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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240075

RESUMO

A new duck Tembusu-related flavivirus, Baiyangdian virus (BYDV), caused duck egg-drop syndrome in China. The rapid spread, unknown transmission routes, and zoonotic nature, raise serious concern about BYDV as a potential threat to human health. The study provides the first evaluation on the vector competence of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes to transmit BYDV in China. The results show that Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pipiens pallens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Aedes albopictus can become infected with BYD-1 virus (BYDV-1) on different days after oral infection. Although the viral copies in Ae. albopictus was higher than that in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus at 13 days postinfection (χ2 = 10.385, p = 0.016), there was no significant differences between infection rates of four mosquito species (χ2 = 3.98, p = 0.137). In transmission experiment, healthy ducks were infected after being bitten by virus-positive mosquitoes and BYDV-1 disseminated to and replicated in the duck brains. These findings verified the potential role of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus as vectors of BYDV-1. BYDV-1 was also detected in salivary gland of Cx. p. pallens, which indicated that this virus could be transmitted by mosquitoes. These results provide evidence for the role of Culex mosquitoes in the transmission cycles involving BYDV-1 and avian hosts in China.

2.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249887

RESUMO

Biomimetic materials are attracting increasing attention in the field of drug delivery due to their low immunogenicity, good biocompatibility and degradability. Furthermore, the modification of endogenous species on the surfaces of biomimetic materials can generate new biomedical functions. A real-time understanding of the drug-release behavior, especially in vivo, can provide reliable information for drug activation and distribution. Herein, we describe a theranostics system caged in human serum albumin (HSA) as a therapy against breast tumors. The prodrug of a drug-dye conjugate (DDC) was successfully covalently linked into HSA via a disulfide-exchange reaction to give a high drug-loading rate. The drug-release and fluorescence recovery curves are in good agreement, allowing the drug-release kinetics to be monitored by a non-invasive fluorescence signal in real time. A disintegration mechanism triggered by GSH was suggested. The DDC@HSA particles show tumor-targeting capability, and good antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Hopefully, this strategy can provide a generalizable novel approach for the facile encapsulation of drugs for engaging HSA, paving the way for precision diagnosis and therapy in preclinical trials.

3.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 37(1): 308-315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228185

RESUMO

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been clinically used as a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of many solid tumors. However, the current imaging techniques have some shortages in RFA guidance, especially for the assessment of the margin of ablation. Herein, we developed a novel optical imaging platform to guide RFA utilizing fluorescence resonance energy transfer from a thermally sensitive fluorescent protein conjugated to a near-infrared fluorescent dye. Additionally, attaching receptor-targeting ligands further equipped the system with high specificity to tumors overexpressing the targeted receptor.

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 526(1): 70-77, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192769

RESUMO

Genetic alterations can drive carcinogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that gene fusion is associated with cancer progression and could provide valuable biomarkers for clinical diagnosis or targets for cancer therapy. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare form of adenocarcinoma, characterized by frequent local recurrence and high rates of distant metastasis, ultimately resulting in low survival rates. Owing to the lack of effective therapeutic targets and limited biomarkers for diagnosis, a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of ACC is urgently needed. Here, we show that gene fusion is associated with ACC metastasis. We identified a metastasis suppressor KISS1 fused with a close-by gene, GOLT1A, in highly metastatic ACC cell lines and human specimens. Such fusion blocks KISS1 translation, but not transcription, by introducing 5' upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the GOLT1A-KISS1 fusion transcript. Deletion of these uORFs rescued KISS1 expression and reduced invasion and migration of metastatic ACC cells. We also detected GOLT1A-KISS1 fusion transcripts in other types of highly metastatic cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results highlight the significance of this novel GOLT1A-KISS1 gene fusion in tumor metastasis and provide a valuable biomarker for clinical diagnosis and future therapeutic targeting of ACC.

