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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852200

RESUMO

As a key component in perovskite solar cells (PVSCs), hole-transporting materials (HTMs) have been extensively explored and studied. Aiming to meet the requirements for future commercialization of PVSCs, HTMs which can enable excellent device performance with low cost and eco-friendly processability are urgently needed but rarely reported. In this work, a traditional anchoring group (2-cyanoacrylic acid) widely used in molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells is incorporated into donor-acceptor-type HTMs to afford MPA-BT-CA, which enables effective regulation of the frontier molecular orbital energy levels, interfacial modification of an ITO electrode, efficient defect passivation toward the perovskite layer, and more importantly alcohol solubility. Consequently, inverted PVSCs with this low-cost HTM exhibit excellent device performance with a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 21.24% and good long-term stability in ambient conditions. More encouragingly, when processing MPA-BT-CA films with the green solvent ethanol, the corresponding PVSCs also deliver a substantial PCE as high as 20.52% with negligible hysteresis. Such molecular design of anchoring group-based materials represents great progress for developing efficient HTMs which combine the advantages of low cost, eco-friendly processability, and high performance. We believe that such design strategy will pave a new path for the exploration of highly efficient HTMs applicable to commercialization of PVSCs.

2.
Nat Mater ; 19(9): 922-928, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820293
3.
Small ; : e2001942, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602255

RESUMO

Understanding the conformation effect on molecular packing, miscibility, and photovoltaic performance is important to open a new avenue for small-molecule acceptor (SMA) design. Herein, two novel acceptor-(donor-acceptor1-donor)-acceptor (A-DA1D-A)-type asymmetric SMAs are developed, namely C-shaped BDTP-4F and S-shaped BTDTP-4F. The BDTP-4F-based polymer solar cells (PSCs) with PM6 as donor, yields a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.24%, significantly higher than that of the BTDTP-4F-based device (13.12%). The better PCE for BDTP-4F-based device is mainly attributed to more balanced charge transport, weaker bimolecular recombination, and more favorable morphology. Additionally, two traditional A-D-A-type SMAs (IDTP-4F and IDTTP-4F) are also synthesized to investigate the conformation effect on morphology and device performance. Different from the device result above, here, IDTP-4F with S-shape conformation outperforms than IDTTP-4F with C-shape conformation. Importantly, it is found that for these two different types of SMA, the better performing binary blend has similar morphological characteristics. Specifically, both PM6:BDTP-4F and PM6:IDTP-4F blend exhibit perfect nanofibril network structure with proper domain size, obvious face-on orientation and enhance donor-acceptor interactions, thereby better device performance. This work indicates tuning molecular conformation plays pivotal role in morphology and device effciciency, shining a light on the molecular design of the SMAs.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2001476, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519429

RESUMO

Compared to organic solar cells based on narrow-bandgap nonfullerene small-molecule acceptors, the performance of all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) lags much behind due to the lack of high-performance n-type polymers, which should have low-aligned frontier molecular orbital levels and narrow bandgap with broad and intense absorption extended to the near-infrared region. Herein, two novel polymer acceptors, DCNBT-TPC and DCNBT-TPIC, are synthesized with ultranarrow bandgaps (ultra-NBG) of 1.38 and 1.28 eV, respectively. When applied in transistors, both polymers show efficient charge transport with a highest electron mobility of 1.72 cm2 V-1 s-1 obtained for DCNBT-TPC. Blended with a polymer donor, PBDTTT-E-T, the resultant all-PSCs based on DCNBT-TPC and DCNBT-TPIC achieve remarkable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 9.26% and 10.22% with short-circuit currents up to 19.44 and 22.52 mA cm-2 , respectively. This is the first example that a PCE of over 10% can be achieved using ultra-NBG polymer acceptors with a photoresponse reaching 950 nm in all-PSCs. These results demonstrate that ultra-NBG polymer acceptors, in line with nonfullerene small-molecule acceptors, are also available as a highly promising class of electron acceptors for maximizing device performance in all-PSCs.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419443

