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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481017

RESUMO

Most genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are located in intergenic regions, implying pathogenic dysregulations of gene expression. However, comprehensive assessments of target genes in CRC remain to be explored. We conducted a multi-omics analysis using transcriptome and/or DNA methylation data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the Colonomics projects. We identified 116 putative target genes for 45 GWAS-identified variants. Using summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization approach (SMR), we demonstrated that the CRC susceptibility for 29 out of the 45 CRC variants may be mediated by cis-effects on gene regulation. At a cutoff of the Bonferroni-corrected PSMR < 0.05, we determined 66 putative susceptibility genes, including 39 genes that have not been previously reported. We further performed in vitro assays for two selected genes, DIP2B and SFMBT1, and provide functional evidence that they play a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis via disrupting cell behavior, including migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our study reveals a large number of putative novel susceptibility genes and provides additional insight into the underlying mechanisms for CRC genetic risk loci.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028644, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295976

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of appendiceal cancer (AC) is rising, particularly among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset AC), with unexplained etiologies. The unique spectrum of somatic cancer gene variations among patients with early-onset AC is largely undetermined. Objective: To characterize the frequency of somatic variations and genomic patterns among patients with early-onset (age <50 years) vs late-onset (age ≥50 years) AC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included individuals aged 18 years and older diagnosed with pathologically verified AC. Cases with clinical-grade targeted sequencing data from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2019, were identified from the international clinicogenomic data-sharing consortium American Association for Cancer Research Project Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information Exchange (GENIE). Data analysis was conducted from May to September 2020. Exposures: Age at disease onset. Main Outcomes and Measures: Somatic variation prevalence and spectrum in AC patients was determined. Variation comparisons between early-onset and late-onset AC were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, histological subtype, sequencing center, and sample type. Results: In total 385 individuals (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 56.0 [12.4] years; 187 [48.6%] men; 306 [79.5%] non-Hispanic White individuals) with AC were included in this study, and 109 patients (28.3%) were diagnosed with early-onset AC. Race/ethnicity differed by age at disease onset; non-Hispanic Black individuals accounted for a larger proportion of early-onset vs late-onset cases (9 of 109 [8.3%] vs 11 of 276 [4.0%]; P = 0.04). Compared with patients aged 50 years or older at diagnosis, patients with early-onset AC had significantly higher odds of presenting with nonsilent variations in PIK3CA, SMAD3, and TSC2 (PIK3CA: odds ratio [OR], 4.58; 95% CI, 1.72-12.21; P = .002; SMAD3: OR, 7.37; 95% CI, 1.24-43.87; P = .03; TSC2: OR, 12.43; 95% CI, 1.03-149.59; P = .047). In contrast, patients with early-onset AC had a 60% decreased odds of presenting with GNAS nonsilent variations compared with patients with late-onset AC (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.76, P = .006). By histological subtype, young patients with mucinous adenocarcinomas of the appendix had 65% decreased odds of variations in GNAS compared with late-onset cases in adjusted models (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.79; P = .01). Similarly, patients with early-onset nonmucinous appendiceal adenocarcinomas had 72% decreased odds of presenting with GNAS variations vs late-onset cases, although these findings did not reach significance (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.07-1.14; P = .08). GNAS and TP53 variations were mutually exclusive in ACs among early-onset and late-onset cases (P < .05). Conclusions and Relevance: In the study, AC diagnosed among younger individuals harbored a distinct genomic landscape compared with AC diagnosed among older individuals. Development of therapeutic modalities that target these unique molecular features may yield clinical implications specifically for younger patients.