5.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(4): L787-L800, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129084

RESUMO

Clinical studies have established that the capacity of removing excess fluid from alveoli is impaired in most patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Impaired alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) correlates with poor outcomes. Adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) has the lowest affinity with adenosine among four adenosine receptors. It is documented that A2BAR can activate adenylyl cyclase (AC) resulting in elevated cAMP. Based on the understanding that cAMP is a key regulator of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which is the limited step in sodium transport, we hypothesized that A2BAR signaling may affect AFC in acute lung injury (ALI) through regulating ENaC via cAMP, thus attenuating pulmonary edema. To address this, we utilized pharmacological approaches to determine the role of A2BAR in AFC in rats with endotoxin-induced lung injury and further focused on the mechanisms in vitro. We observed elevated pulmonary A2BAR level in rats with ALI and the similar upregulation in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to LPS. A2BAR stimulation significantly attenuated pulmonary edema during ALI, an effect that was associated with enhanced AFC and increased ENaC expression. The regulatory effects of A2BAR on ENaC-α expression were further verified in cultured alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells. More importantly, activation of A2BAR dramatically increased amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents in ATII cells. Moreover, we observed that A2BAR activation stimulated cAMP accumulation, whereas the cAMP inhibitor abolished the regulatory effect of A2BAR on ENaC-α expression, suggesting that A2BAR activation regulates ENaC-α expression via cAMP-dependent mechanism. Together, these findings suggest that signaling through alveolar epithelial A2BAR promotes alveolar fluid balance during endotoxin-induced ALI by regulating ENaC via cAMP pathway, raising the hopes for treatment of pulmonary edema due to ALI.

6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 301-313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021181

RESUMO

Purpose: Multifunctional drug delivery systems (DDS) are emerging as a new strategy to highly treat malignant tumors. The aim of this study is to develop a drug dual-carriers delivery system (DDDS) using the natural protein ferritin (FRT) and a nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) as dual-carriers. Methods: The FRT is a pH-sensitive hollow cage protein with disassembly and reassembly properties and the NGO has a large surface area and a photothermal effect by which it can load and release drugs under near-infrared irradiation (NIR). Due to these unique features, the NGO loaded the anticancer drug resveratrol (RSV) and the conjugated mitochondrion targeted molecule IR780 as IR780-NGO-RSV (INR), the first drug delivery platform. Next, the INR was capsulated by FRT to form the DDDS INR@FRT which was applied for synergistic photothermal-chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. Results: Through a series of characterizations, INR@FRT showed a uniform nanosphere structure and remarkable stability in physiological condition. Heat/pH 5.0 was confirmed to trigger RSV release from the INR@FRT. After taken up by cells, INR@FRT located to the lysosomes where the acidic environment triggered INR release. INR targeted the mitochondrion and released RSV to directly react with organelles, which in turn decreased the mitochondrion membrane potential and caused cell apoptosis. In-vivo experiments showed that INR@FRT combined with NIR irradiation displayed remarkable tumor suppression with a high survival rate after 60 days of treatment. Finally, the biocompatibility of INR@FRT was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These results highlight the immense potential of INR@FRT as a type of DDDS for the treatment of tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Indóis/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Ferritinas/química , Grafite/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/química , Raios Infravermelhos , Camundongos Nus , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/farmacocinética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105343, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954135

RESUMO

The odorant receptors (ORs) play a critical role for mosquitoes in the identification of blood-feeding hosts and other physiological processes. The OR8 subfamily in mosquitoes has been shown to be strongly involved in the detection the mammalian host associated odor, 1-octen-3-ol. CquiOR114/117 has been shown to be an orthologous OR8 in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. In this study, the expression of CquiOR114/117 in the different developmental stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus was detected by the amplification of CquiOR114/117 with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to interfere with the expression of CquiOR114/117 in females to observe the blood-feeding behavior change. The results showed that the expression level of CquiOR114/117 in the egg-to-pupa stage was significantly lower than that in the adult stage and that the expression level of the female mosquitoes peaked on the third day after emergence. The expression of CquiOR114/117 was significantly decreased in the 2-6 days after the injection of dsRNA compared with the control groups. The analysis of the blood-feeding behavior showed a significant positive correlation between CquiOR114/117 expression and the engorgement rate of the mosquitoes. CquiOR114/117 is speculated to have an effect on the blood-feeding behavior of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

