZES), followed by isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol for 6 months (6HRE), daily for 8 months. Primary outcome was sputum-culture conversion using the MGIT 960 liquid medium method. Secondary outcomes included lung lesion absorption and cavity closure. Adverse events and reactions were observed after treatment. A structured questionnaire was used to record demographic information and clinical symptoms of all subjects. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 25.0 software in the full analysis set (FAS) population. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-one cases of retreatment PTB were randomly divided into two groups: the placebo group (88 cases) and the QBDT group (93 cases). A total of 166 patients completed the trial and 15 patients lost to follow-up. The culture conversion rate of the QBDT group and placebo group did not show a noticeable improvement by using the covariate sites to correct the rate differences (79.6% vs 69.3%; rate difference = 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): - 0.02-0.23; F = 2.48, P = 0.12) after treatment. A significant 16.6% increase in lesion absorption was observed in the QBDT group when compared with the placebo group (67.7% vs 51.1%; rate difference = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.02-0.31; χ2 = 5.56, P = 0.02). The intervention and placebo group did not differ in terms of cavity closure (25.5% vs 21.1%; rate difference = 0.04, 95% CI: - 0.21-0.12; χ2 = 0.27, P = 0.60). Two patients who received chemotherapy and combined QBDT reported pruritus/nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: No significant improvement in culture conversion was observed for retreatment PTB with traditional Chinese medicine plus standard anti-TB regimen. However, QBDT as an adjunct therapy significantly promoted lesion absorption, thereby reducing lung injury due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02313610.

6.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 1641-1650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431489

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have shown that DNA methylation plays a significant role in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In addition to hypermethylation, aberrant hypomethylation can result in the transcriptional activation of oncogenes in cancer, including MDS. Therefore, drugs targeting DNA hypomethylation are needed for the treatment of MDS. This study aimed to investigate whether As2S2 promoted hypomethylation by increasing DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) expression in MDS. Patients and Methods: Ten bone marrow samples from MDS patients and 3 healthy donors were obtained for the examination of the DNA methylation with a Human Methylation 850K BeadChip. The mRNA expressions for the DNMTs in the ten MDS patients and 3 controls were compared by Q-PCR. Then, the MDS cell line SKM-1 was treated with As2S2. After 2 days of treatment, Human Methylation 850K BeadChip was applied to analyze the changes of gene methylation status in the cells. Q-PCR and Western blot were taken to test the changes of mRNA and protein expressions for DNMTs in SKM-1 cells after treatment. Results: Five hundred ninety-two abnormally hypomethylated genes were found in MDS patients compared to those in controls by Human Methylation 850K. The mRNA expressions of DNMTs (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) in MDS patients were significantly lower than those in healthy individuals. The IC50 value of As2S2 for SKM-1 cells was 4.97 µmol/L.Treatment with As2S2 at 2 µmoL/L resulted in significant alterations in the methylation levels at 1718 sites in SKM-1 cells compared to those in the controls. Hypermethylation was observed in 1625 sites (94.58%), corresponding to 975 genes, compared to those in the controls. Finally, the expression levels of DNMTs (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) significantly increased in SKM-1 cells treated with As2S2 at 2 µmoL/L and 4 µmoL/L. Conclusion: These data show a potential clinical application of As2S2 as an innovative hypermethylation agent in MDS.

7.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(6): 1323-1331, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Language experience can develop long-term memory traces for speech units in the brain, to ensure efficient processing of speech sounds. However, prelingually deafened children lack sufficient auditory input before cochlear implantation. Whether the experience-dependent long-term memory traces exist in prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants (CIs) remains unclear. METHODS: We presented CI and normal hearing (NH) children with Mandarin Chinese spoken disyllables in an oddball paradigm and recorded event-related potentials. Each disyllable was defined as a meaningful word or a meaningless pseudoword by the tonal information in the second syllable. RESULTS: The amplitude of mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by words was larger than that elicited by pseudowords in NH children. However, this enhancement of the MMN amplitude was not found in CI children. Behavioral results showed later recognition points for words and lower accuracies for speech comprehension in CI children than in NH children. Furthermore, increased theta power for words compared with pseudowords was only found in NH children. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a deficit of long-term memory traces for words in prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants. SIGNIFICANCE: Early speech input may be crucial to the formation of long-term memory traces for speech units.

