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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3745, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111951

RESUMO

During mung bean post-germination seedling growth, various metabolic and physiological changes occurred, leading to the improvement of its nutritional values. Here, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of mung bean samples from 6-hour, 3-day and 6-day after imbibition (6-HAI, 3-DAI, and 6-DAI) were performed to characterize the regulatory mechanism of the primary metabolites during the post-germination seedling growth. From 6-HAI to 3-DAI, rapid changes in transcript level occurred, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, citrate cycle, amino acids synthesis, and plant hormones regulation. Later changes in the metabolites, including carbohydrates and amino acids, appeared to be driven by increases in transcript levels. During this process, most amino acids and monosaccharides kept increasing, and accumulated in 6-day germinated sprouts. These processes were also accompanied with changes in hormones including abscisic acid, gibberellin, jasmonic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, etc. Overall, these results will provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the primary metabolic regulation in mung bean during post-germination seedling growth.

2.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906347

RESUMO

In this study, the phytochemical profiles, total and cellular antioxidant activities of five different Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima BL.) cultivars were analyzed. Phenolics, flavonoids as well as phytochemical compounds in five cultivars of chestnut kernels were determined. Results showed that the free forms played a dominant role in total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activities of all five cultivars of chestnut kernels. The cultivar 'Fyou' showed the highest total and free phenolic contents, 'Heguoyihao' showed the highest total and free flavonoids contents, and 'Chushuhong' showed the highest total and cellular antioxidant activities. Eight phenolic compounds were detected, and chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin were shown as three predominant components in all five cultivars. These results provide valuable information which may be a guidance for selection of good chestnut variety to be used as functional food.

3.
Food Chem ; 312: 125829, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901703

RESUMO

Free and bound phenolics were extracted from the fibre fraction of wholemeal (W) wheat and barley (B) cookies which had been fortified with 15% blackcurrant powder. Blackcurrant enriched cookies contained between 55 and 66 % higher total phenolics respectively compared control cookies. Ferulic acid in wheat and barley cookie extracts, and quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside in wheat cookies with 15% blackcurrant were the dominant phenolic acids. Cellular antioxidant activity was higher in samples with blackcurrant inclusion when evaluated in a cancer cell HepG2 model. Inhibition of cell proliferation was lower for the phenolic samples from cookies with blackcurrant addition. These samples suppressed the regulation of inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß (about 3 to 4-fold), IL-6 (about 2-fold) and transcription signalling factor NF-kB (about 2-fold) and showed an up-regulation of the satiety gene NUCB-2/nesfatin-1 (about 4-fold) in compared with control samples.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ribes/genética , Antioxidantes/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Hordeum/química , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Triticum/química
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1694-1701, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme temperatures are among the primary abiotic stresses that affect plant growth and development. Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an efficient antioxidant for scavenging relative oxygen species accumulated under stress. Folates play a significant role in DNA synthesis and protect plants against oxidative stress. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.), a crop grown worldwide, is sensitive to extreme temperatures at seedling stage, which may cause yield loss. This study was conducted to explore the biosynthetic regulative mechanism of AsA and folates in sweet corn seedlings under temperature stress. RESULTS: The AsA and folate composition and relative gene expression in sweet corn seedlings grown under different temperature stresses (10, 25, and 40 °C) were evaluated. The imposition of temperature stress altered the AsA content mainly by modulating the expression of Zm DHAR, whose encoded enzyme dehydroascorbic reductase (DHAR) is essential in the AsA recycle pathway. Low temperature stress raised the expressions of relative genes, leading to folate accumulation. High temperature stress modulated the folate content by influencing the expression of the correspondence gene for aminodeoxychorismate synthase, Zm ADCS, as well as downstream genes that connected with DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: These results provided a theoretical basis, at a genetic level, for understanding the stress responses mechanism in sweet corn seedlings, offering guidance for sweet corn cultivation. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Fólico/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Temperatura , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética
5.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(1): 24-29, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863295