8.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(5): 374-379, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934825

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Aedes albopictus is widely distributed in China. However, little is known about the vector competence of Ae. albopictus in China. The present study presents the oral susceptibility and vector competence of Ae. albopictus Guangzhou strain to ZIKV. Additionally, vertical transmission of ZIKV is described. The results demonstrated the susceptibility of local Ae. albopictus mosquitoes to ZIKV with an extrinsic incubation period of 6 days. Disseminated infection was observed in Ae. albopictus starting on day 2 postinfection (PI). Starting on day 6 PI, the saliva of Ae. albopictus exhibited ZIKV infection, and the transmission rate was 36.4%. Vertical transmission was observed during the first gonotrophic cycle. The minimum infection rate was observed in third-to-fourth instar larvae.

9.
Waste Manag ; 102: 884-899, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837554

RESUMO

Large amounts of organic wastes, which pose a severe threat to the environment, can be thermally pyrolyzed to produce biochar. Biochar has many potential uses owing to its unique physicochemical properties and attracts increasing attentions. Therefore, this review focuses on the agronomic functions of biochar used as compost additives and soil amendments. As a compost additive, biochar provides multiple benefits including improving composting performance and humification process, enhancing microbial activities, reducing greenhouse gas and NH4 emissions, immobilizing heavy metals and organic pollutants. As a soil amendment, biochar shows a good performance in improving soil properties and plant growth, alleviating drought and salinity stresses, interacting with heavy metals and organic pollutants and changing their fate of being uptaken from soils to plants. Furthermore, combined application of biochar and compost shows a good performance and a high agricultural value when applied to soils. Objectively and undeniably, there are still negative or ineffective cases of biochar amendment on crop yield and heavy metal immobilization, which is worthy of further attention. The medium-long term field monitoring of biochar-specific agricultural functions, as well as the exploration of wider sources for biochar feedstocks, are still needed.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Solo
10.
Eur Radiol ; 30(3): 1747-1754, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare non-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NE-MRA) between 1.5 and 3.0-T using a balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence in the assessment of renal artery stenosis (RAS) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as a reference standard. METHODS: From March 2016 to May 2018, 81 patients suspected to have significant RAS were scheduled for DSA. All patients underwent NE-MRA at either 1.5 T or 3.0 T randomly before DSA. In total, 49 patients underwent 1.5-T NE-MRA, and 32 patients underwent 3.0-T NE-MRA. Image quality was assessed. Degree of stenosis evaluated with NE-MRA was compared with that with DSA. RESULTS: NE-MRA provided excellent image qualities for segment 1 and segment 2 at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Image qualities for segment 3 and segment 4 and the degree of renal artery branches were significantly higher at 3.0 T than at 1.5 T (p < 0.01). Stenoses evaluated with NE-MRA at 1.5 T (r = 0.853, p < 0.01) and 3.0 T (r = 0.811, p < 0.01) were highly correlated with those of DSA. The Bland-Altman plots showed overestimated degrees of stenosis at 1.5 T (mean bias, 3.5% ± 20.4) and 3.0 T (mean bias, 8.4% ± 21.7). The sensitivity and specificity for significant stenosis were 97.4% and 89.8% for 1.5 T and 95.7% and 91.1% for 3.0 T. CONCLUSIONS: Both 1.5-T and 3.0-T bSSFP NE-MRA can reliably assess RAS, with high image quality and good diagnostic accuracy. Performing NE-MRA at 3.0 T significantly improved visualization of renal artery branches but showed greater tendency to overestimate stenosis compared with that at 1.5 T. KEY POINTS: • Both 1.5-T and 3.0-T NE-MRA provide excellent image quality and good diagnostic accuracy for RAS. • NE-MRA at 3.0 T improved visualization of renal artery branches compared with that at 1.5 T.

