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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1287, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773106

RESUMO

Understanding the roles of genetic divergence and phenotypic plasticity in adaptation is central to evolutionary biology and important for assessing adaptive potential of species under climate change. Analysis of a chromosome-level assembly and resequencing of individuals across wide latitude distribution in the estuarine oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) revealed unexpectedly low genomic diversity and population structures shaped by historical glaciation, geological events and oceanographic forces. Strong selection signals were detected in genes responding to temperature and salinity stress, especially of the expanded solute carrier families, highlighting the importance of gene expansion in environmental adaptation. Genes exhibiting high plasticity showed strong selection in upstream regulatory regions that modulate transcription, indicating selection favoring plasticity. Our findings suggest that genomic variation and population structure in marine bivalves are heavily influenced by climate history and physical forces, and gene expansion and selection may enhance phenotypic plasticity that is critical for the adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(11): 5144-5155, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390581

RESUMO

Genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity are both important to adaptive evolution. However, how they act together on particular traits remains poorly understood. Here, we integrated phenotypic, genomic, and transcriptomic data from two allopatric but closely related congeneric oyster species, Crassostrea angulata from southern/warm environments and Crassostrea gigas from northern/cold environments, to investigate the roles of genetic divergence and plasticity in thermal adaptation. Reciprocal transplantation experiments showed that both species had higher fitness in their native habitats than in nonnative environments, indicating strong adaptive divergence. The southern species evolved higher transcriptional plasticity, and the plasticity was adaptive, suggesting that increased plasticity is important for thermal adaptation to warm climates. Genome-wide comparisons between the two species revealed that genes under selection tended to respond to environmental changes and showed higher sequence divergence in noncoding regions. All genes under selection and related to energy metabolism exhibited habitat-specific expression with genes involved in ATP production and lipid catabolism highly expressed in warm/southern habitats, and genes involved in ATP consumption and lipid synthesis were highly expressed in cold/northern habitats. The gene for acyl-CoA desaturase, a key enzyme for lipid synthesis, showed strong selective sweep in the upstream noncoding region and lower transcription in the southern species. These results were further supported by the lower free fatty acid (FFA) but higher ATP content in southern species and habitat, pointing to significance of ATP/FFA trade-off. Our findings provide evidence that noncoding variation and transcriptional plasticity play important roles in shaping energy metabolism for thermal adaptation in oysters.

3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1825): 20200164, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813893