8.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 3420-3431, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236175

RESUMO

In this paper, sorghum grains were pretreated by roasting (RT), microwave (MW), stir-frying (SF) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The effects of pretreated sorghum grains on in vitro starch digestibility of sorghum dried noodles made from sorghum and wheat flour were investigated. The results showed that HMT treated noodles contained the highest amount of resistant starch (RS) and the lowest amount of rapidly digestible starch (RDS). The hydrolysis kinetic parameters and estimated glycemic index (eGI) decreased in all of the treated samples. The treated starches had lower molecular weight and less proportion of short chains of amylopectin than those of the untreated sample. X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the relative crystallinity of starch in noodles was increased by HMT and RT treatments while it was decreased by MW and SF treatments compared to untreated noodles. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis revealed that the short-range ordered degree and intra-molecular hydrogen bond intensity were both enhanced by thermal treatments. A tighter and smoother microstructure with fewer pores and cracks in the treated noodles was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These structural changes could provide a better understanding of the lower starch digestion rate.

9.
Hepatology ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299136

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide, accounting for 90% of liver cancers. Effective systemic treatments for advanced stage HCC are limited. The recent clinical application of mutated neoantigens as immunotherapeutic targets in several human cancers demonstrated that boosting host T cell responses to these antigens may help control patient tumors. With increased enthusiasm for targeting mutated neoantigens as a strategy in cancer immunotherapy, many clinical trials were initiated to apply mutated neoantigens as targets for the therapy of HCC and other solid tumors. However, recent studies suggest that targeting mutated neoantigens for the immunotherapy of HCC and other solid tumors has pitfalls and may not achieve efficacy without strategic changes. Herein, we discuss the limits of using neoantigens as targets in HCC immunotherapy and suggest alternative strategies to overcome these limits. Importantly, similar limits and alternative strategies are likely applicable to other intermediate and low tumor mutation burden cancers.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 83: 106430, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279043

RESUMO

Ribonuclease (RNase) reportedly exerts organ-protective effects in several pathological conditions, including ischemia reperfusion (I/R), but whether it can exhibit protective effect on intestinal I/R injury and potential mechanisms remain unknown. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of RNase on intestinal I/R injury and explore the underlying mechanisms. Thirty-two wild-type C57BL/6J adult male mice were evenly divided into a sham group, a sham + RNase group, an I/R group and an I/R + RNase group. Intestinal I/R was produced by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 1 h followed by reperfusion for 2 h. All mice were treated with 3 doses of RNase or the same dosage of normal saline at different points. It was found that intestinal I/R caused significant intestinal injury and an increase in levels of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs). Treatment with RNase significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokine production, inhibited intestinal apoptosis and down-regulated the expression of toll like receptor 3 in intestinal tissues. In conclusion, increased exRNAs may contribute to intestinal I/R injury in adult mice, and RNase treatment during perioperative window is effective for attenuating intestinal I/R injury.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 157: 276-287, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344083

RESUMO

Polysaccharides are important active constituents of Agaricus blazei Morrill. In the present study, WABM-A was isolated from WABM using DEAE-cellulose, and subsequently purified using sepharose CL-6B to obtain the acidic polysaccharide WABM-A-b. WABM-A-b is mainly composed of Glc dextran, with a molecular weight of 10 KDa and ß-1,6-D-Glcp as its main chain. The results of in vivo experiments show that in comparison with the MG, WABM-A significantly reduced the serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, increased the serum levels of HDL-C (P < 0.01), and upregulated the liver expression of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1, and ABCG1 in rats with hyperlipidemia (P < 0.05). The results of in vitro experiments show that in comparison with the MG group, WABM-A-b-H significantly reduced the levels of TC and TG in HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid (P < 0.01), and significantly upregulated the protein expression of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1, and ABCG1 (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that WABM-A-b is an acidic glucan with lipid-lowering activity. The lipid-lowering mechanism of WABM-A-b is via the activation of the PPARγ/LXRα/ABCA1/ABCG1 cholesterol metabolism pathway. This is the first time that the hypolipidemic effect of Agaricus blazei Morrill acidic polysaccharides has been reported.