11.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(12): 933-944, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184992

RESUMO

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is the major cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. An investigation of mosquito species diversity, JEV infection rate, and seasonal population fluctuations of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Huaihua County, Hunan Province, China, revealed the distribution of vector mosquito populations and genotypes and molecular characteristics of current, common JEV strains in this region. Research on mosquito species diversity in different habitats in Huaihua revealed that local community composition was relatively simple, including five species from four genera (two Culex spp., one Anopheles sp., one Aedes sp., and one Armigeres sp.). Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was clearly the dominant species comprising 94.2-98.6% of all specimens and was always the most common species captured in paddy fields, pigpens, and human dwellings. The seasonal abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was relatively even, with a single seasonal peak in late August. Two Huaihua JEV strains isolated from the mosquito and pig were highly congruent. The genetic affinities were determined by analyzing capsid/premembrane (C/PrM) and envelope (E) gene variation. The results showed that they were of genotype III and most closely related to the live, attenuated vaccine strains SAl4-14-2 and SA14 and JaGAr01. The Huaihua E protein shares high similarity (mosquito 98.8% and pig 97.6%) at the nucleotide level with the SA14-14-2 vaccine. Although we found that the E gene sequences of the Huaihua JEV mosquito strain and pig strain have 11 and 15 amino acid site substitutions compared with the SAl4-14-2 vaccine, key sites that associated with JEV's antigenic activity and neurovirulence were unchanged. The SA14-14-2 vaccine should therefore be effective in preventing JEV infection in the Huaihua region.

12.
Malar J ; 18(1): 164, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors in China and other southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand. Vector control is considered to be the critical measure for malaria control, while the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance caused by long-term use of insecticides, especially pyrethroids, is threatening the successful control of An. sinensis. In order to understand the underlying resistance mechanisms involved and molecular basis, the principal malaria vector, An. sinensis from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, Southeast China, was investigated. METHODS: The adult Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled from multiple sites across Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, and sufficient mosquitoes collected from eleven sites for insecticide susceptibility bioassays. The DIIS4-DIIS6 region of the para-type sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced, then multiple PCR and Taqman assays were used to assess the frequencies of kdr mutations at the target gene. RESULTS: In the present study, most of the adult An. sinensis populations were pyrethroids resistant, which indicated the presence of kdr resistance mutations in the para-type sodium channel gene. Sequence analyses demonstrated the kdr mutation existed at codon 1014 in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. In adult An. sinensis, three mutant types (TTT L1014F, TTC L1014F, and TGT L1014C) of kdr alleles were detected, while no wild type (TTG L1014) was observed. The TTC L1014F mutation was first reported in Anhui province. CONCLUSIONS: The highly polymorphic kdr alleles were observed in all the adult An. sinensis populations, which suggested that in-depth studies are required for carrying on insecticide resistance monitoring and specific resistance mechanisms studying into establish effective long-term malaria vector control program in eastern China.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Anopheles/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas , Polimorfismo Genético , Alelos , Animais , China , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genótipo , Geografia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Piretrinas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
J Med Entomol ; 56(5): 1239-1252, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066895

