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1.
FASEB J ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190300

RESUMO

Food withdrawal is usually used for accurate feed metabolizable energy (ME) assessment in poultry, but its effects on intestinal structure and the absorption of nutrients are unclear. In this study, broilers were fed ad libitum (CT) or withdrew food for 12 (FH12), 24 (FH24), 36 (FH36), or 48 hours (FH48). We showed that food withdrawal increased the energy assimilation when compared with the CT. Food withdrawal improved the digestibility of ether extract and the level of lipid substances and fatty acid-derived ß-hydroxybutyrate in serum. Compared to the CT, food withdrawal did not influence the digestibility of starch. Due to 12 hours or longer food withdrawal duration increased glutamate oxidation and uric acid excretion, the analyzed digestibility of crude protein was underestimated, although the upregulated amino acid transporter genes. In addition, histological analysis showed that short-term food withdrawal (12 hours) increased intestinal villus height, crypt depth, and proliferative cell, whereas prolonged food withdrawal (more than 24 hours) impaired villus structure due to the decreased cell proliferation. Moreover, proteomics analysis revealed upregulated pathways in birds withdrawn food for 36 hours involved in nutrient absorption and amino acid oxidation. In conclusion, food withdrawal changes nutrient absorption and utilization, especially for amino acid and ether extract, and results in increased ME. Both glutamate oxidation and fatty acid incomplete oxidation are involved in energy supply after refeeding. In contrast to short-term food withdrawal, prolonged food withdrawal impairs the intestinal structure and villus renewal. Our findings deserve attention from nutritionists who are analyzing food digestibility.

2.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(11): 2976-2985, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170617

RESUMO

Linaridins are members of the ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) family of natural products. Five linaridins have been reported, which are defined by the presence of dehydrobutyrine, a dehydrated, alkene-containing amino acid derived from threonine. This work describes the development of a linaridin-specific scoring module for Rapid ORF Description and Evaluation Online (RODEO), a genome-mining tool tailored toward RiPP discovery. Upon mining publicly accessible genomes available in the NCBI database, RODEO identified 561 (382 nonredundant) linaridin biosynthetic gene clusters. Linaridin BGCs with unique gene architectures and precursor sequences markedly different from previous predictions were uncovered during these efforts. To aid in data set validation, two new linaridins, pegvadin A and B, were detected through reactivity-based screening and isolated from Streptomyces noursei and Streptomyces auratus, respectively. Reactivity-based screening involves the use of a probe that chemoselectively modifies an organic functional group present in the natural product. The dehydrated amino acids present in linaridins as α/ß-unsaturated carbonyls were appropriate electrophiles for nucleophilic 1,4-addition using a thiol-functionalized probe. The data presented within significantly expand the number of predicted linaridin biosynthetic gene clusters and serve as a roadmap for future work in the area. The combination of bioinformatics and reactivity-based screening is a powerful approach to accelerate natural product discovery.

3.
ACS Chem Biol ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249828

RESUMO

Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a family of natural products defined by a genetically encoded precursor peptide that is processed by associated biosynthetic enzymes to form the mature product. Lasso peptides are a class of RiPP defined by an isopeptide linkage between the N-terminal amine and an internal Asp/Glu residue with the C-terminal sequence threaded through the macrocycle. This unique lariat topology, which typically provides considerable stability toward heat and proteases, has stimulated interest in lasso peptides as potential therapeutics. Post-translational modifications beyond the class-defining, threaded macrolactam have been reported, including one example of Arg deimination to yield citrulline (Cit). Although a Cit-containing lasso peptide (i.e., citrulassin) was serendipitously discovered during a genome-guided campaign, the gene(s) responsible for Arg deimination has remained unknown. Herein, we describe the use of reactivity-based screening to discriminate bacterial strains that produce Arg- versus Cit-bearing citrulassins, yielding 13 new lasso peptide variants. Partial phylogenetic profiling identified a distally encoded peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) gene ubiquitous to the Cit-containing variants. Absence of this gene correlated strongly with lasso peptide variants only containing Arg (i.e., des-citrulassin). Heterologous expression of the PAD gene in a des-citrulassin producer resulted in the production of the deiminated analog, confirming PAD involvement in Arg deimination. The PADs were then bioinformatically surveyed to provide a deeper understanding of their taxonomic distribution and genomic contexts and to facilitate future studies that will evaluate any additional biochemical roles for the superfamily.

