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1.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105321, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500305

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia is a principal factor mediating gout and kidney damage, and xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia. In this context, a series of geniposide derivatives were designed and synthesized, and antihyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of all derivatives was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Compound 2e emerged as the most potent XOD inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 6.67 ± 0.46 µM. Simultaneously, cell viability, ROS generation, and SOD levels assay showed that compound 2e could repair the damage of HKC cells by inhibiting the oxidative stress response. The results of the study indicated compound 2e significantly decreased uric acid levels by inhibiting the XOD activity, and repaired kidney damage by inhibiting the expression of TLR4/TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB and NALP3/ASC/caspase-1 signaling pathways. Enzyme inhibition kinetics suggested that compound 2e functioned via reversible mixed competitive inhibition. Moreover, a molecular docking study was performed to gain insight into the binding mode of compound 2e with XOD. These results suggest that geniposide derivatives were potential to be developed into a novel medicine to reveal healthy benefits in natural prevention and reduction risk of hyperuricemia and kidney damage.

2.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7767-7778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335963

RESUMO

Background: Lipid droplets (LDs) establish a considerable number of contact sites with mitochondria to enable energy transfer and communication. In this study, we developed a fluorescent biosensor to image LD-mitochondria interactions at the nanoscale and further explored the function of LD-mediated matrix transmission in processes involving multi-organelle interactions. Methods: A fluorescent probe called C-Py (C21H19N3O2, 7-(diethylamino) coumarin-3-vinyl-4-pyridine acetonitrile) was designed and synthesized. Colocalization of C-Py and the commercial LD stain Nile Red was analyzed in HeLa cells. The fluorescence stability and signal to background ratio of C-Py under structured illumination microscopy (SIM) were compared to those of the commercial probe BODIPY493/503. The cytotoxicity of C-Py was assessed using CCK-8 assays. The uptake pattern of C-Py in HeLa cells was then observed under various temperatures, metabolic levels, and endocytosis levels. Contact sites between LDs and various organelles, such as mitochondria, nuclei, and cell membrane, were imaged and quantitated using SIM. Physical changes to the contact sites between LDs and mitochondria were monitored after lipopolysaccharide induction. Results: A LD-targeted fluorescent biosensor, C-Py, with good specificity, low background signal, excellent photostability, low cytotoxicity, and high cellular permeability was developed for tracking LD contact sites with multiple organelles using SIM. Using C-Py, the subcellular distribution and dynamic processes of LDs in living cells were observed under SIM. The formation of contact sites between LDs and multiple organelles was visualized at a resolution below ~200 nm. The number of LD-mitochondria contact sites formed was decreased by lipopolysaccharide treatment inducing an inflammatory environment. Conclusions: C-Py provides strategies for the design of ultra-highly selective biosensors and a new tool for investigating the role and regulation of LDs in living cells at the nanoscale.


Assuntos
Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia
3.
Theriogenology ; 169: 47-55, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933757

RESUMO

Follicular atresia is primarily caused by granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis, although the mechanisms are largely unknown. Ufmylation is a recently identified ubiquitin-like post-translational modifier that plays an important role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Ufmylation on GC apoptosis during goat follicular atresia. Ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFM1) and its target DDRGK domain containing 1 (DDRGK1) proteins were identified in granulosa cells (GCs) isolated from all stages of preantral follicles and from healthy (HF), early atretic (EF) and progressed atretic (PF) antral follicles. The expression levels were higher in GCs derived from antral atretic follicles than healthy follicles. Although the viability of GCs was not affected after overexpression of UFM1, siRNA-mediated UFM1 silencing significantly inhibited GC proliferation and induced apoptosis. Notably, components of the ufmylation pathway were significantly upregulated in GCs induced by the ER stress agent tunicamycin (Tm) and thapsigargin (Tg), but not affected by oxidative stress inducer H2O2. Furthermore, UFM1 silencing markedly increased the apoptosis of GCs upon Tg treatment by stimulating the ER stress-related gene expression. Our results provide evidence that UFM1 and its target DDRGK1 are expressed in the goat GCs during follicular development and atresia, and ufmylation may play an important role in the prevention of ER stress but not oxidative stress-induced GCs apoptosis.