RESUMO

Vitamin C, as an essential vitamin for humans, has important physiological functions, such as antioxidants and enzyme cofactors. Mung bean sprouts are a good source of vitamin C and light is an essential impact factor of vitamin C content during germination. This study focused on the kinetic changes and metabolic regulation mechanism of vitamin C during mung bean sprouting under three-light treatment including constant light (24 h light/0 h dark), semi-light (12 h light/12 h dark) and constant dark (0 h light/24 h dark). Results confirmed that vitamin C content increased with the raised of light time during germination. The highest level of vitamin C, appeared on three days after constant light treatment (3-DALT), was 78 - fold higher than the initial concentration. L-ascorbic acid content on 3-DALT of mung bean sprouts was 21.4 and 29.8 times higher compared to the value on day 3 with semi -light treatment and constant dark treatment, respectively. Additionally, PMI, GME, GLDH, GalUR and DHAR expressions had strong correlations with L-ascorbic acid and vitamin C responding to light. Results indicated that light had an intimate correlation with the component and biosynthesis of vitamin C.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Vigna , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Germinação
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 144: 252-258, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846664

RESUMO

This work concerns different cultivars of waxy maize starch (WMS), from which a significant correlation between the multi-scale structure and the digestibility has been identified. WMSs show a typical A-type crystalline polymorph. The surface porosity of WMS granules facilitates their digestibility. In contrast, the in vitro digestion results indicate that the resistant starch (RS) content increased with higher contents of amylose, single helices, and surface short-range ordered structures. Resistant starch (RS) was found to be made up of single helices and perfect crystallites formed by the fraction of chains with a degree of polymerization (DP) between 13 and 24. Slowly digestible starch (SDS) consists of single helices. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) is mainly composed of disordered molecular chains in the amorphous regions of starch. This work reveals the relationship between the multiscale structure and digestibility of different WMSs and can provide guidance for the application of WMSs in food or non-food fields.

7.
Foods ; 8(12)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817474

RESUMO

Muffins are popular bakery products. However, they generally contain high amounts of sugar. The over-consumption of muffins may therefore result in a high calorie intake and could lead to increased health risks. For this reason, muffins were prepared substituting sucrose with two levels of a base of stevia (Stevianna®). In addition, cocoa powder and vanilla were added to the muffin formulation with and without Stevianna® to mask any potential off flavors. Results illustrate that muffins with 50% Stevianna® replacement of sucrose were similar to the control samples in terms of volume, density and texture. However, replacement of sugar with 100% Stevianna® resulted in reductions in height (from 41 to 28 mm), volume (from 63 to 51 mL), and increased firmness (by four-fold) compared to the control sample. Sugar replacement significantly reduced the in vitro predictive glycemic response of muffins (by up to 55% of the control sample). This work illustrates the importance of sugar in maintaining muffin structure as well as controlling the rate of glucose release during simulated digestions.

8.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817653

RESUMO

Sweet potato is the sixth most important crop widely cultivated around the world with abundant varieties. Different varieties gain different phenolic profiles which has drawn researchers' attention for its unique health benefits. Our study evaluated the phenolic profiles, total and cellular antioxidant activities, antiproliferative activities, and cytotoxicity in 10 cultivated varieties of sweet potato in different colours. Among fourteen metabolites detected in our study, hyperoside, ferulic acid and caffeic acid were considered as prominent in SPSRs. According to the principle component analysis, phytochemical composition of HX22, YS15 and YS7 was quite similar. The results also evidenced that purple-fleshed varieties, such as YS43, YZ7 and YY153, have higher total phenolics content and corresponding stronger total antioxidant capacities as well as cellular antiproliferative activities against human liver cancer HepG2 cells than other varieties. The extremely significant correlation between phenolics and total antioxidant activity was also revealed by Pearson correlation analysis (p < 0.05). However, no significant relevance was found between intracellular antioxidant activity and total phenolic content or flesh colour of sweet potatoes.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9772-9781, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398019