3.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is increasing among younger birth cohorts. The etiology of early-onset OTSCC (diagnosed before the age of 50 years) and cancer driver genes remain largely unknown. METHODS: The Sequencing Consortium of Oral Tongue Cancer was established through the pooling of somatic mutation data of oral tongue cancer specimens (n = 227 [107 early-onset cases]) from 7 studies and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Somatic mutations at microsatellite loci and Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer mutation signatures were identified. Cancer driver genes were identified with the MutSigCV and WITER algorithms. Mutation comparisons between early- and typical-onset OTSCC were evaluated via linear regression with adjustments for patient-related factors. RESULTS: Two novel driver genes (ATXN1 and CDC42EP1) and 5 previously reported driver genes (TP53, CDKN2A, CASP8, NOTCH1, and FAT1) were identified. Six recurrent mutations were identified, with 4 occurring in TP53. Early-onset OTSCC had significantly fewer nonsilent mutations even after adjustments for tobacco use. No associations of microsatellite locus mutations and mutation signatures with the age of OTSCC onset were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This international, multicenter consortium is the largest study to characterize the somatic mutational landscape of OTSCC and the first to suggest differences by age of onset. This study validates multiple previously identified OTSCC driver genes and proposes 2 novel cancer driver genes. In analyses by age, early-onset OTSCC had a significantly smaller somatic mutational burden that was not explained by differences in tobacco use. LAY SUMMARY: This study identifies 7 specific areas in the human genetic code that could be responsible for promoting the development of tongue cancer. Tongue cancer in young patients (under the age of 50 years) has fewer overall changes to the genetic code in comparison with tongue cancer in older patients, but the authors do not think that this is due to differences in smoking rates between the 2 groups. The cause of increasing cases of tongue cancer in young patients remains unclear.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are increasingly recognized as important regulators for pathogenesis and/or prognosis of breast cancer, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. However, few previous studies used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology, and none included an independent replication. METHODS: To systematically evaluate the association between expression of lincRNAs and TNBC survival, we examined lincRNA expression profiles in TNBC tissues using RNA-Seq data for 200 TNBC patients from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS) and Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). RESULTS: Twenty-five lincRNAs were found to be associated with overall survival (P < 0.05 and no significant heterogeneity across studies at Q statistic P > 0.1), and 61 lincRNAs were associated with disease-free survival (DFS). Among these, two lincRNAs (LINC01270 and LINC00449) were significantly associated with both worse overall survival and DFS and were expressed at significantly higher levels in tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal breast tissues (log2[Fold Change] > 0.5 and FDR < 0.05). We further evaluated the potential functions of LINC01270 and LINC00449 using in vitro functional experiments and found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of LINC01270 and LINC00449 expression significantly decreased cell viability, colony formation and cell migration ability in TNBC cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from observational studies and in vitro experiments indicates that LINC00449 and LINC01270 may be prognostic biomarkers for TNBC.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 880, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is associated with a unique mutational signature in the human cancer genome. It is unclear whether tobacco smoking-altered DNA methylations and gene expressions affect smoking-related mutational signature. METHODS: We systematically analyzed the smoking-related DNA methylation sites reported from five previous casecontrol studies in peripheral blood cells to identify possible target genes. Using the mediation analysis approach, we evaluated whether the association of tobacco smoking with mutational signature is mediated through altered DNA methylation and expression of these target genes in lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues. RESULTS: Based on data obtained from 21,108 blood samples, we identified 374 smoking-related DNA methylation sites, annotated to 248 target genes. Using data from DNA methylations, gene expressions and smoking-related mutational signature generated from ~ 7700 tumor tissue samples across 26 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we found 11 of the 248 target genes whose expressions were associated with smoking-related mutational signature at a Bonferroni-correction P < 0.001. This included four for head and neck cancer, and seven for lung adenocarcinoma. In lung adenocarcinoma, our results showed that smoking increased the expression of three genes, AHRR, GPR15, and HDGF, and decreased the expression of two genes, CAPN8, and RPS6KA1, which were consequently associated with increased smoking-related mutational signature. Additional evidence showed that the elevated expression of AHRR and GPR15 were associated with smoking-altered hypomethylations at cg14817490 and cg19859270, respectively, in lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues. Lastly, we showed that decreased expression of RPS6KA1, were associated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide novel insight into the contributions of tobacco smoking to carcinogenesis through the underlying mechanisms of the elevated mutational signature by altered DNA methylations and gene expressions.