RESUMO

Developing scalable and robust processing methods with low material waste remains a challenge for organic solar cells (OSCs) to become a practical renewable energy source. Here, we present a novel low-cost processing approach termed as soft porous blade printing (SPBP), which uses a layer of soft porous material such as filter paper as the printing blade. The inherent porous microstructure of the blade offers high shear rates that facilitate the alignment, crystallization, and orientation of active materials during printing. Moreover, by eliminating the suspended liquid meniscus, SPBP relaxes the stringent requirement of gap control and enables continuous ink delivery for uninterrupted film fabrication with adjustable thickness. Higher photovoltaic performances are achieved in the SPBP-printed OSCs than those of the spin-coated counterparts for two nonfullerene-acceptor active-layer systems (Y6:PM6 and PTQ10:IDIC). Y6:PM6 cells printed by SPBP without any additive exhibit power conversion efficiencies up to 14.75%, which is among the highest reported to date for non-spin-coated OSCs.

6.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 41(12): e2000144, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400906

RESUMO

A new polymer acceptor poly{(N,N'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenedicarboximide-2,6-diyl)-alt-5,5-(3,3'-didodecyl-2,2'-bifuran)} (NDI-BFR) made from naphthalenediimide (NDI) and furan-derived head-to-head-linked 3,3'-dialkyl-2,2'-bifuran (BFR) units is reported in this study. Compared to the benchmark polymer poly(naphthalenediimide-alt-bithiophene) (N2200), NDI-BFR exhibits a larger bathochromic shift of absorption maxima (842 nm) with a much higher absorption coefficient (7.2 × 104 m-1 cm-1 ), leading to an ultranarrow optical bandgap of 1.26 eV. Such properties ensure good harvesting of solar light from visible to the near-infrared region in solar cells. Density functional theory calculation reveals that the polymer acceptor NDI-BFR possesses a higher degree of backbone planarity versus the polymer N2200. The polymer NDI-BFR exhibits a decent electron mobility of 0.45 cm2 V-1 s-1 in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and NDI-BFR-based all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.39% with a very small energy loss of 0.45 eV by using the environmentally friendly solvent 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. These results demonstrate that incorporating head-to-head-linked BFR units in the polymer backbone can lead to increased planarity of the polymer backbone, reduced optical bandgap, and improved light absorbing. The study offers useful guidelines for constructing n-type polymers with narrow optical bandgaps.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472603

RESUMO

A distannylated electron-deficient bithiophene imide (BTI-Tin) monomer was synthesized and polymerized with imide-functionalized co-units to afford homopolymer PBTI and copolymer P(BTI-BTI2), both featuring an acceptor-acceptor backbone with high molecular weight. Both polymers exhibited excellent unipolar n-type character in transistors with electron mobility up to 2.60 cm2 V-1 s-1 . When applied as acceptor materials in all-polymer solar cells, PBTI and P(BTI-BTI2) achieved high power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.67 % and 8.61 %, respectively. The PCE (6.67 %) of polymer PBTI, synthesized from the distannylated monomer, is much higher than that (0.14 %) of the same polymer PBTI*, synthesized from typical dibrominated monomer. The 8.61 % PCE of copolymer P(BTI-BTI2) is also higher than those (<1 %) of homopolymers synthesized from dibrominated monomers. The results demonstrate the success of BTI-Tin for accessing n-type polymers with greatly improved device performance.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053356

RESUMO

Mechanically flexible films of the highly crystalline core-cyanated perylenediimide (PDIF-CN2) molecular semiconductor are achieved via a novel grain boundary plasticization strategy in which a specially designed polymeric binder (PB) is used to connect crystallites at the grain boundaries. The new PB has a naphthalenediimide-dithiophene π-conjugated backbone end-functionalized with PDI units. In contrast to conventional polymer-small molecule blends where distinct phase separation occurs, this blend film with plasticized grain boundaries exhibits a morphology typical of homogeneous PDIF-CN2 films which is preserved upon bending at radii as small as 2 mm. Thin-film transistors fabricated with PB/PDIF-CN2 blends exhibit substantial electron mobilities even after repeated bending. This design represents a new approach to realizing flexible and textured semiconducting π-electron films with good mechanical and charge transport properties.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048836