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the response profiles of vitamin E and carotenoids on transcription and metabolic levels of sweet corn seedlings under temperature stress. The treated temperatures were set as 10 °C (low temperature, LT), 25 °C (control, CK), and 40 °C (high temperature, HT) for sweet corn seedlings. The gene expression profiles of vitamin E and carotenoids biosynthesis pathways were analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the composition profiles were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitamin E gradually accumulated in response to LT stress but was limited by HT stress. The increase of carotenoids was suppressed by LT stress whereas HT stress promoted it. The existing results elaborated the interactive and competitive relationships of vitamin E and carotenoids in sweet corn seedlings to respond to extreme temperature stress at transcriptional and metabolic levels. The present study would improve sweet corn temperature resilience with integrative knowledge in the future.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Vitamina E/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Foods ; 8(8)2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409061

RESUMO

Plum fruits would become putrid quickly after harvest. In order to prolong postharvest life, 'Sanhua' plum fruits were treated by hot air combined with a chitosan coating, and stored at low temperature. Fruit firmness, total soluble solids, total phytochemical contents were evaluated along with total antioxidant activities and phytochemical components. Results showed that hot air treatment delayed softening process of plum fruit. The total phenolics and flavonoids accumulated and antioxidant activities increased in both control and treatment samples during storage. These values in the samples treated with hot air and chitosan were all higher than control and hot air treatments. Phytochemicals of epicatechin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, and hesperetin were all upregulated by hot air and chitosan treatment, especially epicatechin. This suggested that chitosan might play an important role in regulating phytochemical profiles of 'Sanhua' plum fruits during storage.

11.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315256

RESUMO

Owing to the concept of modern life and health, traditional baked foods are seeking transition. In this study, sweet corn residue (SCR) was used to replace wheat flour in cakes. We conducted sensory evaluation and texture analysis to assess sample quality. Also, we simulated digestion in vitro, and determined the content of total sugar and dietary fiber. The content of vitamin E and carotenoids were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and the content of folate was determined by a microbiological method. With the increase of SCR, the content of dietary fiber, folate, vitamin E, and carotenoids significantly increased, and the digestive characteristics improved simultaneously. Based on the above evaluations, SCRC2 (sweet corn residue cake with 60% substitution) had similar sensory quality to the control (pure wheat flour cake) and had the characteristics of slow digestibility and high micronutrients.

12.
Foods ; 8(6)2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213019

RESUMO

Carotenoids and folate are two mandatory supplying micronutrients for children or pregnant women. Inadequate intake of these two nutrients was relevant to a higher mortality of both children and pregnancies. This study is intended to investigate the thermal impact on the changes of carotenoids and folate in sweet potato roots (SPRs). Carotenoids were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) while the folate was estimated using a microbial assay. An obvious decline was observed in total carotenoids after heating. Nevertheless, the content of provitamin compound ß-carotene exhibited incredible stability during steaming and α-carotene multiplied in certain varieties, evidencing that SPRs could be an efficient way for addressing Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). As for the total folate contents, two varieties were found no significant loss after thermal process while the others showed a significant decrease. The results indicated that steaming process led to generally loss of both carotenoids and folate while the α-carotene and ß-carotene were well preserved. The information provided by this study might help with enhancing the food quality in processing industry and the understanding in the nutrition changes during steaming.

13.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(3)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934563

RESUMO

To better understand the regulatory mechanism of phenolics and ascorbic acid accumulation as well as antioxidant activities in mung beans during legume development, the gene expression profiles of 25 key-coding genes in ascorbic acid and phenolics metabolic pathways were analyzed. As well as the dynamitic changes of ascorbic acid, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities with legume development were studied. The results indicated that gene expression profiles were closely related to the ascorbic acid and phenolics accumulation regularity during legume development. VrVTC2 and VrGME played important roles for ascorbic acid accumulation from 8 to 17 days after flowering (DAF). VrPAL and VrCHS exhibited positive correlations with daidzein and glycitin accumulation, and VrIFS had a strong positive correlation with glycitin biosynthesis. Antioxidant activities dramatically increased during mung bean maturing, which were significantly related to ascorbic acid and phenolics accumulation. Eight days after flowering was the essential stage for ascorbic acid and phenolics biosynthesis in mung beans.