4.
J Genet Genomics ; 47(3): 157-165, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327358

RESUMO

Indole-3-acetamide (IAM) is the first confirmed auxin biosynthetic intermediate in some plant pathogenic bacteria. Exogenously applied IAM or production of IAM by overexpressing the bacterial iaaM gene in Arabidopsis causes auxin overproduction phenotypes. However, it is still inconclusive whether plants use IAM as a key precursor for auxin biosynthesis. Herein, we reported the isolation IAMHYDROLASE1 (IAMH1) gene in Arabidopsis from a forward genetic screen for IAM-insensitive mutants that display normal auxin sensitivities. IAMH1 has a close homolog named IAMH2 that is located right next to IAMH1 on chromosome IV in Arabidopsis. We generated iamh1 iamh2 double mutants using our CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. We showed that disruption of the IAMH genes rendered Arabidopsis plants resistant to IAM treatments and also suppressed the iaaM overexpression phenotypes, suggesting that IAMH1 and IAMH2 are the main enzymes responsible for converting IAM into indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Arabidopsis. The iamh double mutants did not display obvious developmental defects, indicating that IAM does not play a major role in auxin biosynthesis under normal growth conditions. Our findings provide a solid foundation for clarifying the roles of IAM in auxin biosynthesis and plant development.

5.
Biomolecules ; 10(4)2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225015

RESUMO

: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm) may induce photobiological stress in plants, activate the plant defense system, and induce changes of metabolites. In our previous work, we found that between the two Astragalus varieties prescribed by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Astragalus mongholicus has better tolerance to UV-B. Thus, it is necessary to study the metabolic strategy of Astragalus under UV-B radiation further. In the present study, we used untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS techniques) to investigate the profiles of primary and secondary metabolic. The profiles revealed the metabolic response of Astragalus to UV-B radiation. We then used real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to obtain the transcription level of relevant genes under UV-B radiation (UV-B supplemented in the field, λmax = 313 nm, 30 W, lamp-leaf distance = 60 cm, 40 min·day-1), which annotated the responsive mechanism of phenolic metabolism in roots. Our results indicated that supplemental UV-B radiation induced a stronger shift from carbon assimilation to carbon accumulation. The flux through the phenylpropanoids pathway increased due to the mobilization of carbon reserves. The response of metabolism was observed to be significantly tissue-specific upon the UV-B radiation treatment. Among phenolic compounds, C6C1 carbon compounds (phenolic acids in leaves) and C6C3C6 carbon compounds (flavones in leaves and isoflavones in roots) increased at the expense of C6C3 carbon compounds. Verification experiments show that the response of phenolics in roots to UV-B is activated by upregulation of relevant genes rather than phenylalanine. Overall, this study reveals the tissues-specific alteration and mechanism of primary and secondary metabolic strategy in response to UV-B radiation.

6.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1462-1470, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115032

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation with nicotinamide (NAM) and sodium butyrate (BA) on meat quality and expression of muscle development genes in broilers reared at a high stocking density. A total of 567, 21-day-old AA broilers were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups and 2 control groups, with 7 replicates of each group. The control groups included a low stocking density (LD; 12.9 birds/m2) and were fed a basal diet. The treatment groups were kept at a high stocking density (HD; 18.6 birds/m2) and received either a low dose of NAM (50 mg/kg; treatment LN), a high dose of NAM (100 mg/kg; treatment HN), a low dose of BA (500 mg/kg; treatment LB), a high dose of BA (1,000 mg/kg; treatment HB), or a compound supplement (50 mg/kg NAM+500 mg/kg BA; treatment COMB); broilers were reared till 42 D of age. The control groups were kept at HD or at LD (12.9 birds/m2) and were fed a basal diet. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the HD control group than that in the LD group; this ratio was significantly lower in treatments LN, HN, HB, and COMB than that in the HD control group. The lightness of breast muscles at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter was significantly higher in the HD group than that in the LD group, and the HD group showed the highest drip loss at 24 h and 48 h. Lightness and drip loss were lower in the HN, LB, and COMB treatments than those in the HD group. HD rearing significantly reduced gene expression of myogenic regulatory factor 5 (MYF5) while significantly increased expression of the protein ubiquitin degradation genes FBXO9, FBXO22, and FBXO32. All treatments significantly reduced FBXO9 and FBXO32 expression. Our results suggest dietary supplementation with NAM and BA can improve meat quality of broilers under high stocking density by upregulating the expression of myogenic genes, and inhibiting protein ubiquitination.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Carne/análise , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Músculos Peitorais/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ubiquitinação
7.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 245(8): 690-702, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216463