Assuntos
Atresia Folicular , Cabras , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 145312, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736317

RESUMO

Extreme floods caused by dike or dam breaks have led to substantial damage to various types of vegetation, including forests, orchards, grass, and crops. Many factors affect the impacts of extreme floods on plants, e.g., flood parameters, plant characteristics and natural factors. However, these factors have never been systematically analyzed or considered when evaluating the impacts of extreme floods on plants. Firstly, we summarized the main influencing factors and simplified them into six categories: temperature, geomorphic change, plant age, flood velocity, ratio of the flood depth to the plant height, and ratio of the flood duration to the plant waterlogging tolerance time. Secondly, we proposed the two indices of unit risk biomass (URB) and total risk biomass (TRB) to represent the impacts of floods on plants regionally and over the entire inundated area, respectively. In addition, the calculation methods of URB and TRB considering plant biomass and the comprehensive influence coefficient (I) were put forward. To calculate I, we considered the six influencing factors with different weights according to their importance and varying conditions. The flood parameters and geomorphic changes caused by a simulated dam-break flood of Luhun Reservoir in China were then calculated. Furthermore, we divided a year into six time periods according to the species and growth characteristics of the plants in the inundated area. Then we evaluated the impacts of the dam-break flood on the plants during each period. The results showed that: (a) the URB varied with space in the inundated area; (b) because of the large inundation area of crops, the TRB was far greater than that of forests and orchards and affected the TRB of the whole inundated area; and (c) both the URB and TRB changed with time with the changes in crop species, crop parameters and temperature.


Assuntos
Inundações , Florestas , Biomassa , China , Produtos Agrícolas
5.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(12): 1725-1734, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986296

RESUMO

The endometrium plays an important role in the defence against invading pathogens, although the mechanisms are not clear. UFMylation is a recently discovered novel ubiquitination-like modification system that plays a pivotal role in inflammation and the immune response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of UFMylation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in immortalized goat endometrial epithelial cells (gEECs). Ubiquitin-fold modifier conjugating enzyme 1 (UFM1) and DDRGK domain containing 1 (DDRGK1) were mainly localized in the luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium of mouse and goat endometrial tissues. The expression levels of UFM1, ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5 (UBA5), UFM1 specific ligase 1 (UFL1) and DDRGK1, as key components of the UFMylation system, were significantly activated by 5 µg/mL LPS-induced inflammatory response in gEECs for 6 hr. Meanwhile, the expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly upregulated, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly down-regulated after overexpression of UFM1 in gEECs. Additionally, we observed UFM1 and DDRGK1 were markedly increased on LPS-stimulated mouse endometritis in vivo. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that UFMylation was significantly activated by LPS and might be involved in regulating inflammatory response in gEECs.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 725: 138139, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298901

RESUMO

When a dam breaks, huge floods will be generated that may inundate urban areas, enterprises, farmlands, and infrastructure and cause giant economic losses. Economic risk criteria are a kind of basis for determining dam risk levels and to decide whether risk control measures should be taken or not. However, compared to loss-of-life risk criteria, much fewer economic risk criteria for dams have been proposed and implemented for two main reasons: (a) The ability of most areas to endure economic losses caused by dam breach changes over time because of the constant development of their economic levels; and (b) Economic development levels in an area are distinct from the levels in other areas, resulting in significant differences in the ability of different areas to endure economic losses caused by a dam breach. Therefore, an equivalent economic scale (EES) that indicates the relative economic level of an area to the whole country in a given period of time is a preferred measure. It was shown in this paper that EES has much more stable values than do ordinary economic measures; therefore, it was taken as the basic index for establishing economic risk criteria. Furthermore, due to the distinct economic loss rates of different industries, the index of industrial economic contribution (IEC) was introduced to determine the correction coefficient to modify the ESS to reflect the potential economic loss of the area to be evaluated. This is the first research that pays careful attention to the change of ability to endure economic losses, in which the established economic risk criteria are applicable over a relatively long time and for different areas based on the consideration of the relative level of the economy and the industrial economic contribution.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326197

RESUMO

Subtropical natural exposure may significantly affect the bonding behavior of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) externally bonded to concrete. To study the effect of subtropical natural climates on the FRP-concrete interface, natural exposure tests and an analytical approach were carried out on specimens externally bonded with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP). The bilinear bond stress-slip relationships for different exposure periods were derived from the experimental results of the strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Based on these bond-slip relationships, the full-range behavior of shear stress along the bond length and debonding load can be obtained through the analytical solution. The testing and numerical results showed that subtropical natural exposure can greatly affect the bond behavior of CFRP-concrete and BFRP-concrete interfaces in the early exposure period. In the late exposure period, the bond behavior was basically stable. With the increase of exposure time, the position of maximum shear stress tended to move backward, which indicated that the behavior of the FRP-concrete interface was weakened by natural exposure. Compared to the CFRP-concrete interface, subtropical natural exposure has greater influence on the bond behavior of the BFRP-concrete interface.