RESUMO

Genomic structural variation is an important source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, playing a critical role in evolution. The recent availability of a high-quality reference genome for the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and whole-genome sequence data of samples from across the species range in the USA, provides an opportunity to explore structural variation across the genome of this species. Our analysis shows significantly greater individual-level duplications of regions across the genome than that of most model vertebrate species. Duplications are widespread across all ten chromosomes with variation in frequency per chromosome. The eastern oyster shows a large interindividual variation in duplications as well as particular chromosomal regions with a higher density of duplications. A high percentage of duplications seen in C. virginica lie completely within genes and exons, suggesting the potential for impacts on gene function. These results support the hypothesis that structural changes may play a significant role in standing genetic variation in C. virginica, and potentially have a role in their adaptive and evolutionary success. Altogether, these results suggest that copy number variation plays an important role in the genomic variation of C. virginica. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Molluscan genomics: broad insights and future directions for a neglected phylum'.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Duplicação Gênica , Genoma , Animais , Cromossomos
4.
Gigascience ; 10(3)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is a bivalve mollusc with vital roles in coastal ecosystems and aquaculture globally. While extensive genomic tools are available for C. gigas, highly contiguous reference genomes are required to support both fundamental and applied research. Herein we report the creation and annotation of a chromosome-level assembly for C. gigas. FINDINGS: High-coverage long- and short-read sequence data generated on Pacific Biosciences and Illumina platforms were used to generate an initial assembly, which was then scaffolded into 10 pseudo-chromosomes using both Hi-C sequencing and a high-density linkage map. The assembly has a scaffold N50 of 58.4 Mb and a contig N50 of 1.8 Mb, representing a step advance on the previously published C. gigas assembly. Annotation based on Pacific Biosciences Iso-Seq and Illumina RNA-Seq resulted in identification of ∼30,000 putative protein-coding genes. Annotation of putative repeat elements highlighted an enrichment of Helitron rolling-circle transposable elements, suggesting their potential role in shaping the evolution of the C. gigas genome. CONCLUSIONS: This new chromosome-level assembly will be an enabling resource for genetics and genomics studies to support fundamental insight into bivalve biology, as well as for selective breeding of C. gigas in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/genética , Crassostrea/genética , Ecossistema , Genoma
5.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 15, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) are critical regulators of programmed cell death that are essential for development, oncogenesis, and immune and stress responses. However, available knowledge regarding IAP is largely biased toward humans and model species, while the distribution, function, and evolutionary novelties of this gene family remain poorly understood in many taxa, including Mollusca, the second most speciose phylum of Metazoa. RESULTS: Here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly of an economically significant bivalve, the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, which reveals an unexpected and dramatic expansion of the IAP gene family to 159 members, the largest IAP gene repertoire observed in any metazoan. Comparative genome analysis reveals that this massive expansion is characteristic of bivalves more generally. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of molluscan IAP genes indicates that most originated in early metazoans and greatly expanded in Bivalvia through both lineage-specific tandem duplication and retroposition, with 37.1% of hard clam IAPs located on a single chromosome. The expanded IAPs have been subjected to frequent domain shuffling, which has in turn shaped their architectural diversity. Further, we observed that extant IAPs exhibit dynamic and orchestrated expression patterns among tissues and in response to different environmental stressors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that sophisticated regulation of apoptosis enabled by the massive expansion and diversification of IAPs has been crucial for the evolutionary success of hard clam and other molluscan lineages, allowing them to cope with local environmental stresses. This study broadens our understanding of IAP proteins and expression diversity and provides novel resources for studying molluscan biology and IAP function and evolution.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Genoma , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Mercenaria/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo
6.
Genomics ; 112(6): 4887-4896, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890702

RESUMO

Severe losses in aquacultured and wild hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) stocks have been previously reported in the northeastern United States due to a protistan parasite called QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown). Previous work demonstrated that clam resistance to QPX is under genetic control. This study identifies single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with clam survivorship from two geographically segregated populations, both deployed in an enzootic site. The analysis contrasted samples collected before and after undergoing QPX-related mortalities and relied on a robust draft clam genome assembly. ~200 genes displayed significant variant enrichment at each sampling point in both populations, including 18 genes shared between both populations. Markers from both populations were identified in genes related to apoptosis pathways, protein-protein interaction, receptors, and signaling. This research begins to identify genetic markers associated with clam resistance to QPX disease, leading the way for the development of resistant clam stocks through marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Mercenaria , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/genética , Animais , Genoma , Mercenaria/genética , Mercenaria/parasitologia , Parasitos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 937, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are among the oldest and most conserved transmembrane receptors involved in signal transduction. Despite the prevalence and significance of cholinergic signaling, the diversity and evolution of nAChRs are not fully understood. RESULT: By comparative genomic analysis, we found massive expansions of nAChR genes in molluscs and some other lophotrochozoans. The expansion is particularly pronounced in stationary bivalve molluscs with simple nervous systems, with the number of nAChR genes ranging from 99 to 217 in five bivalves, compared with 10 to 29 in five ecdysozoans and vertebrates. The expanded molluscan nAChR genes tend to be intronless and in tandem arrays due to retroposition followed by tandem duplication. Phylogenetic analysis revealed diverse nAChR families in the common ancestor of bilaterians, which subsequently experienced lineage-specific expansions or contractions. The expanded molluscan nAChR genes are highly diverse in sequence, domain structure, temporal and spatial expression profiles, implying diversified functions. Some molluscan nAChR genes are expressed in early development before the development of the nervous system, while others are involved in immune and stress responses. CONCLUSION: The massive expansion and diversification of nAChR genes in bivalve molluscs may be a compensation for reduced nervous systems as part of adaptation to stationary life under dynamic environments, while in vertebrates a subset of specialized nAChRs are retained to work with advanced nervous systems. The unprecedented diversity identified in molluscs broadens our view on the evolution and function of nAChRs that are critical to animal physiology and human health.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Moluscos/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Íntrons , Moluscos/classificação , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos
8.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 91: 17-25, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278186