RESUMO

The Anopheles mosquito Hyrcanus Group is widely distributed geographically across both Palearctic and Oriental regions and comprises 26 valid species. Although the species Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann (1828) is the most common in China and has a low potential vector rank, it has nevertheless long been thought to be an important natural malaria vector within the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. A number of previous research studies have found evidence to support the occurrence of natural hybridization between An. sinensis and Anopheles kleini Rueda, 2005 (a competent malaria vector). We, therefore, collected a sample series of An. sinensis and morphologically similar species across China and undertook ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses in order to assess genetic differentiation (Fst) and gene flow (Nm) amongst different groups. This enabled us to evaluate divergence times between morphologically similar species using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. The results of this study reveal significant genetic similarities between An. sinensis, An. kleini, and Anopheles belenrae Rueda, 2005 and therefore imply that correct molecular identifications will require additional molecular markers. As results also reveal the presence of gene flow between these three species, their taxonomic status will require further work. Data suggest that An. kleini is the most basal of the three species, while An. sinensis and An. belenrae share the closest genetic relationship.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Introgressão Genética , Especiação Genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise
14.
Malar J ; 18(1): 183, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138226

RESUMO

Please be advised that since publication of the original article [1] the authors have flagged that they omitted to provide the up-to-date version of Fig. 1 and, as such, the wrong version of Fig. 1 is present in the article.

15.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(9): 16037-16043, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify independently prognostic gene panel in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-GBM was used as a training set and a test set. GSE13041 was used as a validation set. Survival associated differentially expression genes (DEGs), derived between GBM and normal brain tissue, was obtained using univariate Cox proportional hazards regression model and then was included in a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator penalized Cox proportional hazards regression model. Thus, a 4-gene prognostic panel was developed based on the risk score for each patient in that model. The prognostic role of the 4-gene panel was validated using univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: A total of 686 patients with GBM were included in our study; 724 DEGs was identified, 133 of which was significantly correlated with the overall survival (OS) of patients with GBM. A 4-gene panel including NMB, RTN1, GPC5, and epithelial membrane protein 3 (EMP3) was developed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that patients in the 4-gene panel low risk group had significantly better OS than those in the 4-gene panel high risk group in the training set (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.3826; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2751-0.532; P < 0.0001), test set (HR = 0.718; 95% CI: 0.5282-0.9759; P = 0.033) and the independent validation set (HR = 0.6898; 95% CI: 0.4872-0.9766; P = 0.035). Both univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis suggested that the 4-gene panel was independent prognostic factor for GBM in the training set. CONCLUSION: We developed and validated 4-gene panel that was independently correlated with the survival of patients with GBM.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 661: 48-54, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665131

RESUMO

Recycling of sludge compost to soil as conditioner is generally regarded as the best means of disposal. However, concerns regarding heavy metal residues and sludge toxicity have recently received increasing public attention. Cadmium (Cd) is a mobile metal commonly found in sludge; therefore, the risk posed by Cd contaminated sludge should be carefully assessed. In this report, the effects of addition of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with sludge compost amendment on potential Cd risk were investigated. The results of consecutive two years showed that exchangeable Cd content in treatment of sludge compost with 1.5% HAP decreased by 6.0% compared with single sludge compost treatment, and residual Cd increased by 7.6%. Compared with single sludge compost, the incremental rate of exchangeable Cd dropped by 38.3% and the reductive rate of residual Cd increased by 37.7% in response to 1.5% HAP addition, indicating that HAP played a role of decreasing Cd phytoavailability. The HAP reduced the amount of Cd uptaken by turf-grass in both root and leaf. Moreover, HAP remarkably improved the quality of turf grass grown in amended soil, including leaf greenness, green maintainable period and root strength. However, HAP did not attenuate the downward mobility of Cd. Taken these together, these findings indicated that HAP can be used as a potential candidate to control surface Cd risk of sludge compost amended soil rather than that from leachate.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Durapatita/administração & dosagem , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Compostagem , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 44, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes albopictus is an important vector for dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The midgut is the first barrier to mosquito infection by DENV, and this barrier is a critical factor affecting the vector competence of the mosquito. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between midgut and virus is unknown. RESULTS: Six small libraries of Ae. albopictus midgut RNAs were constructed, three of which from mosquitoes that were infected with DENV-2 after feeding on infected blood, and another three that remained uninfected with DENV-2 after feeding on same batch of infected blood. A total of 46 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified of which 17 significant differentially expressed miRNAs were selected. Compared to microRNA expression profiles of mosquitoes that were uninfected with DENV-2, 15 microRNAs were upregulated and two were downregulated in mosquitoes that were infected with DENV-2. Among these differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-1767, miR-276-3p, miR-4448 and miR-622 were verified by stem-loop qRT-PCR in samples from seven-day-infected and uninfected midguts and chosen for an in vitro transient transfection assay. miR-1767 and miR-276-3p enhanced dengue virus replication in C6/36 cells, and miR-4448 reduced dengue virus replication. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal differences in expression levels between mosquitoes infected and uninfected with DENV-2 after feeding on an infected blood meal. It provides useful information on microRNAs expressed in the midgut of Aedes albopictus after exposure to the virus.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/veterinária , MicroRNAs/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Replicação do DNA , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Replicação Viral
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 662: 501-510, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695750