7.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 321, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), through its surface spike glycoprotein (S-protein) recognition on the receptor Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in humans. However, it remains unclear how genetic variations in ACE2 may affect its function and structure, and consequently alter the recognition by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We have systemically characterized missense variants in the gene ACE2 using data from the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD; N = 141,456). To investigate the putative deleterious role of missense variants, six existing functional prediction tools were applied to evaluate their impact. We further analyzed the structural flexibility of ACE2 and its protein-protein interface with the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 using our developed Legion Interfaces Analysis (LiAn) program. RESULTS: Here, we characterized a total of 12 ACE2 putative deleterious missense variants. Of those 12 variants, we further showed that p.His378Arg could directly weaken the binding of catalytic metal atom to decrease ACE2 activity and p.Ser19Pro could distort the most important helix to the S-protein. Another seven missense variants may affect secondary structures (i.e. p.Gly211Arg; p.Asp206Gly; p.Arg219Cys; p.Arg219His, p.Lys341Arg, p.Ile468Val, and p.Ser547Cys), whereas p.Ile468Val with AF = 0.01 is only present in Asian. CONCLUSIONS: We provide strong evidence of putative deleterious missense variants in ACE2 that are present in specific populations, which could disrupt the function and structure of ACE2. These findings provide novel insight into the genetic variation in ACE2 which may affect the SARS-CoV-2 recognition and infection, and COVID-19 susceptibility and treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Variação Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Internalização do Vírus
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3905, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764609

RESUMO

It remains elusive whether some of the associations identified in genome-wide association studies of prostate cancer (PrCa) may be due to regulatory effects of genetic variants on CpG sites, which may further influence expression of PrCa target genes. To search for CpG sites associated with PrCa risk, here we establish genetic models to predict methylation (N = 1,595) and conduct association analyses with PrCa risk (79,194 cases and 61,112 controls). We identify 759 CpG sites showing an association, including 15 located at novel loci. Among those 759 CpG sites, methylation of 42 is associated with expression of 28 adjacent genes. Among 22 genes, 18 show an association with PrCa risk. Overall, 25 CpG sites show consistent association directions for the methylation-gene expression-PrCa pathway. We identify DNA methylation biomarkers associated with PrCa, and our findings suggest that specific CpG sites may influence PrCa via regulating expression of candidate PrCa target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.

11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 465-473, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited studies have been conducted to evaluate pathogenetic mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes among Chinese women. To fully characterize germline mutations of these genes in this population, we used the whole-exome sequencing data in a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We evaluated exonic, splicing, and copy number variants in 11 established and 14 candidate breast cancer predisposition genes in 831 invasive breast cancer cases and 839 controls. We identified 55 pathogenic variants, including 15 newly identified in this study. RESULTS: Approximately 8% of the cases and 0.6% of the cancer-free controls carried these pathogenetic variants (P = 3.05 × 10-15). Among cases, 3.7% had a BRCA2 pathogenic variant and 1.6% had a BRCA1 pathogenic variant, while 2.5% had a pathogenic variant in other genes including ATM, CHEK2, NBN, NF1, CDH1, PALB2, PTEN, TP53 as well as BARD1, BRIP, and RAD51D. Patients with BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were more likely to have a family history of breast cancer and hormone receptor negative tumors compared with patients without pathogenic variants. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the importance of hereditary breast cancer genes in the breast cancer etiology in this understudied population. Together with previous studies in East Asian women, this study suggested a relatively more prominent role of BRCA2 compared to BRCA1. This study also provides additional evidence to design cost-efficient genetic testing among Chinese women for risk assessment and early detection of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , China/epidemiologia , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
12.
Carcinogenesis ; 41(7): 887-893, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267939