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: In order to reveal potential genotype-phenotype relationship, RT-qPCR reactions are frequently applied which require validated and reliable reference genes. With the investigation on long-term passage and fed-batch cultivation of CHO cells producing an Fc-fusion protein, four new reference genes-Akr1a1, Gpx1, Aprt, and Rps16, were identified from 20 candidates with the aid of geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt programs and methods. This article provided more verified options in reference gene selection in related research on CHO cells.

8.
J Exp Bot ; 71(6): 1943-1955, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858133

RESUMO

Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) is responsible for the maturation and activation of vacuolar proteins in plants. We found that ßVPE was involved in tapetal degradation and pollen development by transforming proproteases into mature protease in Arabidopsis thaliana. ßVPE was expressed specifically in the tapetum from stages 5 to 8 of anther development. The ßVPE protein first appeared as a proenzyme and was transformed into the mature enzyme before stages 7-8. The recombinant ßVPE protein self-cleaved and transformed into a 27 kDa mature protein at pH 5.2. The mature ßVPE protein could induce the maturation of CEP1 in vitro. ßvpe mutants exhibited delayed vacuolar degradation and decreased pollen fertility. The maturation of CEP1, RD19A, and RD19C was seriously inhibited in ßvpe mutants. Our results indicate that ßVPE is a crucial processing enzyme that directly participates in the maturation of cysteine proteases before vacuolar degradation, and is indirectly involved in pollen development and tapetal cell degradation.

9.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7081-7090, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670358

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density and dietary nicotinamide (NAM) and butyrate sodium (BA) supplementation on the growth performance, liver mitochondrial function and gut microbiota of broilers at high stocking density. A total of 342, 26-d-old Cobb500 broilers were divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates. Treatments were as follows: (a) Low stocking density (L, 9 birds per cage); (b) High stocking density (H, 12 birds per cage); (c) H + 50 ppm NAM; (d) H + 500 ppm BA; (e) H + 50 ppm NAM + 500 ppm BA (COMB). The results showed that high stocking density significantly reduced the feed intake and body weight gain of broilers, while COMB improved the growth performance at high stocking density. High stocking density significantly reduced the liver metallothionein content, liver mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase. In contrast, the liver metallothionein contents in the NAM, BA and COMB fed group were higher than those in the H group. COMB increased the activity of ATPase as well, but it failed to enhance the mitochondrial membrane potential. Stocking density also affected gut microbiota of broilers. The high-density group increased the relative abundance of Blautia. Supplementation of BA and NAM increased the abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of NAM and BA can improve the performance, antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial function and intestinal microbiota of broilers at high stocking density.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
10.
Oncol Lett ; 18(4): 4136-4143, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516612

RESUMO

Quickly-pulse-to-pulse (Q-PTP) is the latest dual pulse mode Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet [QS Nd:YAG (QSNY)] laser technology that improves efficacy and minimizes side effects. In this study, the safety, efficacy, and advantages of Q-PTP and single-pulse laser mode of 1064-nm QSNY in the treatment of melasma were compared. Twelve healthy women were enrolled in this split-face study. Q-PTP and single-pulse laser mode of 1064-nm QSNY were applied to the treatment side and the control side, respectively. Physician's global assessment, patients' self-assessment and the modified melasma area and severity index (mMASI) scores were used to quantify pigmentation changes. Side effects were recorded. Mean mMASI scores were decreased significantly at the 4th and 12th-week follow-up visit compared to the baseline. Melasma lesion clearance was more than 50% in 58% of patients compared with the baseline. However, both sides of the same patient showed similar therapeutic effect. Minor pain experience and slighter skin erythema reaction were reported in Q-PTP laser mode treatment side compared with the control. No serious complications were found in any of the patients. Q-PTP laser mode of 1064-nm QSNY is an optimal laser therapy in the treatment of melasma with greater safety and superiority.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337083