RESUMO

Aerobic composting is a typical biochemical process of stabilization and harmlessness of organic wastes during which organic matter degrades, and then aggregates, to produce humic substances (HSs). HSs are a core product of-and a crucial indicator of-the maturation of compost that can be used in soil amendments. The formation of HSs is affected by the characteristics of the raw materials involved, the presence of compost additives, microbial activity, temperature, pH, the C/N ratio, moisture content, oxygen content and particle size, all of which can interact with each other. The formation of HSs is therefore complex. Moreover, it is difficult to identify definitive structures of humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs), which are the two major components of HSs. However, HSs represent the same functional groups and structural arrangements, which helps to predict their structures. Functional groups represented by phenol and carboxylic acid groups of HAs and FAs can provide various agronomic functions, such as plant growth enhancement, water and nutrient retention, and disease suppression capacity. Overall, HSs can act as a soil amendment, fertilizer, and plant growth regulator. These functions of HSs enhance the reuse potential of organic waste compost products; however, this requires scientific control of various composting parameters and appropriate application of final products.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Fertilizantes/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Agricultura , Resíduos de Alimentos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
19.
West J Nurs Res ; 41(9): 1254-1269, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453852

RESUMO

The objective of this article is to investigate the effects of intensive patients' education and lifestyle improving program (IPEL) on anxiety, depression, and overall survival (OS) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with anxiety and depression. In all, 224 CAD patients with anxiety and depression were randomly assigned to IPEL or control group. In Stage I, the IPEL group received IPEL and usual care, while the control group only received usual care. In Stage II, patients were further followed up and OS analysis was performed. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-anxiety (HADS-A) and HADS-depression (HADS-D) were used to assess anxiety and depression. IPEL reduced HADS-A score at Month 9 (M9)/M12, and the percentage of anxiety at M12 and HADS-A score changed. IPEL reduced HADS-D score at M12, and the percentage of depression at M12 and HADS-D score changed compared with control. Patients with nonanxiety/nondepression at M12 in the IPEL group showed better OS. IPEL reduces anxiety and depression and improves OS in CAD patients.