RESUMO

Unpaired electrons of organic radicals can offer high electrical conductivity without doping, but they typically suffer from low stability. Herein, we report two organic diradicaloids based on quinoidal oligothiophene derivative (QOT), that is, BTICN and QTICN, with high stability and conductivity by employing imide-bridged fused molecular frameworks. The attachment of a strong electron-withdrawing imide group to the tetracyano-capped QOT backbones enables extremely deeply aligned LUMO levels (from -4.58 to -4.69 eV), cross-conjugated diradical characters, and remarkable ambient stabilities of the diradicaloids with half-lives > 60 days, which are among the highest for QOT diradicals and also the widely explored polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-based diradicals. Specifically, QTICN based on a tetrathiophene imide exhibits a cross-conjugation assisted self-doping in the film state as revealed by XPS and Raman studies. This property in combination with its ordered packing yields a high electrical conductivity of 0.34 S cm-1 for the QTICN films with substantial ambient stability, which is also among the highest values in organic radical-based undoped conductive materials reported to date. When used as an n-type thermoelectric material, QTICN shows a promising power factor of 1.52 uW m-1 K-2. Our results not only provide new insights into the electron conduction mechanism of the self-doped QOT diradicaloids but also demonstrate the great potential of fused quinoidal oligothiophene imides in developing stable diradicals and high-performance doping-free n-type conductive materials.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(51): 48556-48563, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786921

RESUMO

Simultaneously improving efficiency and stability, which are particularly crucial factors for the commercialization of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), remains a major challenge. For high-efficiency normal PSCs, the development of stable dopant-free hole-transport materials (HTMs) seems imperative. Here, we developed potential donor-acceptor small molecules (BTTI) as HTMs for normal planar PSCs. Through tailoring its alkyl side-chain length as BTTI-C6, BTTI-C8, and BTTI-C12, our results show that upon shortening the side chain of BTTI, the hole mobility, film-forming capability, and resultant device performance were remarkably improved, with the device conversion efficiencies of 19.69% for BTTI-C6, 18.89% for BTTI-C8, and 17.49% for BTTI-C12. Meanwhile, compared to those made with the routine doped Spiro-OMeTAD, devices based on our dopant-free HTMs exhibited significantly improved stability. This work paves the way to the development of effective dopant-free HTMs for high-performance PSCs.

11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(21): 1901773, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728295

RESUMO

Significant progress has been made in nonfullerene small molecule acceptors (NF-SMAs) that leads to a consistent increase of power conversion efficiency (PCE) of nonfullerene organic solar cells (NF-OSCs). To achieve better compatibility with high-performance NF-SMAs, the direction of molecular design for donor polymers is toward wide bandgap (WBG), tailored properties, and preferentially ecofriendly processability for device fabrication. Here, a weak acceptor unit, methyl 2,5-dibromo-4-fluorothiophene-3-carboxylate (FE-T), is synthesized and copolymerized with benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) to afford a series of nonhalogenated solvent processable WBG polymers P1-P3 with a distinct side chain on FE-T. The incorporation of FE-T leads to polymers with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of -5.60-5.70 eV, a complementary absorption to NF-SMAs, and a planar molecular conformation. When combined with the narrow bandgap acceptor ITIC-Th, the solar cell based on P1 with the shortest methyl chain on FE-T achieves a PCE of 11.39% with a large V oc of 1.01 V and a J sc of 17.89 mA cm-2. Moreover, a PCE of 12.11% is attained for ternary cells based on WBG P1, narrow bandgap PTB7-Th, and acceptor IEICO-4F. These results demonstrate that the new FE-T is a highly promising acceptor unit to construct WBG polymers for efficient NF-OSCs.