8.
Reproduction ; 159(3): 303-314, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990672

RESUMO

Decidualization is a critical process for successful embryo implantation and subsequent placenta formation. The characterization and physiological function of lncRNA during decidualization remain largely unknown. In the present study, we conducted RNA-sequencing analysis to compare gene expression between decidua of days 6 and 8, and normal pregnant endometrium (day 4). A total of 2332 high-confidence putative lncRNA transcripts were expressed. Functional clustering analysis of cis and trans lncRNA targets showed that differentially expressed lncRNAs may regulate multiple gene ontology terms and pathways that have important functions in decidualization. Subsequent analyses using qRT-PCR validated that eight of all lncRNAs were differentially regulated in mice uteri during decidualization, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we showed that differentially expressed lncRNA of Hand2os1 was specifically detected in stromal cells on days 2 to 5 of pregnancy and was strongly upregulated in decidual cells on days 6-8 of pregnancy. Similarly, Hand2os1 expression was also strongly expressed in decidualized cells following artificial decidualization, both in vivo and in vitro. In uterine stromal cells, P4 was able to significantly upregulate the expression of Hand2os1, but upregulation was impeded by RU486, whereas E2 appeared to have no regulating effect on Hand2os1 expression. Concurrently, Hand2os1 significantly promoted the decidual process in vitro and dramatically increased decidualization markers Prl8a2 and Prl3c1. Our results provide a valuable catalog for better understanding of the functional roles of lncRNAs in pregnant mouse uteri, as it relates to decidualization.


Assuntos
Endométrio/metabolismo , Prenhez/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Pseudogravidez/metabolismo
9.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(3): 193-209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658861

RESUMO

The occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment of Nanjing of 49 antibiotics from seven therapeutic classes were investigated using an improved analytical method developed for multiclass target analysis. The results showed that these antibiotics are widely present in the water bodies of this city, with a total concentration of up to 1.958 µg L-1. The most abundant class was tetracyclines, contributing 43.7% to the total antibiotic burden. Lincomycin was detected in all samples, and the detection rate of clindamycin was 90.5%. An exploratory analysis of the data points was performed by unsupervised pattern recognition (hierarchical cluster analysis, HCA) in an attempt to clarify the pollution level in different sampling areas, and robust cluster solutions grouped the data according to their different antibiotic contaminant profiles. The safety of drinking water resources was emphasized, and the rivers, as the main receiving water body for treated and untreated wastewater in this city, were more seriously contaminated than the surrounding lakes and reservoir, not only in concentration but also in detection frequency, in our study as well as in similar research studies. A correlation analysis between the presence of antibiotics and the environmental factors was conducted, and it was found that antibiotic contamination and water quality were closely connected; the better the water quality, the lower the antibiotic contamination. Positive correlations existed between the antibiotics and tested heavy metals, as well as between antibiotics and boron and arsenic. However, whether these correlations resulted from their reaction or a common source was difficult to determine, and the mechanism requires further exploration.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Lagos/análise , Rios/química , Tetraciclinas/análise , Qualidade da Água
10.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(12): 22819-22832, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124138

RESUMO

CREBZF, including the two isoforms SMILE (long isoform of CREBZF) and Zhangfei (short isoform of CREBZF), has been identified as a novel transcriptional coregulator of a variety of nuclear receptors. Our previous studies found that SMILE is expressed in the mouse uterine luminal and glandular epithelium and is upregulated by estrogen. In the present study, CREBZF was age-dependently and -specifically expressed in mouse interstitial Leydig cells during sexual maturation. The expression pattern of CREBZF exhibited an age-related increase, and SMILE was the dominant isoform in the mouse testis. Although hCG did not affect CREBZF expression, CREBZF silencing significantly inhibited hCG-stimulated testosterone production in primary Leydig cells and MLTC-1 cells. Meanwhile, the serum concentration of testosterone was significantly decreased after microinjection of lentiviral-mediated shRNA-CREBZF into the mature mouse testis. In addition, CREBZF silencing markedly decreased P450c17, 17ß-HSD, and 3ß-HSD expression following hCG stimulation in primary Leydig cells, and this inhibitory effect was obviously reversed by overexpression of CREBZF. Furthermore, CREBZF significantly upregulated the mRNA levels of Nr4a1 and Nr5a1, which are the essential orphan nuclear receptors for steroidogenic gene expression. Together our data indicate that CREBZF promotes hCG-induced testosterone production in mouse Leydig cells by affecting Nr4a1 and Nr5a1 expression levels and subsequently increasing the expression of steroidogenic genes such as 3ß-HSD, 17ß-HSD, and P450c17, suggesting a potential important role of CREBZF in testicular testosterone synthesis.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/biossíntese , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Linhagem Celular , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Progesterona Redutase/genética , Progesterona Redutase/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Esteroide Isomerases/genética , Esteroide Isomerases/metabolismo , Fator Esteroidogênico 1/genética , Fator Esteroidogênico 1/metabolismo
11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30960114