RESUMO

Histone acetylation and deacetylation play essential roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. HD2 (HD-tuins) proteins were previously identified as plant-specific histone deacetylases. In this study, we investigated the function of the HDT1 gene in the formation of stem vascular tissue in Arabidopsis thaliana. The height and thickness of the inflorescence stems in the hdt1 mutant was lower than that of wild-type plants. Paraffin sections showed that the cell number increased compared to the wild type, while transmission electron microscopy showed that the size of individual tracheary elements and fiber cells significantly decreased in the hdt1 mutant. In addition, the cell wall thickness of tracheary elements and fiber cells increased. We also found that the lignin content in the stem of the hdt1 mutants increased compared to that of the wild type. Transcriptomic data revealed that the expression levels of many biosynthetic genes related to secondary wall components, including cellulose, lignin biosynthesis, and hormone-related genes, were altered, which may lead to the altered phenotype in vascular tissue of the hdt1 mutant. These results suggested that HDT1 is involved in development of the vascular tissue of the stem by affecting cell proliferation and differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Caules de Planta/genética , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/metabolismo , Xilema/citologia , Xilema/genética , Xilema/metabolismo
12.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(6)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248121

RESUMO

The significant advance of power electronics in today's market is calling for high-performance power conversion systems and MEMS devices that can operate reliably in harsh environments, such as high working temperature. Silicon-carbide (SiC) power electronic devices are featured by the high junction temperature, low power losses, and excellent thermal stability, and thus are attractive to converters and MEMS devices applied in a high-temperature environment. This paper conducts an overview of high-temperature power electronics, with a focus on high-temperature converters and MEMS devices. The critical components, namely SiC power devices and modules, gate drives, and passive components, are introduced and comparatively analyzed regarding composition material, physical structure, and packaging technology. Then, the research and development directions of SiC-based high-temperature converters in the fields of motor drives, rectifier units, DC-DC converters are discussed, as well as MEMS devices. Finally, the existing technical challenges facing high-temperature power electronics are identified, including gate drives, current measurement, parameters matching between each component, and packaging technology.

13.
Appl Opt ; 58(7): 1606-1613, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874191

RESUMO

Vibrometry using optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide valuable information for investigating either the mechanical properties or the physiological function of biological tissues, especially the hearing organs. Real-time imaging of the measured tissues provides structure imaging and spatial guidance for and is thus highly demanded by such vibrometry. However, the traditional time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) systems, although capable of subnanometric vibrometry at large ranges of frequencies, are unable to offer an imaging speed that is high enough to acquire depth-resolved images for guidance. The spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) systems, although allowing image-guided vibrometry, are challenged in measuring vibration at high frequencies, particularly for scattering tissue specimens that require longer exposure time to ensure imaging and vibrometry performance. This is because of their limit in the line-scan rate of the CCD, in which the maximum resolvable frequency measured by the SD-OCT is about 1/4 of the CCD line-scan rate in practice. In the present study, we have developed a dual-mode OCT system combining both SD-OCT and TD-OCT modalities for image-guided vibrometry, as the SD-OCT can provide guiding structural images in real-time and, moreover, the TD-OCT can guarantee vibrometry at large ranges of frequencies, including high frequencies. The efficacy of the developed system in image-guided vibrometry has been experimentally demonstrated using both piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) and ex vivo middle-ear samples from guinea pigs. For the vibrometry of PZT, the minimum detectable vibration amplitude was reached at ∼0.01 nm. For the vibrometry of the sound-evoked biological samples, both real-time two-dimensional imaging and subnanometric vibrometry were performed at the frequency ranging from 1 to 40 kHz. These results indicate that our dual-mode OCT system is able to act as an excellent vibrometer enabling image-guided high-frequency measurement.