12.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 40(23): e1900394, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702099

RESUMO

Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based copolymers have received considerable attention as promising semiconducting materials for high-performance organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). However, these polymers typically exhibit p-type or ambipolar charge-transporting characteristics in OTFTs due to their high-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels. In this work, a new series of DPP-based n-type polymers have been developed by incorporating fused bithiophene imide oligomers (BTIn) into DPP polymers. The resulting copolymers BTIn-DPP show narrow band gaps as low as 1.27 eV and gradually down-shifted frontier molecular orbital energy levels upon the increment of imide group number. Benefiting from the coplanar backbone conformation, well-delocalized π-system, and favorable polymer chain packing, the optimal polymer in the series shows promising n-type charge transport with an electron mobility up to 0.48 cm2 V-1 s-1 in OTFTs, which is among the highest values for the DPP-based n-type polymers reported to date. The results demonstrate that incorporating fused bithiophene imide oligomers into polymers can serve as a promising strategy for constructing high-performance n-type polymeric semiconductors.


Assuntos
Imidas/química , Cetonas/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Pirróis/química , Tiofenos/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Estrutura Molecular , Polímeros/química , Semicondutores , Transistores Eletrônicos
13.
Adv Mater ; 31(46): e1905161, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566274

RESUMO

Currently, n-type acceptors in high-performance all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) are dominated by imide-functionalized polymers, which typically show medium bandgap. Herein, a novel narrow-bandgap polymer, poly(5,6-dicyano-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-alt-indacenodithiophene) (DCNBT-IDT), based on dicyanobenzothiadiazole without an imide group is reported. The strong electron-withdrawing cyano functionality enables DCNBT-IDT with n-type character and, more importantly, alleviates the steric hindrance associated with typical imide groups. Compared to the benchmark poly(naphthalene diimide-alt-bithiophene) (N2200), DCNBT-IDT shows a narrower bandgap (1.43 eV) with a much higher absorption coefficient (6.15 × 104 cm-1 ). Such properties are elusive for polymer acceptors to date, eradicating the drawbacks inherited in N2200 and other high-performance polymer acceptors. When blended with a wide-bandgap polymer donor, the DCNBT-IDT-based all-PSCs achieve a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 8.32% with a small energy loss of 0.53 eV and a photoresponse of up to 870 nm. Such efficiency greatly outperforms those of N2200 (6.13%) and the naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based analog NDI-IDT (2.19%). This work breaks the long-standing bottlenecks limiting materials innovation of n-type polymers, which paves a new avenue for developing polymer acceptors with improved optoelectronic properties and heralds a brighter future of all-PSCs.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(39): 35924-35934, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525945

RESUMO

Imide functionalization is one of the most effective approaches to develop electron-deficient building blocks for constructing n-type organic semiconductors. Driven by the attractive properties of imide-functionalized dithienylbenzodiimide (TBDI) and the promising device performance of TBDI-based polymers, a novel acceptor with increased electron affinity, fluorinated dithienylbenzodiimide (TFBDI), was designed with the hydrogen replaced by fluorine on the benzene core, and the synthetic challenges associated with this highly electron-deficient fluorinated imide building block are successfully overcome. TFBDI showed suppressed frontier molecular orbital energy levels as compared with TBDI. Copolymerizing this new electron-withdrawing TBDI with various donor co-units afforded a series of n-type polymer semiconductors TFBDI-T, TFBDI-Se, and TFBDI-BSe. All these TFBDI-based polymers exhibited a lower-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level than the polymer analogue without fluorine. When applied in organic thin-film transistors, three polymers showed unipolar electron transport with large on-current/off-current ratios (Ion/Ioff) of 105-107. Among them, the selenophene-based polymer TFBDI-Se with the deepest-positioned LUMO and optimal chain stacking exhibited the highest electron mobility of 0.30 cm2 V-1 s-1. This result demonstrates that the new TFBDI is a highly attractive electron-deficient unit for enabling n-type polymer semiconductors, and the fluorination of imide-functionalized arenes offers an effective approach to develop more electron-deficient building blocks in organic electronics.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(36): 33505-33514, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429258