RESUMO

With the prestressed carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strengthening technique widely used in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, it is more and more important to study the fatigue performance of RC structures. Since the fracture of a tensile steel bar at the main cracked section is the leading reason for the failure of RC beams reinforced by prestressed CFRP, a fatigue life prediction model of RC beams reinforced by prestressed CFRP was developed based on an accumulative damage model. Moreover, gradual degradation of the performance of the concrete was considered in the fatigue life prediction model. An experimental study was also conducted to research the fatigue behavior of RC beams reinforced by prestressed or non-prestressed carbon fiber laminate (CFL). During the tests, fatigue crack patterns were captured using a digital image correlation (DIC) technique, and the fatigue lives of a total of 30 beams were recorded. The results showed that the predicted main crack propagation curves and the fatigue lives were close to the experimental data. This study also exhibited that the prestressed CFRP could reduce the stress of main steel bars in RC beams and effectively improve the fatigue performance of the RC beams.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(10)2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282946

RESUMO

Vehicle overload is detrimental to bridges and traffic safety. This paper presents a study on the fatigue performance of typical reinforced concrete (RC) beams of highway bridges under vehicle overload. A definition method of vehicle overload and a construction method of overload ladder spectrum were first proposed based on traffic data acquisition, statistical analysis and structural calculation of the highway bridges in Guangzhou. A fatigue experimental method was also proposed with the three-ladder vehicle overload spectrum, and the fatigue tests of 15 RC beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) under three loading levels were then carried out. The fatigue performance and the failure mechanism of the strengthened beams were presented and discussed, and two fatigue life prediction methods were proposed with the established modified Palmgren-Miner rule and the loading level equivalent method respectively. The results showed that the fatigue performance of the strengthened RC beams was severely degraded under overload ladder spectrum compared with that under constant amplitude cyclic load, and the life prediction methods were proved effective.

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(35): 6963-6969, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095922

RESUMO

The photodynamic properties involving both intra- and intermolecular triplet energy transfers (ET) of a bichromophoric photosensitizer having a tris-cyclometalated Ir(III) tethered with a pyrene derivative are studied. Due to the triplet energy gap of the two chromophores, a reversible intramolecular triplet ET equilibrium is quickly established upon photoexcitation, with the triplet exciton mainly residing on the acceptor side in the photostationary state. By virtue of the very small decay rate of triplet pyrene, a considerably extended triplet lifetime (2 ms) is observed. Next, the intermolecular triplet-triplet ET properties are investigated. Using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy, the ET rate constants from the Ir complex and pyrene unit in the sensitizer to an external triplet acceptor (unattached, free pyrene derivative) in solution are found to be around 109 s-1 and 108 M -1 s-1, respectively. In spite of a lower ET rate constant, the tethered pyrene serves as the main intermolecular ET channel because of the large, favorable intramolecular ET equilibrium ( K ∼ 103). Importantly, this cascade ET process, from Ir complex to linked pyrene, and then to free pyrene, offers an overall improved ET efficiency than a direct ET from Ir complex to free pyrene, by virtue of the much smaller spontaneous decay rate compared to that of the metal complex. Finally, the more efficient ET ability is demonstrated experimentally by applying the molecule as sensitizer in a triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion. The bichromophoric sensitizer achieved upconverted emission intensity 5 times higher than a monochromophoric Ir-complex analogue.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(33): 6673-6682, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053373