RESUMO

African American (AA) women have an excess breast cancer mortality than European American (EA) women. To investigate the contribution of tumor biology to this survival health disparity, we compared gene expression profiles in breast tumors using RNA sequencing data derived from 260 AA and 155 EA women who were prospectively enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) and developed breast cancer during follow-up. We identified 59 genes (54 protein-coding genes and 5 long intergenic non-coding RNAs) that were expressed differently between EA and AA at a stringent false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.01. A gene signature was derived with these 59 genes and externally validated using the publicly available Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data from180 AA and 838 EA breast cancer patients. Applying C-statistics, we found that this 59-gene signature has a high discriminative ability in distinguishing AA and EA breast cancer patients in the TCGA dataset (C-index = 0.81). These findings may provide new insight into tumor biological differences and the causes of the survival disparity between AA and EA breast cancer patients.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1217, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139696

RESUMO

Known risk variants explain only a small proportion of breast cancer heritability, particularly in Asian women. To search for additional genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer, here we perform a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Asians (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and European descendants (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls). We identified 31 potential novel loci with the lead variant showing an association with breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The associations for 10 of these loci were replicated in an independent sample of 16,787 cases and 16,680 controls of Asian women (P < 0.05). In addition, we replicated the associations for 78 of the 166 known risk variants at P < 0.05 in Asians. These findings improve our understanding of breast cancer genetics and etiology and extend previous findings from studies of European descendants to Asian women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 295-304, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Using a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 883). We applied these models to genomewide association study (GWAS) data of 122 977 breast cancer patients and 105 974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpG sites (CpGs) are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62 938 CpG sites CpGs investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P less than 7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions, that have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation, and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Transcriptoma
15.
Int J Cancer ; 146(8): 2130-2138, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265136

RESUMO

A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82-1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10-4 -3.28 × 10-8 ), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 477-486, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk variants identified so far for colorectal cancer explain only a small proportion of familial risk of this cancer, particularly in Asians. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal cancer in East Asians, including 23,572 colorectal cancer cases and 48,700 controls. To identify novel risk loci, we selected 60 promising risk variants for replication using data from 58,131 colorectal cancer cases and 67,347 controls of European descent. To identify additional risk variants in known colorectal cancer loci, we performed conditional analyses in East Asians. RESULTS: An indel variant, rs67052019 at 1p13.3, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk at P = 3.9 × 10-8 in Asians (OR per allele deletion = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.18). This association was replicated in European descendants using a variant (rs2938616) in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs67052019 (P = 7.7 × 10-3). Of the remaining 59 variants, 12 showed an association at P < 0.05 in the European-ancestry study, including rs11108175 and rs9634162 at P < 5 × 10-8 and two variants with an association near the genome-wide significance level (rs60911071, P = 5.8 × 10-8; rs62558833, P = 7.5 × 10-8) in the combined analyses of Asian- and European-ancestry data. In addition, using data from East Asians, we identified 13 new risk variants at 11 loci reported from previous GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In this large GWAS, we identified three novel risk loci and two highly suggestive loci for colorectal cancer risk and provided evidence for potential roles of multiple genes and pathways in the etiology of colorectal cancer. In addition, we showed that additional risk variants exist in many colorectal cancer risk loci identified previously. IMPACT: Our study provides novel data to improve the understanding of the genetic basis for colorectal cancer risk.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(8): 2175-2181, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837001