RESUMO

A novel nanomaterial, bismuth oxychloride nanoplates (BiOCl NPs), was first applied in organic solar cells (OSCs) as hole transporting layers (HTLs). It is worth noting that the BiOCl NPs can be facilely synthesized at ∼1/200 of the cost of the commercial PEDOT:PSS and well dissolved in green solvents. Different from the PEDOT:PSS interlayer, the deposition of BiOCl HTL is free of post-treatment at elevated temperature, which reduces device fabrication complexity. To demonstrate the universality of BiOCl in improving photovoltaic performance, OSCs containing various representative active layers were investigated. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the P3HT:PC61BM, PTB7-Th:PC71BM, and PM6:Y6-based OSCs with the BiOCl HTL boosted from 3.62, 8.78, and 15.63 to 4.24, 9.92, and 16.11%, respectively, compared to the PEDOT:PSS-based ones. It was found that the superior performances of the BiOCl-based OSCs are mainly attributed to the sufficient oxygen vacancies and improved interfacial contact. Moreover, the BiOCl-based OSCs show a much better stability than the cells with the PEDOT:PSS interfacial layer.

16.
Chemistry ; 25(66): 15106-15111, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424117

RESUMO

A series of novel sulfur-containing bent N-heteroacenes were constructed and characterized by NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. By introducing sulfur-containing groups (thio, sulfinyl, and sulfonyl) into bent azaacenes, their electronic delocalization was improved and frontier energy levels were modulated. The target products displayed tunable optical and electronic properties through altering the valence of sulfur and fused length of the azaacenes. For the first time, typical products were utilized as organic field effect transistor materials, affording promising results.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(34): 31119-31128, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382736

RESUMO

Halogenated solvents are prevailingly used in the fabrication of nonfullerene organic solar cells (NF-OSCs) at the current stage, imposing significant restraints on their practical applications. By copolymerizing phthalimide or thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) with 1,4-di(3-alkoxy-2-thienyl)-2,5-difluorophenylene (DOTFP), which features intramolecular noncovalent interactions, the backbone planarity of the resulting DOTFP-based polymers can be effectively tuned, yielding distinct solubilities, aggregation characters, and chain packing properties. Polymer DOTFP-PhI with a more twisted backbone showed a lower degree of aggregation in solution but an increased film crystallinity than polymer DOTFP-TPD. An organic thin-film transistor and NF-OSC based on DOTFP-PhI, processed with a nonhalogenated solvent, exhibited a high hole mobility up to 1.20 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a promising power conversion efficiency up to 10.65%, respectively. The results demonstrate that DOTFP is a promising building block for constructing wide bandgap polymers and backbone coplanarity tuning is an effective strategy to develop high-performance organic semiconductors processable with a nonhalogenated solvent.

18.
Adv Mater ; 31(35): e1902781, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292989

RESUMO

Hole-transporting materials (HTMs) play a critical role in realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). Considering their capability of enabling PVSCs with good device reproducibility and long-term stability, high-performance dopant-free small-molecule HTMs (SM-HTMs) are greatly desired. However, such dopant-free SM-HTMs are highly elusive, limiting the current record efficiencies of inverted PVSCs to around 19%. Here, two novel donor-acceptor-type SM-HTMs (MPA-BTI and MPA-BTTI) are devised, which synergistically integrate several design principles for high-performance HTMs, and exhibit comparable optoelectronic properties but distinct molecular configuration and film properties. Consequently, the dopant-free MPA-BTTI-based inverted PVSCs achieve a remarkable efficiency of 21.17% with negligible hysteresis and superior thermal stability and long-term stability under illumination, which breaks the long-time standing bottleneck in the development of dopant-free SM-HTMs for highly efficient inverted PVSCs. Such a breakthrough is attributed to the well-aligned energy levels, appropriate hole mobility, and most importantly, the excellent film morphology of the MPA-BTTI. The results underscore the effectiveness of the design tactics, providing a new avenue for developing high-performance dopant-free SM-HTMs in PVSCs.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(10): 10089-10098, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777429