RESUMO

The oyster's immune system is capable of adapting upon exposure to a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) to have an enhanced secondary response against the same type of pathogen. This has been demonstrated using poly(I:C) to elicit an antiviral response in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) against Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1). Improved survival following exposure to poly(I:C) has been found in later life stages (within-generational immune priming) and in the next generation (transgenerational immune priming). The mechanism that the oyster uses to transfer immunity to the next generation is unknown. Here we show that oyster larvae have higher survival to OsHV-1 when their mothers, but not their fathers, are exposed to poly(I:C) prior to spawning. RNA-seq provided no evidence to suggest that parental exposure to poly(I:C) reconfigures antiviral gene expression in unchallenged larvae. We conclude that the improved survival of larvae might occur via maternal provisioning of antiviral compounds in the eggs.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Vírus de DNA/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Exposição Materna , Poli I-C/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Larva , Masculino , Óvulo/imunologia , Óvulo/virologia , Exposição Paterna
9.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 5(1): 140-141, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33366458

RESUMO

Mulinia lateralis (Say, 1822) is a species of the bivalve family Mactridae and represents a promising model species for molluscan research. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of M. lateralis was sequenced and assembled for the first time. The 21,668 bp mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The overall AT content (69.56%) was higher than GC content (30.44%). Phylogenetic analysis supported that M. lateralis belongs to the family Mactridae. The mitochondrial genome of M. lateralis provides a valuable resource for further understanding the phylogeny of the family Mactridae and for functional studies of molluscan mitochondrial genes.

10.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(11): 1751-1760, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250157

RESUMO

The interplay between divergence and phenotypic plasticity is critical to our understanding of a species' adaptive potential under rapid climate changes. We investigated divergence and plasticity in natural populations of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas with a congeneric oyster Crassostrea angulata from southern China used as an outgroup. Genome re-sequencing of 371 oysters revealed unexpected genetic divergence in a small area that coincided with phenotypic divergence in growth, physiology, heat tolerance and gene expression across environmental gradients. These findings suggest that selection and local adaptation are pervasive and, together with limited gene flow, influence population structure. Genes showing sequence differentiation between populations also diverged in transcriptional response to heat stress. Plasticity in gene expression is positively correlated with evolved divergence, indicating that plasticity is adaptive and favoured by organisms under dynamic environments. Divergence in heat tolerance-partly through acetylation-mediated energy depression-implies differentiation in adaptive potential. Trade-offs between growth and survival may play an important role in local adaptation of oysters and other marine invertebrates.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Crassostrea/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Genoma , Animais , Crassostrea/genética
11.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 20(3): 385-395, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532334

RESUMO

Culture of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is rapidly expanding. Combined with their continuing role as an environmental sentinel species and ecological model, this trend necessitates improved molecular tools for breeding and selection, as well as population assessment and genetic conservation. Here, we describe the development and validation of two panels of 58 single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) for the species. Population analyses revealed three distinct populations, based on FST values and STRUCTURE, among wild oysters sampled from Delaware Bay (1), northwest Florida (2), Alabama (2), Louisiana (2), and the Texas Gulf Coast (3), consistent with previous microsatellite and mtDNA analyses. In addition, utilizing the developed panels for parentage assignment in cultured oysters (Rutgers, New Jersey) resulted in a highly accurate identification of parent pairs (99.37%). The SNP markers could, furthermore, clearly discriminate between hatchery stocks and wild-sourced individuals. The developed SNP panels may serve as an important tool for more rapid and affordable genetic analyses in eastern oyster.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Crassostrea/classificação , Genética Populacional/métodos
12.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1721, 2017 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167427

RESUMO

Bivalve molluscs are descendants of an early-Cambrian lineage superbly adapted to benthic filter feeding. Adaptations in form and behavior are well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigate the genome, various transcriptomes, and proteomes of the scallop Chlamys farreri, a semi-sessile bivalve with well-developed adductor muscle, sophisticated eyes, and remarkable neurotoxin resistance. The scallop's large striated muscle is energy-dynamic but not fully differentiated from smooth muscle. Its eyes are supported by highly diverse, intronless opsins expanded by retroposition for broadened spectral sensitivity. Rapid byssal secretion is enabled by a specialized foot and multiple proteins including expanded tyrosinases. The scallop uses hepatopancreas to accumulate neurotoxins and kidney to transform to high-toxicity forms through expanded sulfotransferases, probably as deterrence against predation, while it achieves neurotoxin resistance through point mutations in sodium channels. These findings suggest that expansion and mutation of those genes may have profound effects on scallop's phenotype and adaptation.