RESUMO

A heavy-atom-free triplet sensitizer suitable for triplet-triplet annihilation-based photon upconversion was developed from the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecule 4CzPN by covalently tethering a pyrene derivative (DBP) as a triplet acceptor. The triplet exciton produced by 4CzPN is captured by the intramolecular pyrenyl acceptor and subsequently transferred via intermolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) to freely diffusing pyrenyl acceptors in toluene. Transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy were employed to examine the dynamics of both the intra- and intermolecular TTET processes, and the results indicate that the intramolecular energy transfer from 4CzPN to DBP is swift, quantitative, and nearly irreversible. The reverse intersystem crossing is suppressed while intersystem crossing remains efficient, achieving high triplet yield and long triplet lifetime simultaneously. The ultralong excited state lifetime characteristic of the DBP triplet was shown to be crucial for enhancing the intermolecular TTET efficiency and the subsequent triplet-triplet annihilation photochemistry. It was also demonstrated that with the long triplet lifetime of the tethered DBP, TTET was enabled under low free acceptor concentrations and/or with sluggish molecular diffusion in polymer matrixes.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 612: 119-128, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28850832

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs), which receive wastewater containing extremely high levels of antibiotics, are regarded as potential hot spots for antibiotic-resistance development in the environment. Six sampling campaigns in six PWWTPs in Southeastern China were carried out to assess the prevalence and fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Different genes were monitored in different PWWTPs (PWWTP A: lincosamides; PWWTP B: aminoglycosides and macrolides; PWWTP C: quinolones; PWWTP D: macrolides and quinolones; PWWTP E: cephalosporins; and PWWTP F: quinolones and macrolides) using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), according to the antibiotic type produced. The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (1.03±0.91)×101 to (6.78±0.21)×107copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for 0%-577% of influents to the six PWWTPs with a median value of 6%. Most of the ARGs are transported to the dewatered sludge, with concentrations from (1.38±0.21)×105 to (6.84±0.43)×1010copies/g dry weight (dw). In different treatment units (before/after biological units), a clear trend of proliferation or attenuation was not observed for the ARGs, aside from a strong attenuation in moving bed bio-film reactor (MBBR) in PWWTP C. Through correlation analyses, this study demonstrated that the bacterial abundance and antibiotic concentrations within the PWWTPs influenced the fate of the associated ARGs, and this was possibly related primarily to the intrinsic resistance mechanisms of corresponding ARGs. Macrolide ARGs, which tend to locate in plasmids and transposons, positively correlate weakly with total macrolide antibiotic concentrations but positively correlate strongly with 16S rRNA concentrations. Furthermore, ARG concentrations in the wastewater from fermentation were significantly higher than in the wastewater from chemical synthesis and preparation. This is the first comprehensive study on the behavior of antibiotic resistance genes under extremely high-level antibiotic selection pressures in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) in Southeastern China.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , China , Resíduos Industriais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Seleção Genética , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
16.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178425, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542542

RESUMO

In this study, we designed a microcosm experiment to explore the composition of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere of maize and bulk soil by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina system. 978-1239 OTUs (cut off level of 3%) were found in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples. Rhizosphere shared features with the bulk soil, such as predominance of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and TM7. At genus level, many of the dominant rhizosphere genera (Chitinophaga, Nitrospira, Flavobacterium, etc.) displayed different patterns of temporal changes in the rhizosphere as opposed to the bulk soil, showing rhizosphere has more impact on soil microorganisms. Besides, we found that significant growth-related dynamic changes in bacterial community structure were mainly associated with phylum Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria (mainly genera Burkholderia, Flavisolibacter and Pseudomonas), indicating that different growth stages affected the bacterial community composition in maize soil. Furthermore, some unique genera in especial Plant-Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Nonomuraea, Thiobacillus and Bradyrhizobium etc., which were beneficial for the plant growth appeared to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than bulk soil, indicating that the selectivity of root to rhizosphere microbial is an important mechanism leading to the differences in the bacteria community structure between rhizosphere and bulk soil.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1502: 8-13, 2017 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476318

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the pollution caused due to glyphosate (Glyp) in soils and sludge, it is important to establish a set of standard determination techniques. In this work, the previously reported HPLC analytical method for determination of Glyp has been improved in order to be applied for all kinds of soils/sludge. The soil/sludge samples were extracted using sodium phosphate and trisodium citrate aqueous solutions. The extract was adjusted to pH 9 and contaminations were removed by washing with n-hexane. The method developed in this work further involves derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection. The method was validated in three soil (red soil, black soil and paddy soil) and two sludge samples (lake and river sludge) from China and verified in six laboratories. A good linear relationship (correlation coefficients ≥0.999) was observed within the range of 0.005-0.5mg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were determined to be 0.01mg/kg and 0.04mg/kg, respectively. The precision and accuracy were satisfactory with the relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 15% and the mean recovery values ranging from 75% to 110% (n=6), that spiked at three levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Esgotos/química , Solo/química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Fluorenos/química , Glicina/análise , Hexanos/química , Limite de Detecção , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(9): 8769-8777, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213708