14.
Molecules ; 23(8)2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127238

RESUMO

Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Maxim.) Harms (ASH) and Acanthopanax sessiliflorus (Rupr. Maxim.) Seem (ASS), are members of the Araliaceae family, and both are used in Asian countries. These herbals have drawn much attention in recent years due to their strong biological activity, with innocuity and little side effects. However, the common and distinct mode of compound profiles between ASH and ASS is still unclear. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was developed to simultaneously quantify the seven major active compounds, including protocatechuate, eleutheroside B, eleutheroside E, isofraxidin, hyperoside, kaempferol and oleanolic acid. Then the targeted metabolomics were conducted to identify 19 phenolic compounds, with tight relation to the above mentioned active compounds, including nine C6C3C6-type, six C6C3-type and four C6C1-type in the two Acanthopanax species studied here. The results showed that the seven active compounds presented a similar trend of changes in different tissues, with more abundant accumulation in roots and stems for both plants. From the view of plant species, the ASH plants possess higher abundance of compounds, especially in the tissues of roots and stems. For phenolics, the 19 phenols detected here could be clearly grouped into five main clusters based on their tissue-specific accumulation patterns. Roots are the tissue for the most abundance of their accumulations. C6C3C6-type compounds are the most widely existing type in both plants. In conclusion, the tissue- and species-specificity in accumulation of seven active compounds and phenolics were revealed in two Acanthopanax species.


Assuntos
Araliaceae/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Benzopiranos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 157: 266-275, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626640

RESUMO

Cd(II) is one of the most widespread and toxic heavy metals and seriously threatens plant growth, furthermore negatively affecting human health. For survival from this metal stress, plants always fight with Cd(II) toxicity by themselves or using other external factors. The effects of second metals copper (Cu(II)), zinc (Zn(II)) and calcium (Ca(II)) on the Cd(II)-affected root morphology, Cd(II) translocation and metabolic responses in Catharanthus roseus were investigated under hydroponic conditions. We found that the Cd-stressed plants displayed the browning and rot root symptom, excess H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation and Cd(II) accumulation in plants. However, the supplement with second metals largely alleviated Cd-induced toxicity, including browning and rot roots, oxidative stress and internal Cd(II) accumulation. The amended effects at metabolic and transcriptional levels involved in different second metals share either common or divergent strategies. They commonly repressed Cd uptake and promoted Cd(II) translocation from roots to shoots with divergent mechanisms. High Zn(II) could activate MTs expression in roots, while Cu(II) or Ca(II) did not under Cd(II) stress condition. The presence of Ca(II) under Cd stress condition largely initiated occurrence of lateral roots. We then grouped a metabolic diagram integrating terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) accumulation and TIA pathway gene expression to elucidate the metabolic response of C. roseus to Cd(II) alone or combined with second metals. The treatment with 100 Cd(II) alone largely promoted accumulation of vinblastine, vindoline, catharanthine and loganin, whereas depressed or little changed the expression levels of genes detected here, compared to 0 Cd(II) control. In the presence of Cd(II), the supplement with second metals displayed specific effect on different alkaloid. Among them, the metal Ca(II) is especially beneficial for serpentine accumulation, Zn(II) mainly promoted tabersonine production. However, the addition of Cu(II) commonly depressed accumulation of most alkaloids detected here. Generally, we presented different mechanisms by which the second metals used to alleviate Cd (II) toxicity. This plant has potential application in phytoremediation of Cd(II), due to relatively substantial accumulation of biomass, as well as secondary metabolites TIAs used as pharmaceutical materials when facing Cd stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cálcio/farmacologia , Catharanthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/farmacologia , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649754