RESUMO

Polythiophenes, built on the electron-rich thiophene unit, typically possess high-lying energy levels of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) and show hole-transporting properties. In this study, we develop a series of n-type polythiophenes, P1-P3, based on head-to-head-linked 3,3'-dialkoxy-4,4'-dicyano-2,2'-bithiophene (BTCNOR) with distinct side chains. The BTCNOR unit shows not only highly planar backbone conformation enabled by the intramolecular noncovalent sulfur-oxygen interaction but also significantly suppressed LUMO level attributed to the cyano-substitution. Hence, all BTCNOR-based polymer semiconductors exhibit low-lying LUMO levels, which are ∼1.0 eV lower than that of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT), a benchmark p-type polymer semiconductor. Consequently, all of the three polymers can enable unipolar n-type transport characteristics in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with low off-currents ( Ioffs) of 10-10-10-11 A and large current on/off ratios ( Ion/ Ioffs) at the level of 106. Among them, polymer P2 with a 2-ethylhexyl side chain offers the highest film ordering, leading to the best device performance with an excellent electron mobility (µe) of 0.31 cm2 V-1 s-1 in off-center spin-cast OTFTs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of n-type polythiophenes with electron mobility comparable to the hole mobility of the benchmark p-type rr-P3HT and approaching the electron mobility of the most-studied n-type polymer, poly(naphthalene diimide- alt-bithiophene) (i.e., N2200). The change of charge carrier polarity from p-type (rr-P3HT) to n-type (P2) with comparable mobility demonstrates the obvious effectiveness of our structural modification. Adoption of n-hexadecyl (P1) and 2-butyloctyl (P3) side chains leads to reduced film ordering and results in 1-2 orders of magnitude lower µes, showing the critical role of side chains in optimizing device performance. This study demonstrates the unique structural features of head-to-head linkage containing BTCNOR for constructing high-performance n-type polymers, i.e., the alkoxy chain for backbone conformation locking and providing polymer solubility as well as the strong electron-withdrawing cyano group for lowering LUMO levels and enabling n-type performance. The design strategy of BTCNOR-based polymers provides useful guidelines for developing n-type polythiophenes.

20.
Adv Mater ; 31(15): e1807220, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767296

RESUMO

A novel imide-functionalized arene, di(fluorothienyl)thienothiophene diimide (f-FBTI2), featuring a fused backbone functionalized with electron-withdrawing F atoms, is designed, and the synthetic challenges associated with highly electron-deficient fluorinated imide are overcome. The incorporation of f-FBTI2 into polymer affords a high-performance n-type semiconductor f-FBTI2-T, which shows a reduced bandgap and lower-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level than the polymer analog without F or with F-functionalization on the donor moiety. These optoelectronic properties reflect the distinctive advantages of fluorination of electron-deficient acceptors, yielding "stronger acceptors," which are desirable for n-type polymers. When used as a polymer acceptor in all-polymer solar cells, an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.1% is achieved without any solvent additive or thermal treatment, which is the highest value reported for all-polymer solar cells except well-studied naphthalene diimide and perylene diimide-based n-type polymers. In addition, the solar cells show an energy loss of 0.53 eV, the smallest value reported to date for all-polymer solar cells with efficiency > 8%. These results demonstrate that fluorination of imide-functionalized arenes offers an effective approach for developing new electron-deficient building blocks with improved optoelectronic properties, and the emergence of f-FBTI2 will change the scenario in terms of developing n-type polymers for high-performance all-polymer solar cells.

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