20.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(12): 1485-1490, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of the low-affinity A2b adenosine receptors (Adora2b) in pulmonary microvascular endothelial inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide and its mechanism. METHODS: Rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were isolated and cultured in vitro. After serum deprivation for 24 hours, cells were pretreated with Adora2b specific agonist BAY60-6583 (0.1, 1, 10 µmol/L) or Adora2b specific antagonist PSB1115 (1 µmol/L) for 1 hour, respectively, and then challenged with LPS (100 µg/L). Cells without treatment were served as the control group, and those treated with LPS, BAY60-6583 or PSB1115 alone were served as single challenge groups. After incubation with specific drugs for 24 hours, the apoptosis of PMVECs was analyzed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) technique. The levels of early inflammatory factors in cultured medium were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expressions of chemotactic factors and adhesion molecules were determined by real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Polymorph nuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from venous blood of healthy rats were isolated, and PMN migration through PMVECs monolayer under stimulation of drugs was observed in transwell inserts. The monolayer permeability of PMVECs after adhesion of PMNs was determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-albumin assay. Oxidative stress was detected by DCFH-DA assay. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, more cells entered into the apoptosis stage after LPS challenge. Meanwhile, the levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cultured medium were significantly increased, as well as the mRNA expressions of chemotactic factors [C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1), CXCL-3 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)] and adhesion molecules [E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)]. More PMNs migrated through PMVECs following adhesion and the monolayer permeability of PMVECs was rapidly enhanced. The oxidative stress was upregulated. Compared with LPS group, BAY60-6583 pretreatment could dose-dependently decrease the rate of apoptosis, attenuate trans-endothelial migration of PMNs and decrease the endothelial cell barrier leakage. There were significant differences even after incubation of 0.1 µmol/L BAY60-6583 [apoptosis rate: (21.12±2.12)% vs. (27.66±3.57)%, number of migrated PMNs/HP: 260.60±18.24 vs. 290.20±16.48, permeability coefficient (Pd, ×10-6 cm/s): 28.28±2.04 vs. 32.55±2.13, all P < 0.05]. Meanwhile, BAY60-6583 pretreatment also downregulated the levels of early proinflammatory factors in a dose-dependent manner as well as the mRNA expressions of chemotactic factors and adhesion molecules. The statistic difference was significant while treated with 1 µmol/L BAY60-6583 [IL-1ß (ng/L): 475.75±63.15 vs. 755.25±67.42, TNF-α (ng/L): 560.25±69.96 vs. 818.75±60.92, CXCL-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 3.57±0.28 vs. 5.27±0.69, CXCL-3 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 4.56±0.48 vs. 7.32±0.54, MCP-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 2.21±0.31 vs. 3.35±0.21, E-selectin mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 4.64±0.09 vs. 7.28±0.73, ICAM-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 4.14±0.30 vs. 5.89±0.25, VCAM-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 2.23±0.19 vs. 2.92±0.33, all P < 0.05]. Furthermore, pretreatment of 10 µmol/L BAY60-6583 could decrease the oxidative stress [reactive oxygen species (RFU): 629.05±33.10 vs. 781.45±64.59, P < 0.05]. Contrast, PSB1115 pretreatment aggravated apoptosis of PMVECs after LPS incubation [(34.36±4.57)% vs. (27.66±3.57)%], upregulated expressions of proinflammatory and chemotactic factors as well as adhesion molecules [IL-1ß (ng/L): 889.00±63.11 vs. 755.25±67.42, TNF-α (ng/L): 939.00±43.44 vs. 818.75±60.92, CXCL-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 6.66±0.65 vs. 5.27±0.69, CXCL-3 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 10.42±0.51 vs. 7.32±0.54, MCP-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 4.85±0.34 vs. 3.35±0.21, E-selectin mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 8.42±0.47 vs. 7.28±0.73, ICAM-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 7.46±0.72 vs. 5.89±0.25, VCAM-1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 4.35±0.26 vs. 2.92±0.33], aggravated trans-endothelial migration of PMNs (cells/HP: 348.40±22.68 vs. 290.20±16.48), enhanced the leakage of PMVECs monolayer [Pd (×10-6 cm/s): 39.65±2.69 vs. 32.55±2.13] and increased oxidative stress in PMVECs [reactive oxygen species (RFU): 847.04±29.26 vs. 781.45±64.59], with statistically significant difference (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Activation of endothelial Adora2b attenuates LPS-induced pulmonary microvascular inflammation by decreasing the release of early inflammatory factors, downregulating expressions of chemotactic factors and adhesion molecules, attenuating trans-endothelial migration of PMNs and oxidative stress in PMVECs, which suggest endothelial Adora2b is apotential anti-inflammatory target in the treatment of LPS-induced acute lung injury.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Pneumonia , Receptor A2B de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Células Endoteliais , Inflamação , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
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