Assuntos
Pectinidae/genética , Pectinidae/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Hepatopâncreas/fisiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Mutação , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Opsinas/genética , Opsinas/fisiologia , Pectinidae/anatomia & histologia , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/fisiologia , Filogenia , Retina/fisiologia
13.
Gigascience ; 6(8): 1-12, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873964

RESUMO

Nacre, the iridescent material found in pearls and shells of molluscs, is formed through an extraordinary process of matrix-assisted biomineralization. Despite recent advances, many aspects of the biomineralization process and its evolutionary origin remain unknown. The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii is a well-known master of biomineralization, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie its production of shells and pearls are not fully understood. We sequenced the highly polymorphic genome of the pearl oyster and conducted multi-omic and biochemical studies to probe nacre formation. We identified a large set of novel proteins participating in matrix-framework formation, many in expanded families, including components similar to that found in vertebrate bones such as collagen-related VWA-containing proteins, chondroitin sulfotransferases, and regulatory elements. Considering that there are only collagen-based matrices in vertebrate bones and chitin-based matrices in most invertebrate skeletons, the presence of both chitin and elements of collagen-based matrices in nacre suggests that elements of chitin- and collagen-based matrices have deep roots and might be part of an ancient biomineralizing matrix. Our results expand the current shell matrix-framework model and provide new insights into the evolution of diverse biomineralization systems.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Genoma , Genômica , Pinctada/fisiologia , Animais , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Nácar/genética , Nácar/metabolismo , Proteômica
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10785, 2017 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883650

RESUMO

Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane oxidase that accepts electrons directly from ubiquinol and reduces oxygen to water without involving cytochrome-linked electron transport chain. It is highly conserved in many non-vertebrate taxa and may protect cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress. We identified two AOX mRNAs in eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, CvAOXA and CvAOXB, which differ by 170 bp but encode AOXs of the same size. Sequence analyses indicate that CvAOX has 10 exons with a tandem duplication of exon 10, and 3' alternative splicing using either the first or second exon 10 produces the two variants CvAOXB or CvAOXA, respectively. The second exon 10 in CvAOXA is more conserved across taxa, while the first exon 10 in CvAOXB contains novel mutations surrounding key functional sites. Both variants are expressed in all organs with the expression of CvAOXA higher than that of CvAOXB under normal condition. Under stress by air exposure, CvAOXB showed significantly higher expression than CvAOXA and became the dominant variant. This is the first case of alternative splicing of duplicated exon in a mollusc that produces a novel variant adaptive to stress, highlighting genome's versatility in generating diversity and phenotypic plasticity.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Crassostrea/fisiologia , Éxons , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Crassostrea/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia
15.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 1(5): 120, 2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812685

RESUMO

Reconstructing the genomes of bilaterian ancestors is central to our understanding of animal evolution, where knowledge from ancient and/or slow-evolving bilaterian lineages is critical. Here we report a high-quality, chromosome-anchored reference genome for the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, a bivalve mollusc that has a slow-evolving genome with many ancestral features. Chromosome-based macrosynteny analysis reveals a striking correspondence between the 19 scallop chromosomes and the 17 presumed ancestral bilaterian linkage groups at a level of conservation previously unseen, suggesting that the scallop may have a karyotype close to that of the bilaterian ancestor. Scallop Hox gene expression follows a new mode of subcluster temporal co-linearity that is possibly ancestral and may provide great potential in supporting diverse bilaterian body plans. Transcriptome analysis of scallop mantle eyes finds unexpected diversity in phototransduction cascades and a potentially ancient Pax2/5/8-dependent pathway for noncephalic eyes. The outstanding preservation of ancestral karyotype and developmental control makes the scallop genome a valuable resource for understanding early bilaterian evolution and biology.