12.
Biomolecules ; 10(4)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225015

RESUMO

: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm) may induce photobiological stress in plants, activate the plant defense system, and induce changes of metabolites. In our previous work, we found that between the two Astragalus varieties prescribed by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Astragalus mongholicus has better tolerance to UV-B. Thus, it is necessary to study the metabolic strategy of Astragalus under UV-B radiation further. In the present study, we used untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS techniques) to investigate the profiles of primary and secondary metabolic. The profiles revealed the metabolic response of Astragalus to UV-B radiation. We then used real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to obtain the transcription level of relevant genes under UV-B radiation (UV-B supplemented in the field, λmax = 313 nm, 30 W, lamp-leaf distance = 60 cm, 40 min·day-1), which annotated the responsive mechanism of phenolic metabolism in roots. Our results indicated that supplemental UV-B radiation induced a stronger shift from carbon assimilation to carbon accumulation. The flux through the phenylpropanoids pathway increased due to the mobilization of carbon reserves. The response of metabolism was observed to be significantly tissue-specific upon the UV-B radiation treatment. Among phenolic compounds, C6C1 carbon compounds (phenolic acids in leaves) and C6C3C6 carbon compounds (flavones in leaves and isoflavones in roots) increased at the expense of C6C3 carbon compounds. Verification experiments show that the response of phenolics in roots to UV-B is activated by upregulation of relevant genes rather than phenylalanine. Overall, this study reveals the tissues-specific alteration and mechanism of primary and secondary metabolic strategy in response to UV-B radiation.

13.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 17, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive exotic species have caused significant problems, and the effects of extreme precipitation and drought, which might occur more frequently under the global climate change scenarios, on interspecific relationship between invasive and native species remain unclear. RESULTS: We conducted a greenhouse experiment with three soil water levels (30-40%, 50-60%, and 70-80% of field capacity) and two cultivation treatments (monoculture pots, one seedling of either species and mixture pots, one seedling of each species) to investigate soil water content effects on the relationship between invasive Rhus typhina and native Cotinus coggygria. Rhus typhina had lower height but bigger crown area than C. coggygria in the monoculture treatment. Rhus typhina had higher height, bigger crown area and total biomass than C. coggygria in the mixture treatment. Drought decreased the growth parameters, total chlorophyll concentration, and leaf biomass, but did not change gas exchange and other biomass parameters in R. typhina. The growth parameters, leaf area index, biomass parameters, total chlorophyll concentration, and net photosynthetic rate of C. coggygria decreased under drought conditions. The log response ratio (lnRR), calculated as ln (total biomass of a target plant grown in monoculture/total biomass of a target plant grown in mixed culture), of R. typhina was lower than that of C. coggygria. The lnRR of R. typhina and C. coggygria decreased and increased with increase in soil water content, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Rhus typhina has greater capacity to relatively stable growth to the drought condition than C. coggygria and has strong competition advantages in the mixture with C. coggygria, especially in the drought condition. Our study will help understand the causes of invasiveness and wide distribution of R. typhina under various moisture conditions and predict its expansion under climate change scenarios.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of superior vena cava (SVC) isolation using second-generation cryoballoon (CB) ablation remain unknown. METHODS: A total of 26 (3.2%) patients with SVC-related paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) from a consecutive series of 806 patients who underwent second-generation CB were included. Pulmonary vein isolation was initially achieved by CB ablation. If the SVC trigger was determined, the electrical isolation of SVC isolation was performed using the second-generation CB. RESULTS: Real-time SVC potential was observed in all patients. Isolation of the SVC was successfully accomplished in 21 (80.8%) patients. The mean number of freeze cycles in each patient was 2.1 ± 1.1. The mean time to isolation and ablation duration were 22.5 ± 14.2 seconds and 94.5 ± 22.3 seconds, respectively. A transient phrenic nerve (PN) injury was observed in five patients (19.2%). There were two patients (7.7%) experienced reversible sinus node injury during the first application. During a mean follow-up period of 13.2 ± 5.8 months, four patients (15.4%) had atrial arrhythmia recurrences. CONCLUSION: Isolation of SVC using the second-generation 28-mm CB is feasible when SVC driver during AF is identified. Vigilant monitoring of PN function during CB ablation of SVC is needed to avoid PN injury.

15.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(1): 175-182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The association between circulating vitamin D and liver cancer risk has been controversial on the basis of epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate this association with prospective studies. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search was implemented in PubMed and Scopus databases up to June 2019. Using a random-effects model, the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled for the highest versus lowest category. Trend estimation was conducted with a two-stage dose-response meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six independent prospective studies (992 liver cancer events and 60,811 participants) were included for data synthesis. The summary estimate showed that a higher circulating vitamin D was associated with lower risk of liver cancer (Summary RR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.95; I2=53.6%, p=0.035). Dose-response analysis indicated that liver cancer was associated with 8% (95% CI: 0.89, 0.95) lower risk with a 10 nmol/L increment of circulating vitamin D concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides substantial evidence that a higher concentration of circulating vitamin D would have conferred protection against liver cancer.