14.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010162

RESUMO

Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is usually cultivated as a fiber crop, but it is also well known for its potential use in animal feeding with viable commercial applications. In this study, the phenolics profile as well as cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were investigated in free and bound fractions of six different vegetative parts from Boehmeria nivea L. The highest total phenolic content was observed in bud (4585 ± 320 mg GAE/100 g DW), whereas root and petiole had the lowest total phenolic contents, 442.8 ± 9.8 and 630.9 ± 27.0 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. Likewise, phloem had the most abundant total flavonoids (2755 ± 184 mg CE/100 g DW), whereas the lowest flavonoid contents was found in root and petiole, 636.9 ± 44.2 and 797.4 ± 87.6 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively. Xylem and bud depicted remarkable antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, which could be explained by their diverse phenolic composition, especially chlorogenic acid and epicatechin. The Boehmeria nivea L. plant might be a valuable resource for high value-added phenolic compounds used in food and non-food industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Boehmeria/química , Fenóis/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Floema/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Xilema/química
15.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818770

RESUMO

This research focussed on the utilisation of salmon protein and lipid to manipulate pasta's glycaemic index and protein digestibility. Salmon fish (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) powder (SFP) supplemented pasta flour in amounts from 5% to 20% (w/w). Inclusion of SFP lead to a significant reduction in starch digestibility and hence the potential glycaemic values of pasta (experimental pasta being up to 143% lower than control values). SFP addition to pasta increased the release of phenolic compounds from pasta during both gastric digestion (179%) and pancreatic digestion (133%) in comparison to the control sample. At the same time, the antioxidant activity of the digested pasta was increased by up to 263% (gastric) and 190% (pancreatic) in comparison to durum wheat pasta alone. Interestingly, although protein levels increased with incorporation of SFP, the digestibility values of the protein decreased from 86.41% for the control pasta to 81.95% for 20% SFP pasta. This may indicate that there are interactions between phenols and protein in the pasta samples which affect overall protein digestibility levels.


Assuntos
Digestão , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Proteínas/química , Amido/análise , Triticum/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Índice Glicêmico , Lipídeos/análise , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Estômago/fisiologia
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(9): 2459-2466, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747531

RESUMO

This study followed the flesh reddening of Sanhua plum from the surface to the center during fruit development. Five key stages were identified based on color changes during fruit ripening: full-green (FG), red-appeared, half-red, full-red, and purple-red (PR). Fruits were collected and analyzed for phytochemicals and antioxidant properties. Concurrently, the transcript levels of genes associated with phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin production were investigated. The titratable acid content of Sanhua plum decreased during development, while total soluble sugar content increased. In addition, both the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content decreased during development, while anthocyanin content increased. The polyphenol oxidase activity peaked in the PR stage. The maximum antioxidant activity in vitro was observed in the FG stage, while cellular antioxidant activity peaked in the PR stage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Prunus , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/genética , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Cor , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Prunus/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Açúcares/análise
17.
Molecules ; 24(4)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781354

RESUMO

The intention of this study was to investigate the effect of steaming processing on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities in chestnuts. Steaming processing at different times and temperatures depicted diverse impacts on free and bound fractions. Though, bound phenolics were stable but long time steaming at higher temperatures tended to improve the levels of phenolics, flavonoids as well as antioxidant activities in chestnut kernels, by up to 60.11% of the original value. Seven phenolic compounds including ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringate, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were found to change during thermal processes. Significant relationships (p < 0.05) were identified between total phenolics and total antioxidant activities. However, the consistency of chlorogenic acid (p < 0.01) only with cellular antioxidant activity indicated poor bio-accessibility of the phytochemicals in chestnuts. However, this situation could be partly improved by steaming. Steaming could improve the cellular accessibility of free phytochemicals, particularly, increasing the bio-accessibility by 41.96%. This study provided valuable information on dynamic changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of chestnuts under a steaming process, which could offer possible guidance for the chestnut processing industry in the future.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Fagaceae/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Vapor
18.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(1): 76-85, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680161