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) receive industrial effluents from the plant that contain extremely high levels of antibiotics and are regarded as one of the major sources of antibiotics in the environment. Two PWWTPs have been selected in Zhejiang Province, China, to assess the removal mechanisms of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs). PWWTP A uses activated sludge with biocarriers in a moving bed biofilm reactor in anoxic and aerobic units, and PWWTP B uses biological units under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The wastewater samples and solid samples (sludge and suspended solid matter) were analyzed using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ofloxacin (OFX) was detected in each stage of PWWTP A, and enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were detected in PWWTP B. The concentrations of FQs ranged from 0.32 µg/L to 5.7 mg/L. Although the FQs were largely removed in the biological units (94.5 to 99.9%), large amounts were still discharged in the final effluent (up to 88.0 ± 7.0 µg/L) and dewatered sludge (up to 0.85 ± 0.24 mg/kg). Mass balance analyses of samples from PWWTP A indicated that biodegradation (93.8%) was the major mechanism responsible for the removal of OFX, whereas the contribution of sorption by sludge (0.79%) was less significant, deviating from the findings of most similar studies. Using linear analysis and correlation analysis, we found that the log10 values of the FQ concentration in the sludge were positively related with the log10 values of the equilibrium concentration in water (C w ). These relationships can be described by a Freundlich-like equation. However, these relationships were negative when the C w values were high. Our preliminary explanation is that the equilibrium C w plays an important role in controlling the sorption behavior of FQs in activated sludge.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Esgotos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(17): 9627-35, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27524288

RESUMO

Organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PYR) pesticides are widely used in China. However, few studies have investigated the neurobehavioral outcomes of Chinese children exposed to low levels of OP and PYR. We investigated urinary metabolite levels and their association with exposure characteristics and the neurobehavior of children. For all children, biomarker measurements were made in the same interval relative to neurobehavioral testing. We analyzed the morning urine samples of 406 children aged 3-6 years from Nanjing, China. The Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to identify the associations between urinary metabolite levels and exposure characteristics. Multiple linear regression models were used to test the associations between urinary metabolite levels and neurobehavioral test scores after adjusting for covariates (e.g., sex, age, and education expense). The detection of 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) in the urine was positively associated with living areas adjacent to agricultural fields and using indoor mosquito repellent incense. These two metabolites were negatively associated with the soaking time of fruits and vegetables. When treated as dichotomous variables, TCP was significantly associated with arithmetic test scores in adjusted models, and 3-PBA was significantly associated with the scores on the Chinese Binet and arithmetic tests. When treated as a continuous variable, higher urinary 3-PBA levels were significantly associated with lower cancellation test scores. Our findings suggest that exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides may have a significant impact on children's working memory and verbal comprehension.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/urina , Piretrinas/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Frutas , Humanos , Organofosfatos/urina
20.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0156889, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27388166

RESUMO

The pollution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock farms is a problem which need to be paid more attention to, due to the severe resistance dissemination and the further human health risk. In this study, all the relevant exposure matrices (manure, soil and water) of sixteen animal farms in Southeastern China were sampled to determine twenty-two ARGs conferring resistance to five major classes of antibiotics including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. The results showed that the spread property of sul genes was most extensive and strong, followed by tet and erm genes. The abundance of tet genes expressing ribosomal protection proteins (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetT and tetW) was higher than that expressing efflux pump proteins (tetA, tetC, tetE and tetG) in each type of samples. The high abundance and frequency of ermB gene in the matrices should be paid more attention, because macrolides is a major medicine for human use. For manures, it was found that the similar ARGs distribution rules were existing in poultry manure or porcine manure samples, despite of the different origins of these two types of livestock farms. Meanwhile, it was interesting that the distribution rule of tet genes in animal manure was nearly the same as all the ARGs. For soils, the result of nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the pollution of ARGs in the soils fertilized by poultry and cattle manures were more substantial in northern Jiangsu, but no significant ARGs diversity was observed among porcine manured soils of five different regions. Furthermore, most ARGs showed significant positive relationships with environmental variables such as concentration of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, Cu, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC). The pollution profile and characteristics of so many ARGs in livestock farms can provide significative foundation for the regulation and legislation of antibiotics in China.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Galinhas , China , Fertilizantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Gado , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Esterco/análise , Solo , Suínos , Medicina Veterinária
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