16.
Food Chem ; 323: 126842, 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334316

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of tempering with steam on the water distribution of wheat grains and the microbial load in wheat flour were investigated, as well as the physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Results showed that when steam treatment time was 320 s, the total plate count (TPC), yeast and mold count (YMC), and mesophilic aerobic spores (MAS) in flour decreased by 1.74, 1.99 and 1.01 lgCFU/g, respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed that tempering with steam accelerated the water distribution of grains and significantly (p < 0.05) shortened the tempering time. Moreover, flour yield, particle size, ash content, and damaged starch content of flour were all altered. Furthermore, after tempering with steam, proteins were aggregated and starches were partially gelatinized, which caused dough development time and stability of flour increasing. Collectively, our findings indicated steam tempering could shorten the tempering time and improve the qualities of flour partly.

17.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 173: 107367, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251642

RESUMO

Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1) was proven to be the aetiological agent of a disease causing mass die-offs of shrimp, prawn and crayfish. The specific purpose of this study was to develop a new sensitive real-time PCR method for the specific detection of DIV1. A pair of primers that amplify a 142 bp fragment and a TaqMan probe were selected for the major capsid protein gene of DIV1. They were shown to be specific for DIV1 and did not react with other common shrimp pathogens or healthy shrimp DNA. The method could detect as virus levels as low as 1.2 copies of DIV1 plasmid DNA.

18.
Food Chem ; 322: 126738, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283361

RESUMO

Quality characteristics of whole wheat flour with superheated steam treatment and storage stability of semi-dried whole wheat noodle were investigated, as well as texture and cooking properties of cooking noodles. Superheated steam treatment significantly reduced the total plate count and the activities of lipase, lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase in whole wheat flour (p < 0.05), and decreased the free phenolic content. When treated at 155-170 °C, the thermomechanical properties of whole wheat dough improved with the increase of the development time, stability and C2 torque. Superheated steam treatment showed no obviously detrimental effects on hardness and cooking loss of noodle. During storage, treated semi-dried whole wheat noodle exhibited slower rate of microbial growth. Superheated steam treatment significantly reduced the acidity, inhibited the formation of free fatty acid, and decreased the activities of enzyme during storage. This would delay the deterioration and improve the storage stability of semi-dried whole wheat noodle.

19.
Neural Regen Res ; 15(10): 1814-1820, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246622

RESUMO

Current management for spinal cord injury aims to reduce secondary damage and recover sensation and movement. Acute spinal cord injury is often accompanied by spinal cord compartment syndrome. Decompression by durotomy and/or myelotomy attempts to relieve secondary damage by completelyrelieving the compression of the spinal cord, removing the necrotic tissue, decreasing edema, reducing hemorrhage, and improving blood circulation in the spinal cord. However, it is controversial whether durotomy and/or myelotomy after spinal cord injury are beneficial to neurological recovery. This review compares the clinical effects of durotomy with those of myelotomy in the treatment of spinal cord injury. We found that durotomy has been performed more than myelotomy in the clinic, and that durotomy may be safer and more effective than myelotomy. Durotomy performed in humans had positive effects on neurological function in 92.3% of studies in this review, while durotomy in animals had positive effects on neurological function in 83.3% of studies. Myelotomy procedures were effective in 80% of animal studies, but only one clinical study of myelotomy has reported positive results, of motor and sensory improvement, in humans. However, a number of new animal studies have reported that durotomy and myelotomy are ineffective for spinal cord injury. More clinical data, in the form of a randomized controlled study, are needed to understand the effectiveness of durotomy and myelotomy.

20.
Food Chem ; 320: 126606, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203831

RESUMO

Chinese traditional hand-stretched dried noodle is very popular in China for its unique taste and flavor quality, and NaCl plays a vital role in its processing. The effects of NaCl (1%-6%, w/w) on rheological and gluten properties of dough of Chinese traditional hand-stretched dried noodle were studied. The addition of NaCl (1%-4% w/w) enhanced storage modulus, loss modulus and extensibility of dough, while these rheological parameters started to decreased when NaCl amount reached 5% (w/w). With salt addition increased from 0% to 6% (w/w), the solubility of gluten in SDS medium showed a significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trend, while opposite result was found on the yield and G' of gluten macro polymer. These changes on gluten indicated that the interaction among gluten molecules increased with the increase of salt amount. Excessive salt (5%-6%, w/w) disrupted the gluten network, which was responsible for the reduction of dynamic and extensional properties.

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