RESUMO

Variations in the phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties were studied in the wine of wampee leaves obtained at different stages of fermentation process. The highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents were attained at Day 12 and Day 21 of fermentation, respectively. In addition, five phytochemical compounds including vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, and 7-hydroxycoumarin were identified and quantified by HPLC in fermented wampee products. The strongest antioxidant activity in wine was monitored on Day 12. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity was significantly correlated with vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and 7-hydroxycoumarin compared with rutin. The obtained results suggested that 12-day fermentation could be an optimal process for excavation of applying wampee leaves into food and wine industries.

19.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563069

RESUMO

This study investigated protein, amino acid, fatty acid composition, in vitro starch and protein digestibility, and phenolic and antioxidant composition of bread fortified with salmon fish (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) powder (SFP). The proximate composition in control and SFP breads ranged between (34.00 ± 0.55⁻31.42 ± 0.73%) moisture, (13.91 ± 0.19⁻20.04 ± 0.10%) protein, (3.86 ± 0.02⁻9.13 ± 0.02%) fat, (2.13 ± 0.02⁻2.42 ± 0.09%) ash, (80.10 ± 0.018⁻68.42 ± 0.11%) carbohydrate, and (410.8 ± 0.18⁻435.96 ± 0.36 kcal) energy. The essential amino acids of the control and SFP breads ranged between 261.75 ± 9.23 and 306.96 ± 6.76 mg/g protein, which satisfies the score recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU (2007). Protein digestibility of the products was assessed using an in vitro assay. The protein digestibility, comma, amino acid score, essential amino acid index, biological value, and nutritional index ranged between 79.96 ± 0.65⁻80.80 ± 0.99%, 0.15 ± 0.06⁻0.42 ± 0.06%, 62.51 ± 1.15⁻76.68 ± 1.40%, 56.44 ± 1.05⁻71.68 ± 1.10%, 8.69 ± 0.10⁻15.36 ± 0.21%, respectively. Control and SFP breads contained 60.31 ± 0.21⁻43.60 ± 0.35 g/100 g total fatty acids (saturated fatty acids) and 13.51 ± 0.10⁻17.00 ± 0.09 g/100 g total fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids), and SFP breads fulfil the ω-6/ω-3 score recommended by food authority. There was a significant effect of SFP on bread-specific volume, crumb color, and textural properties. The in vitro starch digestibility results illustrate that the incorporation of SFP into wheat bread decreased the potential glycemic response of bread and increased the antioxidant capacity of bread. In conclusion, this nutrient-rich SFP bread has the potential to be a technological alternative for the food industry.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Pão/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Produtos Pesqueiros , Proteínas/química , Salmão , Animais , Digestão , Alimentos Fortificados , Valor Nutritivo
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10482, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992951

RESUMO

Rice husks (RHs) as an agro-waste generated from rice production, while its application is limited. This study was designed to introduce a full utilization of rice husks, which extracted the phytochemical at first and then produced cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as the use of the residue. Furthermore, the phytochemicals extracted from rice husk was identified and its biological activity, including antioxidant activity, cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and antiproliferative activity, had been detected as well. Results showed the bound fraction of rice husk had higher antioxidant than common fruit and grain. Free fraction of rice husk deserved to have further analysis in antiproliferative activity due to its low cytotoxicity. The CNCs produced by residue was using delignification process and acid hydrolysis treatments. The chemical composition of the residue obtained after phytochemical extraction was determined. CNCs morphological investigation was performed using an optical microscope and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our strategy is to achieve a comprehensive utilization of rice husks with both economy and environment benefits.

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