RESUMO

The missing heritability of breast cancer could be partially attributed to rare variants (MAF < 0.5%). To identify breast cancer-associated rare coding variants, we conducted whole-exome sequencing (~50×) in genomic DNA samples obtained from 831 breast cancer cases and 839 controls of Chinese females. Using burden tests for each gene that included rare missense or predicted deleterious variants, we identified 29 genes showing promising associations with breast cancer risk. We replicated the association for two genes, OGDHL and BRCA2, at a Bonferroni-corrected p < 0.05, by genotyping an independent set of samples from 1,628 breast cancer cases and 1,943 controls. The association for OGDHL was primarily driven by three predicted deleterious variants (p.Val827Met, p.Pro839Leu, p.Phe836Ser; p < 0.01 for all). For BRCA2, we characterized a total of 27 disruptive variants, including 18 nonsense, six frameshift and three splicing variants, whereas they were only detected in cases, but none of the controls. All of these variants were either very rare (AF < 0.1%) or not detected in >4,500 East Asian women from the genome Aggregation database (gnomAD), providing additional support to our findings. Our study revealed a potential novel gene and multiple disruptive variants of BRCA2 for breast cancer risk, which may identify high-risk women in Chinese populations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Br J Cancer ; 121(12): 1039-1049, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen resistance remains a significant clinical challenge for the therapy of ER-positive breast cancer. It has been reported that the upregulation of transcription factor SOX9 in ER+ recurrent cancer is sufficient for tamoxifen resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SOX9 remain largely unknown. METHODS: The acetylation level of SOX9 was detected by immunoprecipitation and western blotting. The expressions of HDACs and SIRTs were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Cell growth was measured by performing MTT assay. ALDH-positive breast cancer stem cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Interaction between HDAC5 and SOX9 was determined by immunoprecipitation assay. RESULTS: Deacetylation is required for SOX9 nuclear translocation in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, HDAC5 is the key deacetylase responsible for SOX9 deacetylation and subsequent nuclear translocation. In addition, the transcription factor C-MYC directly promotes the expression of HDAC5 in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells. For clinical relevance, high SOX9 and HDAC5 expression are associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that HDAC5 regulated by C-MYC is essential for SOX9 deacetylation and nuclear localisation, which is critical for tamoxifen resistance. These results indicate a potential therapy strategy for ER+ breast cancer by targeting C-MYC/HDAC5/SOX9 axis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos
19.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 131, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although APOBEC-mutational signature is found in tumor tissues of multiple cancers, how a common germline APOBEC3A/B deletion affects the mutational signature remains unclear. METHODS: Using data from 10 cancer types generated as part of TCGA, we performed integrative genomic and association analyses to assess inter-relationship of expressions for isoforms APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B, APOBEC-mutational signature, germline APOBEC3A/B deletions, neoantigen loads, and tumor infiltration lymphocytes (TILs). RESULTS: We found that expression level of the isoform uc011aoc transcribed from the APOBEC3A/B chimera was associated with a greater burden of APOBEC-mutational signature only in breast cancer, while germline APOBEC3A/B deletion led to an increased expression level of uc011aoc in multiple cancer types. Furthermore, we found that the deletion was associated with elevated APOBEC-mutational signature, neoantigen loads and relative composition of T cells (CD8+) in TILs only in breast cancer. Additionally, we also found that APOBEC-mutational signature significantly contributed to neoantigen loads and certain immune cell abundances in TILs across cancer types. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal new insights into understanding the genetic, biological and immunological mechanisms through which APOBEC genes may be involved in carcinogenesis, and provide potential genetic biomarker for the development of disease prevention and cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Citidina Desaminase/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/citologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Deleção de Sequência
20.
Br J Cancer ; 121(9): 796-804, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the associations between calcium and various stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and whether these associations are modified by the calcium to magnesium (Ca:Mg) ratio. METHODS: We tested our hypotheses in the prostate lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial. RESULTS: Calcium intake did not show a dose-response association with incident adenoma of any size/stage (P-trend = 0.17), but followed an inverse trend when restricted to synchronous/advanced adenoma cases (P-trend = 0.05). This inverse trend was mainly in participants with Ca:Mg ratios between 1.7 and 2.5 (P-trend = 0.05). No significant associations were observed for metachronous adenoma. Calcium intake was inversely associated with CRC (P-trend = 0.03); the association was primarily present for distal CRC (P-trend = 0.01). The inverse association between calcium and distal CRC was further modified by the Ca:Mg ratio (P-interaction < 0.01); significant dose-response associations were found only in participants with a Ca:Mg ratio between 1.7 and 2.5 (P-trend = 0.04). No associations for calcium were found in the Ca:Mg ratio above 2.5 or below 1.7. CONCLUSION: Higher calcium intake may be related to reduced risks of incident advanced and/or synchronous adenoma and incident distal CRC among subjects with Ca:Mg intake ratios between 1.7 and 2.5.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Carcinogênese , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia
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