RESUMO

Astragalus is one of the most popular Chinese herbal. Control of Astragalus quantity is most important, since that various varieties and ages largely affect bioactive metabolites and different pharmacological effects. Astragalus mongholicus and Astragalus membranaceus are both major sources of Astragalus according to the provisions in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Thus, a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of l-Phenylalanine, Isoliquiritigenin, Liquiritigenin, Daidzein, Formononetin, Ononin, Calycosin, Calycosin-7-glucoside, Cycloastragenol, Astragaloside I, Astragaloside II, Astragaloside III and Astragaloside IV was established in this study. The detection was accomplished by MRM scanning in the positive ionization mode. Calibration curves offered linear ranges with r2 > 0.999. The method was successfully validated for the linearity, intra-day and inter day precisions, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Then this method was successfully applied to detect the contents of 13 target flavonoids and triterpenoids metabolites in different organs and ages of A. mongholicus and A. membranaceus. Significant organs-, ages- and varieties- specificity of the 13 target metabolites were observed and discussed. The results provided basis and support for further exploration of the distribution of bioactive metabolites, namely flavonoids and triterpenoids, in different organs and ages of two Astragalus varieties. This method should be applicable to various Astragalus matrices for the quantitative analysis of the target flavonoids and triterpenoids.


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triterpenos/análise , Flavonoides/química , Modelos Lineares , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Triterpenos/química
17.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(15): 1863-1866, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156967

RESUMO

In this study, we examined Vicia seeds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The metabolic differences of seeds of twelve Vicia species were assessed. 184 metabolites were identified. Vicia species were classified via multivariate data analyses into four clusters. V. unijuga was most enriched in fatty acids and anthraquinones contents while highest levels of amino acids, alcohols and phenolic were in V. costata. Clustering analysis of biochemical profiles matched with the pervious phenotypic observation with all examined species from section Cracca grouped together under one sub-cluster, except for V. costata.


Assuntos
Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vicia/metabolismo , Álcoois/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Antraquinonas/análise , China , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Vicia/química
18.
Biomed Opt Express ; 8(4): 2036-2054, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28736654

RESUMO

In this work, we used a short coherence digital holographic microscopy system to demonstrate cross-talk noise suppression and imaging performance enhancement by optical clearing. Performance of the system on both phantom and in vitro porcine skin tissues before and after the treatment of 70% v./v. glycerol-saline solution was investigated. Our results showed that optical clearing effectively inhibits the cross-talk noise and improves the image quality in the deep of the in vitro porcine skin tissues. The imaging depth was increased by about 30% after topical application of the glycerol-saline solution for 30 min.

19.
Molecules ; 22(6)2017 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629120

RESUMO

Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids. We subjected these metabolites into KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and highlighted 27 metabolic pathways, concentrated on the TCA cycle, glycometabolism, oligosaccharides, and polyol and lipid transporter (RFOS). Among the primary metabolites, trehalose, raffinose, digalacturonic acid and gallic acid were revealed to be the most significant marker compounds between the two plants, presumably contributing to species-specific phenotypic and metabolic discrepancy. The profiling of nine typical alkaloids in both plants using LC-MS method highlighted higher levels of crucial terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) intermediates of loganin, serpentine, and tabersonine in V. minor than in C. roseus. The possible underlying process of the metabolic flux from primary metabolism pathways to TIA synthesis was discussed and proposed. Generally speaking, this work provides a full-scale comparison of primary and secondary metabolites between two medical plants and a metabolic explanation of their TIA accumulation and phenotype differences.


Assuntos
Catharanthus/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Vinca/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 3708187, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314017

RESUMO

We selected different concentrations of ethephon, to stress C. roseus. We used qRT-PCR and HPLC followed by PCA to obtain comprehensive profiling of the vinblastine biosynthesis in response to ethephon. Based on our findings, the results showed that the high concentration of ethephon had a positive effect at both transcriptional and metabolite level. Meanwhile, there was a remarkable decrease of hydrogen peroxide content and a promoted peroxidase activity in leaves. The loading plot combination with correlation analysis suggested that CrPrx1 could be regarded as a positive regulator and interacts with ethylene response factor (ERF) to play a key role in vinblastine content and peroxidase (POD) activity. This study provides the foundation for a better understanding of the regulation and accumulation of vinblastine in response to ethephon.


Assuntos
Catharanthus/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Vimblastina/metabolismo , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Etilenos/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Vimblastina/análise
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