16.
PLoS Genet ; 13(6): e1006807, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594821

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic regulator of development in mammals and social insects, but its significance in development outside these groups is not understood. Here we investigated the genome-wide dynamics of DNA methylation in a mollusc model, the oyster Crassostrea gigas, from the egg to the completion of organogenesis. Large-scale methylation maps reveal that the oyster genome displays a succession of methylated and non methylated regions, which persist throughout development. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are strongly regulated during cleavage and metamorphosis. The distribution and levels of methylated DNA within genomic features (exons, introns, promoters, repeats and transposons) show different developmental lansdscapes marked by a strong increase in the methylation of exons against introns after metamorphosis. Kinetics of methylation in gene-bodies correlate to their transcription regulation and to distinct functional gene clusters, and DMRs at cleavage and metamorphosis bear the genes functionally related to these steps, respectively. This study shows that DNA methylome dynamics underlie development through transcription regulation in the oyster, a lophotrochozoan species. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of such epigenetic regulation outside vertebrates and ecdysozoan models, bringing new insights into the evolution and the epigenetic regulation of developmental processes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ostreidae/genética , Animais , Genoma , Ostreidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 191, 2017 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28219347

RESUMO

Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product quality, and profitability in support of the commercial sector and for the benefit of consumers. In order to achieve these goals, it is important to understand the genomic structure and organization of aquaculture species, and their genomic and phenomic variations, as well as the genetic basis of traits and their interrelationships. In addition, it is also important to understand the mechanisms of regulation and evolutionary conservation at the levels of genome, transcriptome, proteome, epigenome, and systems biology. With genomic information and information between the genomes and phenomes, technologies for marker/causal mutation-assisted selection, genome selection, and genome editing can be developed for applications in aquaculture. A set of genomic tools and resources must be made available including reference genome sequences and their annotations (including coding and non-coding regulatory elements), genome-wide polymorphic markers, efficient genotyping platforms, high-density and high-resolution linkage maps, and transcriptome resources including non-coding transcripts. Genomic and genetic control of important performance and production traits, such as disease resistance, feed conversion efficiency, growth rate, processing yield, behaviour, reproductive characteristics, and tolerance to environmental stressors like low dissolved oxygen, high or low water temperature and salinity, must be understood. QTL need to be identified, validated across strains, lines and populations, and their mechanisms of control understood. Causal gene(s) need to be identified. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of important aquaculture traits need to be determined, and technologies for marker-assisted selection, causal gene/mutation-assisted selection, genome selection, and genome editing using CRISPR and other technologies must be developed, demonstrated with applicability, and application to aquaculture industries.Major progress has been made in aquaculture genomics for dozens of fish and shellfish species including the development of genetic linkage maps, physical maps, microarrays, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, transcriptome databases and various stages of genome reference sequences. This paper provides a general review of the current status, challenges and future research needs of aquaculture genomics, genetics, and breeding, with a focus on major aquaculture species in the United States: catfish, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, tilapia, striped bass, oysters, and shrimp. While the overall research priorities and the practical goals are similar across various aquaculture species, the current status in each species should dictate the next priority areas within the species. This paper is an output of the USDA Workshop for Aquaculture Genomics, Genetics, and Breeding held in late March 2016 in Auburn, Alabama, with participants from all parts of the United States.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Cruzamento/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética , Estados Unidos
20.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42069, 2017 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155894

RESUMO

Gold nanorods are effective photothermal agents in diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their specific near-infrared laser absorption. However, tumor photothermal therapy by nanorods alone is lack of targeting. Here, we described a novel nanocomplex made up of gold nanorods, porphyrin, and trastuzumab, called TGNs and investigated the TGN-mediated photothermal therapy as a potential alternative treatment of targeting HER2-positive breast cancers. By conjugating trastuzumab and porphyrin to the surface of gold nanorods, we have increased the targeting specificity and amplified the detecting effectiveness at the same time. TGN-mediated photothermal ablation by near-infrared laser led to a selective destruction of HER2-positive cancer cells and significantly inhibited tumor growth in mouse models bearing HER2 over-expressed breast cancer xenograft with less toxicity. Moreover, TGNs provided better therapeutic efficacy in comparison with the conventional molecule targeted therapy. Our current data suggest a highly promising future of TGNs for its therapeutic application in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Fototerapia/métodos , Porfirinas/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Nanotubos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento
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